Building Bridges for
Emergent Bilinguals, Part V:
Writing Across the
Content Areas
Rebecca Curinga, PD Coordinator
Ingrid Heidrick, PD Facilitator
PD Session #5
April 4, 2014
The CUNY Graduate Center, Room C201
Agenda
8:45 Review of concept maps and vocabulary
9:15 Becoming a writer and a framework for
writing using bilingual approaches
10:30 Break
10:45 How the 7-week Bridges Curriculum cycle
supports writing
12:00 Lunch
1:00 Practicing writing activities across content
areas using the Bridges Curriculum
2:30 Wrap-Up, homework and evaluation
2
Activity 1:
Review from last session
3
HW Assignment Review
• Create a Concept Map for a Tier 2 or Tier 3
word.
• Develop at least two word play activities for
related Tier 1 and Tier 2 vocabulary.
You have 5 minutes to discuss and present.
4
5
What does it mean to know a
word?
 We know approximately 20, 000 word families.
 We use about 10% of our vocabulary very
frequently, but the majority of words we know
are low-frequency and comprise a wide range
of topics.
 Our knowledge of all words is not the same:
Knowledge of a word is incremental!
I never
heard it
hemiola
I have a
sense of it
ubiquitous
I know it
fruit
6
What does a monolingual’s
vocabulary look like?
collocations/
idioms: bear
fruit, forbidden
fruit, fruits of
one’s labor
semantic: an edible
part of a plant,
usually fleshy and
containing seeds;
banana, apple,
orange;
vegetables, dairy,
meat
frequency: 43
times per million
words; easily
accessible
fruit
pragmatic:
general term;
no specific
context
phonological: [fru:t],
[fru:ts], [fru:te]
rhymes with suit;
sounds like fresh,
friend, front
morphological:
fruit-s, fruit-y
syntactic:
(noun) a, the
fruit; fruit
7
What does a bilingual’s
vocabulary look like?
collocations/idioms:
bear fruit – dar fruto
forbidden fruit –
fruta prohibida
fruits of one’s labor –
frutos de su trabajo
semantic: an edible
part of a plant,
usually fleshy and
containing seeds
banana, apple,
orange; vegetables,
dairy, meat
frequency:
fruit: 43x pmw
fruto: 18x pmw
fruta: 24x pmw
fruit,
fruto/fruta
pragmatic:
general term;
no specific
context
phonological: [fru:t],
[‘fru:to] [‘fru:ta]
rhymes with suit;
bruta; sounds like
fruto/a, frente, frío,
fresh, friend, front
morphological:
fruit-s, fruit-y
fruto-s, fruta-s
syntactic:
el fruto; la fruta
8
How does this translate into
what we read?
Frequency of oral
vocabulary
10%
High Frequency
(but, so, because,
man woman)
90%
Low Frequency
(ancestors,
melanin, absorb)
Frequency of words in text
High Frequency
(but, so, because,
man woman)
20%
80%
(Nation, 1993)
Low Frequency
(ancestors,
melanin, absorb)
9
Summary of vocabulary
knowledge
• Complex network of interrelated knowledge
• Continues to change and grow throughout the
lifespan
• Takes years of wide-spread exposure to a
language to acquire a
“native-like” lexicon
A bilingual is not the sum of two
monolinguals!
10
(Grosjean, 1989)
Today’s Goals
To be able to:
• Learn the process of becoming a writer and
understand a framework for writing development
with a bilingual approach.
• Recognize how the 7-week cycle of the Bridges
Curriculum supports writing.
• Practice developing writing activities across the
content areas using the Bridges Curriculum.
11
Goal 1:
What is the process of becoming
a writer? How can we teach
writing using a bilingual
approach?
12
Four Language Abilities
Listening
RECEPTIVE
Reading
O
R
A
L
Speaking
PRODUCTIVE
L C
I Y
T
Writing
E
R
A
13
Connecting Reading to Writing
• Build on oral language
• Expand students’ language abilities
• Connect to the curriculum
• Model using published books
• Highlight text structures and vocabulary in class
readings as examples for writing
14
Process of Becoming a Writer
• Approximately TWO DECADES of schooling to
develop writing skills!
• Writing develops higher order thinking skills
necessary to succeed academically.
• Writing requires a substantial amount of executive
functioning.
• Academic writing requires the student to use
his/her own ‘voice’ to distinguish his/her own
thoughts and arguments from others.
(Kellogg, 2006)
15
Stages of cognitive development in
writing skills – monolinguals
Knowledge-Telling
Acquiring
alphabetic and
print knowledge.
Focusing on
meaning to put
ideas into print
for the first time.
Content limited
to narratives;
writer unaware
of text
representation.
Example:
Elementary
school essay
KnowledgeTransforming
Writer is able to
make the text
comprehensible
to other readers.
Representations
in long-term
memory are
shaped by
writing process;
it’s not just
retrieval.
Example: High
school or
college
research paper
(Adapted from Kellogg, 2006)
KnowledgeCrafting
Writer is able to
visualize the
reader’s
representation,
as well as
his/her own and
the text’s.
Example:
Novel
16
Stages of cognitive development in
writing skills – Bridges students
Knowledge-Telling
Developing
alphabetic/print
knowledge in
English; HL.
Focusing on
meaning to put
ideas into print for
the first time.
Bridges writers
are cognitively
more advanced
than young
children
Example:
Sentence using
comparecontrast, claim –
evidence, etc.
KnowledgeTransforming
Writer is able to
make the text
comprehensible to
other readers.
Representations
in long-term
memory are
shaped by writing
process; it’s not
just retrieval.
Example: LEA
writing activity
KnowledgeCrafting
Writer is able to
incorporate 6+1
traits and
differentiate
writer’s/text’s
representation.
Example: Writing
project,
immigration
stories
17
How do Bridges Students
Become Writers?
• Need to see themselves as
Authors
not just people who know how to write
• Drawing as early writing
• Personal stories based on life
experiences
• No one is a “native speaker of writing”
(Cloud, Genesee & Hamayan, 2009)
18
What steps do you take in your
writing process?
Writing Cycle
Pre-writing
6 + 1 Traits
• Ideas / Content
• Voice
Drafting
• Organization
Revising
• Sentence Fluency
• Word Choice
Editing
• Conventions
Publishing
• Presentation
19
Excerpts of writing from
Bridges students
• In groups, compare three writing samples
according to the 6+1 traits
• Group 1: Ideas / Content and Voice
• Group 2: Organization
• Group 3: Sentence Fluency and Word Choice
• Group 4: Conventions and Presentation
• Look for HL patterns
• Look for areas of potential growth
20
Writing
Sample 1
Writing
Sample 2
21
Writing
Sample 3
22
Bridges Pre/Post English
Writing Level Results (2012-13)
0
low intermediate
2
1
high beginner
9
13
mid beginner
15
12
low beginner
6
7
only HL literacy
(n=33)
1
0
5
Pre-writing
10
Post-writing
15
20
23
PostWriting
Sample 1
24
A bilingual approach to
writing
25
Who are the Bridges students?
(Years 1 & 2)
Home
Languages
(10+)
Age Range
(13-18 yrs)
Home
Countries
(12+)
Bridges
Students
(<2 yrs in US)
Dominican
Republic
Spanish
El Salvador
Bangla
Honduras
Arabic
Guatemala
Wolof
HL Literacy
Soninke
LevelMexico
Puerto
Rico / USA
th
Mandingo
(0 – 4 gr)
Bangladesh
French
Yemen
Fulani
Senegal
Dioula
HL
Math
Guinea
Level
Garifuna
Gambia
rd gr)
Kiché
(0
–
3
Ivory Coast
26
Translanguaging: What is it and why is it
important for teaching Bridges students how
to write?
Definition: the act performed by bilinguals of
accessing different linguistic features….in
order to maximize communicative potential.
• It’s natural! It’s what bilinguals do.
• It makes sense! Why use only one resource
to help them to learn to write when you can
use two?
27
Assumption: Monolingualism is the rule,
bilingualism is the exception.
Multiple official languages
Single official language, functionally
multilingual
No official language, functionally
multilingual
Unknown
Assumption: English is the only
language of the United States
How can translanguaging help Bridges
students learn how to write?
• Provides a way to make rigorous content
instruction comprehensible.
• Reduces the burden on the executive
functioning necessary for learning how to
become a writer and uses students’
cognitive energy to focus on learning how
to write in English.
• Develops academic skills that transfer to
English. Also develops metalinguistic skills.
30
How can translanguaging help
Bridges students learn
how to write?
• By finding their voice as academic
writers.
• By enabling language acquisition to
take place in the classroom without
having for the teacher to assume a
direct role.
31
Concerns about using
translanguaging in the classroom
• Using the HL in the classroom will delay or
prevent ELLs’ acquisition of English.
• Using the HL in the classroom is confusing,
for both the students and the teacher.
• How can a teacher use translanguaging
when he or she doesn’t speak the student’s
HL?
32
Common translanguaging
strategies for writing
• Form a group by HL for interactive writing.
• Brainstorm ideas using HL.
• Write in both English and HL.
• Use alphabet chart in student’s HL for those
who can’t write.
• Drawing/labeling
• Translating
• Create an oral product alongside the
written.
33
Translanguaging Activity
• Pre-writing: brainstorming, generating ideas
and content, developing voice
• Think about when you’ve moved from one
place to another
• Describe it with a drawing
• Label drawing in any language
• Share your ideas / experience
34
Goal 2:
How does the 7-Week Bridges
Curriculum cycle support
writing?
35
Writing
Outcomes
in Bridges
36
6+1 traits
across
Bridges
Units
37
UNIT 3: JOURNEYS
Content Area Search Activity
Find and
the following methods in
your content area in the Unit 3 Weekly Lesson
Outline:
In which week(s) do they occur?
What are some interdisciplinary overlaps in concepts
and vocabulary?
How might these methods scaffold writing?
•
•
•
•
Translation of the EQ
See Think Wonder
Build an LEA text
Concept Map
38
Writing Project
the WRITING project for
each content area
What is the final writing project?
In which week does it occur?
What are the pre-writing activities outlined in
the curriculum? In which week do they start?
39
Journeys
40
Translate the Essential Question
(ELA, Unit 3, Week 1, Lesson 1)
Why do people move? What
are the positive and
negative effects?
• Content objective: Identify ways immigrants survive in a
new country.
• Language objective: Translate the EQ and respond in HL.
• Why is it important to translate this EQ to HL?
• How does it support the writing project?
•
•
•
•
Language awareness
Validation of HL skills and knowledge
Deeper understanding of unit context
Writing skills in HL transfer to English
41
See-Think-Wonder
(ELA, Unit 3, Week 1, Lesson 2)
Who were the first people
in Central America?
The Maya in the Past and the Present
• Content objective: Observe images of the first people in
Central America and make inferences about the culture.
• Language objective: Observe using ‘I see_____’, infer using
‘I think’, and wonder using WH questions.
• How does this activity support pre-writing for the
immigration project?
• Engage, build background to content
• Develop oral language related to content
• Sentence level writing begins
42
Language Experience Approach
(ELA, Unit 3, Week 1, Lesson 3)
What happened to the
Maya?
Indigenous
Ancient
• Content objective: Identify changes from Mayan life long
ago to Mayan life today.
• Language objective: Describe using ‘Long ago ____. Then
___________ Now the Maya________.’
• How does this LEA support the writing project?
Language structures from this LEA can be used
Content can be used for the immigration story
Can be developed into more complex sentences,
paragraph form as a model for good writing
43
Concept Map
(ELA, Unit 3, Week 1, Lesson 4)
POWER
Changes in power in Mayan life
• Content objective: Identify cause and effect of changes in
power in Mayan life.
• Language objective: Explain cause and effect using
‘because’ and ‘so.’
• How does this concept map support the writing
project?
Language, vocabulary and sentence examples
Idea of power/powerful gives depth to their own
immigration stories
Generate related ideas and content for pre-writing
stage
44
Goal 3:
How can we develop writing
activities that support Bridges
students to become writers?
45
What to expect in Bridges
students’ writing
• It is important to get to know your students’
HL grammatical structure and writing
system
• Invented spelling from HL (e.g. Spanish)
• chaket for jacket from Spanish spelling
• escul for school for the English pronunciation
46
Writing Systems of Bridges
Students
• Alphabetic
• Latin script: Haitian Creole / Spanish / French /
English
• Arabic script: Arabic / Urdu
• Bengali script: Bengali (Bangla)
• Pinyin: Chinese
• Cyrillic: Russian
• Logographic
• Chinese
47
Arabic
Bengali
Chinese characters/Pinyin
48
Application / Practice
in Content Area Groups
Participants develop activities to support a writing
project using Unit 3 of the Bridges Curriculum.
1. Review the Bridges website to find supplemental
materials to the writing project for your content
area: http://bridges.ws.gc.cuny.edu/
2. Develop three activities to support the writing
project using the weekly lesson outline, or
sample lessons from your content area.
3. Incorporate translanguaging strategies to
enhance writing development.
4. Present your activities to the other groups.
49
Summary of Today’s PD Session
• What has changed in your understanding of
how Bridges students develop writing skills?
• What is one thing you will do in your
classroom this week to help build writing
skills in your content area?
50
Homework Assignment:
Writing Methods
• Adjust the Bridges Power Methods (e.g.
See-Think-Wonder, LEA, Read-RetellRespond) to become daily writing practice.
• Implement translanguaging activities with
your writing lessons.
51
Recommended Reading
• Celic, C., & Seltzer, K. (2012). Translanguaging: A
CUNY-NYSIEB Guide for Educators. The
Graduate Center, The City University of New
York.
http://www.nysieb.ws.gc.cuny.edu/files/2013/0
3/Translanguaging-Guide-March-2013.pdf
• See also:
http://www.nysieb.ws.gc.cuny.edu/cunynysieb-publications
• Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2009).
Literacy instruction for English language
learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
TRANSLANGUAGING:
A CUNY-NYSIEB GUIDE FOR EDUCATORS
Anita Sztukowska, Grade 9
CHRISTINA CELIC
KATE SELTZER
52
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Building Bridges for Emergent Bilinguals, Part III