De l’évaluation au CECR et retour :
le professionnel des langues entre
contraintes et libertés
From assessment to the CEFR and
backwards: language professionals
between constraints and freedoms
De l’évaluation au CECR et retour :
le professionnel des langues entre
contraintes et libertés
From assessment to the CEFR and
backwards: language professionals
between constraints and freedoms
Notre point de départ
• Partial knowledge of the CEFR (grids)
• Difficulty in integrating the CEFR into everyday
practice (CEFR: an extra burden? ou : refus ;
limitation aux examens)
• Lack of targeted training
• Lack of support/resources for training
Teachers’ voices
• Data collections in 4 countries (France, Italy, Germany,
– Phase 1: survey (at least four teachers per country
- three women/one man; experienced/less
experienced teachers) followed by oral exchanges
: 1 synthèse sur le site (FR / ENGL)
– phase 2 : lire les écrits des professeurs (mémoires
de fin d'études) : 1 synthèse sur le site (FR / ENGL)
– Phase 3: focus groups
1. of
Impact of the CEFR on assessment
1. before
Different components hidden,
complexity/assessment of
2. Assessing not very differentiated
2. Assessing different from grading
from grading
3. Oral > generic
1. Oral: production/interaction
4. A global grade > frustrating
2. Specific grades: sense of
5. Sense of constraint from the
achievement ;
3. Sense of freedom, performing
6. Assessment: exclusive responsibility tasks in the L2
of the teacher - caricature
4. Assessment: awareness, shared
responsibility, self-assessment
7. Error was seen as very negative !
(But constructive with Pit Corder, 5. New vision of errors: risk taking,
“erreur contructive
Many new perspectives and ideas
• Assessment is complex and
• Assessment can support
and foster learning
• Responsibility can be shared
• Error is a natural process
• Profiles are dynamic
• Learning the language not
about the language
• Freedom of adapting
Many doubts and insecurities
• Disconnect, “schizophrénie”
– between institutional
constraints and CEFR
– between types of testing,
required and ideal (written vs
• Time management issues
– oral testing, grids preparation
and usage
• Need for training
– How? But also why? And
what for?
Our aims
• build self-confidence (teachers’ image/mission
suffering from social, technological and political
• develop a free and autonomous attitude (beyond
debates "for or against”)
• reinforce status, foster professionalism through
– Awareness
– Understanding
– Appropriation
– Implementation
A practical and theoretical double tool
• facilitating observation of and feedback on
• training to the reflective approach;
• training to the principles and backgrounds of
the Framework and the freedom it allows;
• training to an integrated and contextualized
approach to evaluation.
Assessment tools and ressources
Global scales of levels
Descriptors of communicative activities
Descriptors of competences
Grids with combined (selected) criteria
…and also:
– Descriptors of strategies
– Empty grids to visualise profiles
Achievement assessment
Norm-referencing (NR)
Mastery learning CR
Continuous assessment
Formative assessment
Direct assessment
Performance assessment
Subjective assessment
Checking rating
Holistic assessment
Series assessment
Assessment by others
Proficiency assessment
Criterion-referencing (CR)
Continuum CR
Fixed point assessment
Summative assessment
Indirect assessment
Knowledge assessment
Objective assessment
Performance rating
Guided judgment
Analytic assessment
Category assessment
Pathways / Parcours through Assessing,
Learning and Teaching in the CEFR
• Part A: A Guide
• Part B: A Kit
– Index of the Guide
0. Setting the context
I. Reflexivity: an attitude leading to autonomy
II. Living (with) languages
III. Becoming more competent
IV. Assessment
V. Conclusion
– A tool for teacher educators (and for
teachers…and learners)
– Informed by the expertise coming from several
European contexts
And they need help to see the single
elements that form the big picture
• Here is the picture of the daffodils I cut it
because it’s too heavy for sending
Uses of the ECEP materials
A Swedish example
•A centralized and decentralized system
•National curricula and syllabi defining goals and providing criteria for
•Teachers responsible for assigning final grades; Grades commonly
used for selection for higher education
•No exams; an extensive system of national assessment – formative
and summative – aimed to advise; Results to be combined with
teachers’ continuous assessments
•No central marking; Teachers mark their own students’ tests
Very high demands on teachers’ assessment literacy
Language education in Sweden
•English from primary school; A second FL offered from 12 years of age
(c. 4/5 start, and of those 2/3 complete their studies at the end of
compulsory school/age 16); FL 2 mandatory for academically oriented
upper-secondary school students
•A communicative and functional approach in the national language
syllabi since the early 1980s
•This approach more implemented in English than in FL 2
•The previous (2000) syllabi distinctly influenced by the CEFR; The
current, 2011 versions more clearly aligned – however, not totally
•An action-oriented approach reasonably well established – at least in
theory; The CEFR scales, however, quite a novelty to most language
Great need for dissemination of the CEFR in Sweden
Dissemination of the ECEP concept
•Discussions with language teacher students
•Large scale presentations to language teachers; Discussions with
groups of teachers
•Presentation for, and discussions with, language teacher
educators from a substantial number of Swedish universities at a
seminar about the ECML medium term programmes, arranged
by the Swedish National Agency for Education
•Discussions with experienced national test developers at the
University of Gothenburg.
Input from four categories of stakeholders
And…? – Reactions
•It seems much more doable to start with the Guide; Pathways into the
CEFR are really needed! Concretization is very useful.
•A very good idea with the A and B worksheets, i.e. the theoretically
oriented worksheets together with those describing situations that you
recognize and can relate to, and that help you operationalize theory.
•The Guide and the Kit contribute to deeper understanding of the CEFR
and to professional confidence, in that it enhances the development of the
professional language needed to teach about the CEFR.
•The ECEP materials support a broad and pedagogically conscious way of
interpreting and using the CEFR
•The abundance of worksheets offers great flexibility; However, certain
guidance needed to avoid drowning..!
The ECEP materials have a variety of pedagogical functions
Conclusions (I)
•The ECEP project has generated a wealth of materials with a
positive pedagogical potential for a broad group of users
•The nature of the materials reflects and implements respect for
the diversity of situations and uses of the CEFR
•The materials demonstrate a sound attitude to assessment as a
component of the pedagogical process, not as something
separate, leading its own life.
•Some practical guidance and examples may be needed
regarding ways of using the materials, in particular the
worksheets ; An open website forum may be one way of meeting
this need.
This is not the end, but the beginning…!
Conclusions (II) - Perspectives
How? Comment ?
Faire le lien avec les
autres projets CELV -ECML
et essayer !
Make a link and try it !
Nous vous proposons des outils
• Expérimentaux
• Adaptables
• Modifiables
Pour une finalité : développer la
confiance mutuelle par l’harmonisation
des manières d’évaluer, et
la contextualisation du CECR
Par exemple : fiche A l'apprenant et ses
Si vous constatez que les tâches proposées peuvent
être enrichies, faites-le !
Tâche A : réfléchir à la définition de « stratégie » (in
Tâche B : classer les exemples suivants de stratégies
d'apprentissage (essayer, demander, reformuler,
Mais : et les stratégies non-verbales ? Vous pouvez
les ajouter et les proposer
Autre exemple : Le porfolio européen des
langues (Little – Perclova)
+ KIT ► fiche Apprendre à apprendre
• « Je ne pense pas être une bonne
apprenante de langue car...
• « J'ai besoin de listes de mots... »
• INTERÊT : impliquer les élèves aussi
avec la question « comment je fais pour
apprendre ? »
Et pourquoi pas ? Proposer de
nouvelles fiches !
à discuter avec les collègues
à tester avec les professeurs en formation
et aussi les élèves
à placer sur le website du projet ECEP
Merci de votre attention