China’s Renaissance:
A Modern Chinese History from
1840-2011
Wanli Hu
University of Massachusetts Boston
Contents
1. Chinese History from 1840-1949
2. Chinese History from 1949-2011
3. China’s Renaissance
4. The Rise of China and Its Impact on the
World
1. Chinese History from 1840-1949
• The Self-strengthening Movement from 1861-95
o “Learn superior barbarian technique with which to repel the
barbarians” –Wei Yuan
o Chinese learning for fundamentals, Western learning
for practical application” – Zhang Zhdong
o Modern military industry
o Modern light industry
o Modern military force
o The Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95
Political Reform and Revolution
• Political institutional transformation in 1898
– Political Reform – 100 Days Reform
“The New Deal” - to transfer an absolute monarch to a
constitutional monarch
– Sun Yah-sen’s Revolution in 1911
• Republic of China
– Three People’s Principles
– People’s National Consciousness /
Nationalism
– People’s Rights / Democracy
– People’s Livelihood / Socialism
The New Cultural Movement from
1917 to 1923/1966/1989
• Chen Duxiu: “Down with Confucianism”
“Welcome Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science”
• Hu Shi: Literacy Revolution: vernacular
replaced classical language
• Lu Xun: Diary of Madman
• River Elegy 8 parts documentary movie in
1989
2. Chinese History from 1949-2011
• Mao’s mission and objectives (war-oriented
mentality)
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to consolidate People’s Republic of China
Politics-oriented development
Continuous revolution
Class struggle
Deng’s Economic Reform
• Deng’s domestic policy
– Economic development is the priority
– Centrally-planned economy transformed
into market economy, with growth the
fastest ever
– China becomes the second largest
economy and 400 millions people out of
poverty
Deng’s foreign policy
– Open-door policy
– If you are not against us, you are with us.
– China’s foreign policy in the 1980s, and in fact in
1990s, even in the 21st century, can be
summarized in two sentences. China makes
efforts to maintain world peace and oppose
hegemony. China always belongs to the third
world.”
– New rising power has not resulted in a war,
territorial expansion, or a challenge to the world
order. Relations between China & other powers &
neighbors better rather than worse
Hu’s Harmonious Society
– Let everyone share the outcome of the
Economic Reform
• Balance between cities and the countryside
• Balance between east and west China
• Balance between economic development and
healthy society growth
• Balance between human beings and
environment
• Balance between export and domestic market
3. China’s Renaissance
• A Glorious History in the Past
– The Han Dynasty (BCE 221- CE 220)
– The Tang Dynasty (608-917)
– The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
• Modern History from 1840-2011
– A century of humiliation from 1840-1949
• The Self-strengthening Movement
• The Political Reform and Revolution
• The New Cultural Revolution
The People’s Republic of China
from 1949-present
• The Mao Years from 1949-1976
• Deng’s Economic Reform from 19782002
• Hu’s harmonious society from 2002 to
present
Mentality Changes
• Before 1840
– China’s exceptionalism –the Middle Kingdom and
unique culture
– Qianlong’s reply to Macartney :
“We possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or
ingenious, and have no use for your country’s
manufactures.”
“It behooves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to
display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so than,
by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure
peace and prosperity for your country thereafter.”
The New Cultural Movement
• Down with Confucianism
• Welcome Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science
• The elegy of the Yellow Civilization in
1989
• Appreciation of Chinese tradition and
culture again
4. China’s Rise and Its Impact on the World
• Since 1978 400 million people have been lifted out of poverty
in China—about 75 percent of the world's total poverty
reduction over the last century.
• China’s development is a powerful driving force behind the
global economic growth. In 19902002, China was placed first,
with a contribution as high as 27.1%. (United States made the
biggest contribution in the 1980s, with its added GDP
accounting for 21% of the world’s total during that decade). –Hu
Angang’s presentation at the China Policy Institute, University of Nottingham April 2007
• According to “The Economist” (July 28, 2005), since
2000, China’s contribution to global GDP growth was two
times that of India, Brazil and Russia combined.
China’s export and import
• China is also the largest exporter (US$1.506
trillion in2010) and second largest importer
(US$1.307 trillion in 2010) in the world
• China is the largest creditor nation in the
world and owns approximately 20.8% of all
foreign-owned US Treasury securities- Major
Foreign holders of U.S. Treasury Securities, U.S. Treasury Department.
The Washington Consensus in 1990s
Neo-liberalism
• it advocates deregulation, praises market fundamentalism
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and opposes government interference.
it advocates privatization, blazons the perpetual role of the
"private ownership myth" and opposes public ownership.
it stands for global liberalization, protects the liberal
economy under the US' dominance and opposes establishing
a new international economic order.
it affirms the individualization of welfare, emphasizes the
shift of responsibility of social security from the
government to individuals and argues against welfare
society.
Internationally, unilateralism -The Iraq War
The Beijing Consensus
Joshua Cooper Ramo
• A commitment to innovation and constant experimentation.
There are no set rules carved in stone and handed down by
the IMF to a Moses-like prophet that everyone must
follow…... There is, instead, constant tinkering and constant
change, and a recognition that different strategies are
appropriate for different situations.
• A rejection of per capita GDP as the be-all and end-all:
sustainability and equality must also be part of the mix.
• non-interference in other countries’ domestic affairs &
respect sovereignty of other countries
• “Harmonious society” at home and peaceful development in
the world
Gini coefficient since WWII
US income Gini indices over time
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Gini indices for the United States at various times, according to the US Census Bureau:[8][9][10]
1929: 45.0 (estimated)
1947: 37.6 (estimated)
1967: 39.7 (first year reported)
1968: 38.6 (lowest index reported)
1970: 39.4
1980: 40.3
1990: 42.8
– (Recalculations made in 1992 added a significant upward shift for later values)
2000: 46.2
2005: 46.9
2006: 47.0 (highest index reported)
2007: 46.3
2008: 46.69
2009: 46.8
In 2005 the Gini index for the EU was estimated at 31.[11]
Thank you!
•Questions?
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