Career development for young people
who have disengaged or who are at
risk of disengaging:
Policy and system support
16th March 2010.
(2.00 to 4.00 pm)
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Sources
• Kendall, S. and Kinder, K. (2005). Reclaiming Those Disengaged
from Education and Learning: a European Perspective. Slough:
NFER. (Austria, England, Belgium Hungary, the Netherlands,
Norway, Spain, Switzerland and Wales).
• Enhancing career development: The role of community-based
career guidance for disengaged adults (2005) National Centre for
Vocational Education Research (NCVER).
• Helena Kasurinen and Mika Launikari (2009) Career Guidance for
Youth-at-risk in Finland
• It’s Crunch Time: Raising youth engagement and attainment (2007)
Australian Industry Group.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Dimensions of disengagement
Not in:
• education
• employment
• training
NEET
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Manifestations of disengagement
• Flight: Absent and disconnected:
- irregular, truancy, dropout
• Fight:
Present, but absent
- disruptive, destructive,
- behavioural problems
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Why disengagement?
1.
Impact of educational structure:
Comprehensive vs. selective; higher incidence of
diengagement in ‘selective’ systems
2.
Effect of inclusion and exclusion:
segregation may exacerbate disengagement.
3.
Lack of congurence with ‘prescribed’ modes of
career development:
boredom, distraction, disconnect from existing
attitudes to work, unchallenged.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Why disengagement?
4. Socio-economic and community factors
• Home background and area of residence were seen as
being key influences on disengagement.
• For example, in the UK socio-economic status was seen
as being a stronger predictor of achievement than early
attainment.
• In five of the countries, minority ethnic groups were
noted as being over-represented in the disengaged
group – this was evident in the Netherlands, Austria,
Norway, Spain and England.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Why disengagement?
5. Family environment
•
•
•
•
parents do not value school.
condone non-attendance.
have low or too high expectations.
family events: such as bereavement, divorce,
or new stepfamily, can also have an impact.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Why disengagement?
6.
Pupil factors
•
Lack of social skills.
•
Not attending school, for example, due to bullying.
•
Friends beyond school resulting in non-attendance and disengagement.
•
Lack of academic ability.
•
Having special educational needs.
•
Substance misuse.
•
Previous negative experiences of school.
•
Students who have to repeat a school year or those who have to change
from a higher to lower level of education.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Why disengagement?
7. Curriculum factors
• The perceived irrelevance of the curriculum to life.
• Inappropriate exam and assessment procedures.
• Reduced time for ‘pastoral’ provision because of the
pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum.
• Inappropriate teaching methods with schools focusing on
curriculum and subject content rather than on learners.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Why disengagement?
8. Influence of vocational education:
• Vocational qualifications do not have parity of esteem
with academic qualifications.
• There is a danger of seeing vocational education as the
‘solution’ to disengagement.
• Greater focus is required on person-centered
approaches to career development rather than providing
a vocational ‘alternative’.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
“Established models,
associated with outcome-driven thinking...
based on linear development through
education to a lifetime career,
may be useful for some
but are unlikely to engage all young people.”
Reid, 2008.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
The accumulation of disadvantage
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Human Development Reports
The Less Visible Factors
• Cognitive Development.
• Education and Literacy (drop outs, completion rates).
• Employability (preparation to enter the world of work).
Specific social, cultural and psychological variables
`
seem to predict differences
between the child in
poverty and the more advantaged.
Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S.
(2001)
A workshop presented 13
by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Accumulation of disadvantage
• It seems possible to locate points of vulnerability
along the spectrum of human development.
• The experience of disadvantage seems to have a
cumulative impact on development culminating in the
internalization of psychological barriers.
Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S.
(2001)
A workshop presented 14
by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Accumulation of disadvantage
Early Childhood
Middle Childhood
Lower access to
stimulation
material.
Lower school
enrollment and
irregular attendance.
Lower exposure
to speech and
language
stimulation.
Lower academic
performance.
Lower range of
significant others
who can stimulate
child.
Adolescence
Lower Self-esteem.
Typical motivational patterns
(e.g. lower emphasis on
personal effort; higher
dependence on others).
Poor literacy
acquisition.
Short term orientation to future;
lower ability to symbolically
represent future outcomes.
Parental attitudes
closely related to
school drop-out.
Lower scores on planning and
goal setting.
Stronger orientation to earning
than training.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
The Jiva Project:
Capacity building for career counselling and
livelihood planning.
India
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Extract from:
Work Orientations and Responses to Career Choices: An
Indian Regional Survey (WORCC-IRS) (2006)
• A survey undertaken by The Promise
Foundation that covered 13 different regions of
India.
• Close 10000 participants
• 8 languages
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Influences on Career Choice
50
45
45
40
35
%
30
Friend
25
25
Teacher
20
Others
20
Parents
15
10
10
5
0
Friend
Teacher
Others
Parents
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Subject / Career Options
•
•
•
•
Science
Commerce
Humanities
Vocational Subjects
?
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Parent’s Desire
70
60
Parent's Desire
60
50
40
Science
40
30
Commerce
30
30
Arts
25
Vocational
20
10
5
5
5
0
Boys
Girls
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Occupational Prestige
• Social and cultural forces grade occupations on
a hierarchy of prestige.
• The respectability attributed to an occupation
plays a powerful role in shaping interest directed
toward that occupation.
• Children begin to recognise prestige linked
differences among jobs and thereby learn to
include or eliminate occupational alternatives.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Occupational Prestige Hierarchy
• The impact of prestige on career
preferences has been documented in both
the Indian and the international literature.
• Prestige ratings of 28 occupations with
corresponding indications of Interest, Self
Confidence and Parent Approval.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Occupations receiving
the lowest prestige
ratings are those
belonging to the blue
collar and vocational
category.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Interest Level
Socio Economic Status
and Subject Preferences
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
4.5
4
4
3.5 3.5
3
3
Science
Commerce
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Arts
Vocational
0.5
Low
Upper Middle
Socio Economic Status
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT):
Key Concepts
• Formulated by Albert Bandura in the
1980s as a refinement of his Social
Learning Theory.
• SCT analyses the diverse ways in which
beliefs of personal efficacy operate within
a network of socio-cultural and socioeconomic influences, to shape life paths.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT):
Key Concepts
• Formulated by Albert Bandura in the
1980s as a refinement of his Social
Learning Theory.
• SCT analyses the diverse ways in which
beliefs of personal efficacy operate within
a network of socio-cultural and socioeconomic influences, to shape life paths.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Self Efficacy
Outcome
Expectations
Three
Social
Cognitive
Mechanisms
Goal
Setting
...are particularly relevant to
understanding career development
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory
1. Self Efficacy Beliefs
2. Outcome Expectations
3. Goal Setting
Performance
Accomplishments
Imagined
outcome
Future orientation
Vicarious
Experience
Projected
anticipation
Symbolically
represent future
outcomes
Verbal
Persuasion
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory
Self-efficacy Beliefs:
• Beliefs about one’s ability to be successful in the
performance of a task
• Self-referent thought influences behaviour
• Quality of self efficacy beliefs influence whether:
- behaviour will be initiated
- how much energy will be expended
- maintenance of this behaviour in the face of
obstacles
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Influences on self efficacy beliefs
Performance Accomplishments (Success Experiences)
• Actual performance on a task.
• Accomplishments that are success experiences move
the individual closer to mastery experiences.
• A success experience contributes to self-efficacy only
when the individual is able to attribute the reason for
success to personal effort.
“I got one right... Now let me try the next.”
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Influences on self efficacy beliefs
Vicarious Experience
•
Observation of a social role model
•
Promotes a similar belief in oneself and influences personal self-efficacy for
that task
•
The more similar to oneself the more powerful is the vicarious experience
•
The greater the real or assumed similarity of the model to the observer, the
powerful is the model’s success or failure on the observer’s self-efficacy
“If she can do it... Maybe I can too.”
•
The failure of important role models causes a decline in self-efficacy for that
task
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Influences on self efficacy beliefs
Verbal Persuasion
• Encouragement from someone else that they possess the
capabilities to be successful at a particular task
“She told me I can do it... She believes in me.”
• Repeated verbal feedback that questions a person’s capabilities
could lead to:
- Avoidance of that activity
- Giving up in the face of barriers
- Weak engagement with the task
• Undermines motivation and promotes disbelief in one's capabilities
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory
I tried and it
worked!
Performance
Accomplishments
If she can do
it let me try...!
Vicarious
Experience
Verbal
Persuasion
interact reciprocally
to affect the quality of
Self Efficacy beliefs
She told me
I can do it...!
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory
1. Self Efficacy Beliefs
2. Outcome Expectations
3. Goal Setting
Performance
Accomplishments
Imagined
outcome
Future orientation
Vicarious
Experience
Projected
anticipation
Symbolically
represent future
outcomes
Verbal
Persuasion
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory
Outcome Expectations
• Expectation that a certain consequence would result from a certain
action
• Estimation of the quality of the outcome
• Are only imagined and notional outcomes
• Particularly relevant in an environment where the linkage between
effort and outcome are imperfect
• A person may not invest effort in an activity for which she has a high
potential, if the outcome expectation for that activity is negative
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Outcome Expectations:
Implications for career development
• If outcome expected does not match projected anticipation or
imagined outcome, may not engage with the process.
• If a service or a scheme is not congruent with what the person thinks
he/she deserves, may not value the scheme
• Examples:
-
going against the common belief
scepticism
loss of support from others if that action is taken
loss of prestige
gender incongruence
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory
1. Self Efficacy Beliefs
2. Outcome Expectations
3. Goal Setting
Performance
Accomplishments
Imagined
outcome
Future orientation
Vicarious
Experience
Projected
anticipation
Symbolically
represent future
outcomes
Verbal
Persuasion
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory
Goal Setting
• Capacity to symbolically represent and conceptualise future effects
of present actions.
• Engagement in an activity that has an effect in the future
• Determination to reach a target
• Requires:
-
ability to react in a self-evaluative manner to own behaviour
internal standards of performance
• Goals call for sustained action over a period of time
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Social Cognitive Theory: Impact and Relevance
• Merely believing does actually record success
• Expectation alone will not produce the desired outcome
• Must be mindful of the individual’s ability levels
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Tackling disengagement
Curative
• focused on routes.
back into learning.
• enabling appropriate
targeting of resources
• evaluation of initiatives.
Preventative
• strengthen transition stages.
• bridge gap between vocational
and academic education.
• promote self-efficacy.
• strenghten self-mediation.
• realistic goal setting.
• promote future orienation.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Case Study 1:
Employment Skills Training Project
Analysis of the Maldivian social cognitive environment
revealed consistent patterns of commonality and specificity
along career beliefs.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Development of a programme
Searched within social cognitive environment for thought
habits and patterns:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High emphasis on acquiring college education
It is the government's responsibility.
My father will do it for me.
It’s too hard for me.
I would rather be unemployed.
Negation of personal responsibility
Giving up in the face of barriers
Saying NO rather than YES to personal engagement
with work and career development
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
The social marketing campaign
Slogan
Youth Employment Services
YES!
YES! BECAUSE I CAN
“Yes” Career Counselling Programme
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
The social marketing campaign
Logo and Slogan
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Universalist principles interpreted
into a specific cultural context
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Harnessing diversity
Some evidence
(Arulmani, G & Agisa Abdulla 2007)*
Glassian Effect Sizes indicating the impact of career guidance on
career beliefs
Acultural
approach
Blended
commonalities
with
specificities
7.55
8
7
Effect Size
6
5
4
3
2
1.85
1
0
Career Guidance only
Yes Career Guidance
* Capturing the ripples: Addressing the sustainability of the impact of social
marketing. Social Marketing Quarterly
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Case Study 2:
The Promise Foundation, India:
Career guidance and livelihood planning project
Analysis of social cognitive environment revealed the
following key social cognitions pertaining to work:
- Work is an integral part of life
- Work is an extension of life
- Work is related to life stages
Jiva
“Life” in most
Indian languages
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
The Jiva Framework
The Jiva ‘spiral’!
The Jiva Career Spiral
Green and blue!
Green and Blue!
Mental ‘tick’ marks!
The Jiva Tick mark
The changing and the unchanged.
Changing and unchanged
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Principle 1: The Jiva Spiral:
A non linear approach to career development
Cultural Value:
The circularity of life
• Career and
livelihood
development
occur in a spiral!
• Over time one
returns to where
one started, but in
qualitatively
different manner.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Principle 2: The Jiva Tick Mark
Assess before you accept
Cultural Value:
Nishkama: Dispassionate
decision making
• Weigh up pros
and cons and then
accept or reject.
• How relevant is an
opportunity to one's
interests and
aptitudes?
• Is an opportunity
merely a job offering
or is it an opening
into a real career?
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Principle 3: Green and blue
A healthy career cares for the ‘other’
Cultural Value:
Sensitivity to the ‘other’
• “When you set the
sky as the limit are
you also turning the
earth brown?”
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Principle 4: The Changing and the Unchanged
A healthy career allows change with stability
Cultural Value:
Paradox of change and
constancy
•
The individual is growing; the world
of work is also changing.
•
A career develops in finding the
balance between what changes and
what does not change.
•
Personal interests for example, are
liable to change while aptitudes are
deeper traits.
•
Healthy careers and livelihoods are
in tune with a dynamic and moving
world and at the same time
grounded in values that are
constant.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Principle 5: Give, in order to get
Skills for life long development
Cultural Value:
Ashramas: Life stages have
life responsibilities
• A career lies in the
interface between
garnering of personal
gain and services
rendered to society.
• Career development
suffers or even grinds to
a halt when the dynamic
tension between this
‘giving’ and ‘receiving’ is
disturbed.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Theory to Practice
•
•
•
•
•
Group 1: Performance accomplishment and career
development
Group 2: Vicarious experience and career development
Group 3: Verbal persuasion and career development
Group 4: Outcome expectations and career development
Group 5: Goal setting and career development
30 minutes for small group discussions
30 minutes for short presentation.
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Discussion Point:
Group 1:
Are there any weak links in the transition stages.
Group 2:
Any comment: Greater focus is required on personcentered approaches to career transitions rather than
providing a vocational ‘alternative’.
Group 3:
Reduced time for ‘pastoral’ provision because of the
pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum.
Group 4:
Is it necessary to review content of training programmes
for careers counsellors for skills transfer pertaining to
multicultural competencies:
- Culture sensitive counselling.
- Promotion of self-efficacy.
- Skills to work with parents / community.
HOW could this achieved?
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
Outcomes of a study on the promotion
of self-efficacy for career development
Almost eight months after Time 3 of this study, a young man visited the
researcher. Full of confidence he walked into the researcher’s office
and said that he had attended a six month course on screen printing
and now had a regular job.
Then, rather shyly he said had something to give the researcher. He
drew a soiled envelope from his pocket and said “I received my first
salary today. I want you to use this to help someone else in the way
you helped me.” Inside the envelope was a fifty rupee note. A large
sum of money for a boy from his background.
Moved, but curious I asked him which of the intervention groups he had
belonged to. The boy looked up and said, “The group where we learned to
think differently.”
A workshop presented by
Gideon Arulmani (2010)
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Career development for young people who have …