China’s Renaissance: A Modern Chinese History from 1840-2011 Wanli Hu University of Massachusetts Boston Contents 1. Chinese History from 1840-1949 2. Chinese History from 1949-2011 3. China’s Renaissance 4. The Rise of China and Its Impact on the World 1. Chinese History from 1840-1949 • The Self-strengthening Movement from 1861-95 o “Learn superior barbarian technique with which to repel the barbarians” –Wei Yuan o Chinese learning for fundamentals, Western learning for practical application” – Zhang Zhdong o Modern military industry o Modern light industry o Modern military force o The Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95 Political Reform and Revolution • Political institutional transformation in 1898 – Political Reform – 100 Days Reform “The New Deal” - to transfer an absolute monarch to a constitutional monarch – Sun Yah-sen’s Revolution in 1911 • Republic of China – Three People’s Principles – People’s National Consciousness / Nationalism – People’s Rights / Democracy – People’s Livelihood / Socialism The New Cultural Movement from 1917 to 1923/1966/1989 • Chen Duxiu: “Down with Confucianism” “Welcome Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science” • Hu Shi: Literacy Revolution: vernacular replaced classical language • Lu Xun: Diary of Madman • River Elegy 8 parts documentary movie in 1989 2. Chinese History from 1949-2011 • Mao’s mission and objectives (war-oriented mentality) – – – – to consolidate People’s Republic of China Politics-oriented development Continuous revolution Class struggle Deng’s Economic Reform • Deng’s domestic policy – Economic development is the priority – Centrally-planned economy transformed into market economy, with growth the fastest ever – China becomes the second largest economy and 400 millions people out of poverty Deng’s foreign policy – Open-door policy – If you are not against us, you are with us. – China’s foreign policy in the 1980s, and in fact in 1990s, even in the 21st century, can be summarized in two sentences. China makes efforts to maintain world peace and oppose hegemony. China always belongs to the third world.” – New rising power has not resulted in a war, territorial expansion, or a challenge to the world order. Relations between China & other powers & neighbors better rather than worse Hu’s Harmonious Society – Let everyone share the outcome of the Economic Reform • Balance between cities and the countryside • Balance between east and west China • Balance between economic development and healthy society growth • Balance between human beings and environment • Balance between export and domestic market 3. China’s Renaissance • A Glorious History in the Past – The Han Dynasty (BCE 221- CE 220) – The Tang Dynasty (608-917) – The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) • Modern History from 1840-2011 – A century of humiliation from 1840-1949 • The Self-strengthening Movement • The Political Reform and Revolution • The New Cultural Revolution The People’s Republic of China from 1949-present • The Mao Years from 1949-1976 • Deng’s Economic Reform from 19782002 • Hu’s harmonious society from 2002 to present Mentality Changes • Before 1840 – China’s exceptionalism –the Middle Kingdom and unique culture – Qianlong’s reply to Macartney : “We possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures.” “It behooves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so than, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country thereafter.” The New Cultural Movement • Down with Confucianism • Welcome Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science • The elegy of the Yellow Civilization in 1989 • Appreciation of Chinese tradition and culture again 4. China’s Rise and Its Impact on the World • Since 1978 400 million people have been lifted out of poverty in China—about 75 percent of the world's total poverty reduction over the last century. • China’s development is a powerful driving force behind the global economic growth. In 19902002, China was placed first, with a contribution as high as 27.1%. (United States made the biggest contribution in the 1980s, with its added GDP accounting for 21% of the world’s total during that decade). –Hu Angang’s presentation at the China Policy Institute, University of Nottingham April 2007 • According to “The Economist” (July 28, 2005), since 2000, China’s contribution to global GDP growth was two times that of India, Brazil and Russia combined. China’s export and import • China is also the largest exporter (US$1.506 trillion in2010) and second largest importer (US$1.307 trillion in 2010) in the world • China is the largest creditor nation in the world and owns approximately 20.8% of all foreign-owned US Treasury securities- Major Foreign holders of U.S. Treasury Securities, U.S. Treasury Department. The Washington Consensus in 1990s Neo-liberalism • it advocates deregulation, praises market fundamentalism • • • • and opposes government interference. it advocates privatization, blazons the perpetual role of the "private ownership myth" and opposes public ownership. it stands for global liberalization, protects the liberal economy under the US' dominance and opposes establishing a new international economic order. it affirms the individualization of welfare, emphasizes the shift of responsibility of social security from the government to individuals and argues against welfare society. Internationally, unilateralism -The Iraq War The Beijing Consensus Joshua Cooper Ramo • A commitment to innovation and constant experimentation. There are no set rules carved in stone and handed down by the IMF to a Moses-like prophet that everyone must follow…... There is, instead, constant tinkering and constant change, and a recognition that different strategies are appropriate for different situations. • A rejection of per capita GDP as the be-all and end-all: sustainability and equality must also be part of the mix. • non-interference in other countries’ domestic affairs & respect sovereignty of other countries • “Harmonious society” at home and peaceful development in the world Gini coefficient since WWII US income Gini indices over time • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gini indices for the United States at various times, according to the US Census Bureau: 1929: 45.0 (estimated) 1947: 37.6 (estimated) 1967: 39.7 (first year reported) 1968: 38.6 (lowest index reported) 1970: 39.4 1980: 40.3 1990: 42.8 – (Recalculations made in 1992 added a significant upward shift for later values) 2000: 46.2 2005: 46.9 2006: 47.0 (highest index reported) 2007: 46.3 2008: 46.69 2009: 46.8 In 2005 the Gini index for the EU was estimated at 31. Thank you! •Questions?