Coming To Terms With the New LC Vocabularies: Genre/Form (Literature,
Music, General), Demographic Groups and Medium of Performance
Janis L. Young, Library of Congress
Adam L. Schiff, University of Washington Libraries
Hermine Vermeij, UCLA Cataloging & Metadata Center
June 29, 2015
Sponsor:
Cataloging & Metadata Section,
Subject Analysis Committee
#alctsAC15
Coming to Terms with
the New LC Vocabularies
Genre/Form (Literature, Music, General),
Demographic Groups, and Medium of Performance
A Program for CaMMS Subject Analysis Subcommittee
ALA Annual Conference 2015
Overview and Introduction
Janis L. Young
Policy and Standards Division
Library of Congress
Agenda
 Facets
in LCSH
 Facets in the new vocabularies
 Status of the projects
 Plans for the future
 Assignment of terms
 Availability of records
4
“Facet: Any of the definable
aspects that make up a subject
(as of contemplation) or an object
(as of consideration)”
Merriam-Webster online dictionary, def. 2
(Searched June 4, 2015)
5
Facets in LCSH
 Subdivisions
often considered analogous
to facets
Topical
Geographic
Chronological
Form
6
Facets in LCSH
 Main
headings have facets
Personal
name
Corporate
name
Conference/event
name
Title
Topic
Geographic
7
Facets in LCSH
 Topical
headings
“True”
topics: describe what materials are
about
Automobiles in art
Library science
8
Facets in LCSH
 Topical
headings
Genres
and forms: describe what materials
are
Western films
Poetry
Sonatas
Encyclopedias and dictionaries
9
Facets in LCSH
 Topical
headings
Audiences
and creators
Children’s stories
College students’ writings
10
Facets in LCSH
 Topical
headings
Medium
of performance: the voices,
instruments, and other entities required to
perform a piece of music
Banjo and guitar music
Trios (Bassoon, clarinet, cello)
11
Facets in LCSH
 Topical
headings
Combinations
of form, audience or creator,
and/or medium of performance
Children's songs, Bantu
Haiku, American
Sonatas (Bass clarinet and piano)
12
Facets in LCSH
 Computer
cannot distinguish among topics,
genres and forms, audiences and creators,
and mediums of performance
 Coding
is identical
 Form headings can often be used as topics
 We expect users to distinguish between works
of a genre or form, or for an audience or
medium of performance, or by a creator, and
works about it
13
Facets in LCSH
 Examples
Old time music —History and criticism
Proverbs —History and criticism
Spanish language—Dictionaries
Spanish language—Lexicography
Waltzes
Waltz
14
New Faceted Vocabularies
 LC
Genre/Form Terms for Library and
Archival Materials (LCGFT)
 LC Medium of Performance Thesaurus for
Music (LCMPT)
 LC Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT)
15
New Faceted Vocabularies
 Each
vocabulary describes a distinct
aspect of a work
Allows
for more flexibility and precision in
searching
16
New Faceted Vocabularies
 Simplify
discovery
Take
advantage of new interfaces that (can)
provide specialized limits and searches
“Drill
through” individual facets to limit
searches
Search
individual facets directly
End
result: result sets that match users’
needs
17
New Faceted Vocabularies
 Example
A collection of short stories about vampires
written for teenagers by a French woman
Audience: Teenagers
Creator: French women
Genres/forms: Paranormal short stories
Subject: Vampires
18
New Faceted Vocabularies
 Each
An
vocabulary is faceted
authorized term represents one aspect
Terms
do not overlap in meaning
19
New Faceted Vocabularies
 Examples
 LCGFT
Animated fantasy films
Fantasy animated films
Animated films
Fantasy films
 LCMPT
Celesta and piano
 LCDGT
Canadian cancer patients
celesta
piano
Canadians
Cancer patients
20
New Faceted Vocabularies
 Example
A collection of short stories about vampires
written for teenagers by a French woman
Audience: Teenagers
Creator: French; Women
Genres/forms: Paranormal fiction; Short stories
Subject: Vampires—Fiction
21
Status of LCGFT Projects
 “Finished”
projects
(Implemented in original cataloging at LC; PSD is
accepting proposals)
Cartography
Law
Moving
images
Non-musical
sound recordings
22
Status of LCGFT Projects
 Projects
in progress
(PSD is not accepting proposals)
General
Initial
LC
terms
terms approved
to implement in early 2016?
23
Status of LCGFT Projects
 Projects
in progress
(PSD is not accepting proposals)
Literature
Approximately
230 terms were approved in May
2015
Approximately
160 will be approved in
September 2015 (Tentative List 1516)
LC
to implement in early 2016?
24
Status of LCGFT Projects
 Projects
in progress
(PSD is not accepting proposals)
Music
Approximately
560 terms were approved
February 2015
Approximately
LC
80 terms are yet to be approved
has begun to implement in new cataloging
25
Status of LCGFT Projects
 Projects
in progress
(PSD is not accepting proposals)
Religion
Approximately
40 terms appear on Tentative List
1518, to be approved in September 2015
26
Status of LCGFT Projects
 Projects
in progress
(PSD is not accepting proposals)
Art
Art
Libraries Society of North America has begun
a project to develop an art vocabulary
27
Status of LCMPT
 “Finished”
PSD
is accepting proposals
SACO
proposals must be made through the SACO
Music Funnel
(http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/Music_Funnel.html)
Implemented
in some new LC cataloging
28
Status of LCDGT
 In
progress
 Approximately
400 pilot terms were approved in
June 2015
 “Introduction and Guiding Principles for the Pilot” is
available at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/lcdgtprinciples.pdf
 PSD
is not accepting proposals
 Subject
specialists will enhance the vocabulary with
additional terms
 PSD
recommends that LCDGT not be implemented in
a wholesale fashion at this time
29
Future Directions
 LCGFT
Fully
incorporate new disciplines
Adjust
hierarchies and UFs
Rationalize
Remove
the use of RTs
the introductory phrase in scope
notes?
30
Future Directions
 Develop
a manual, similar to the Subject
Headings Manual
Will
be freely available online
Draft
available in 2016?
31
Future Directions
 The
manual will

Incorporate “lessons learned” to provide guidance
on proposing and assigning terms from LCGFT,
LCMPT, and LCDGT

Avoid “case law”

Contain as few exceptions to general principles as
possible, to allow uniformity of policy and ease of
assignment
32
Future Directions: Impact on LCSH
 No
immediate impact
 All
headings and subdivisions remain valid
 Eventually
 Cancel
subject headings that are never used as
“true” topics (e.g., Waltzes)
 Cancel any form subdivisions that are only used with
the headings that are cancelled
 Consider cancelling all form subdivisions that have an
LCGFT or LCMPT equivalent (e.g., —Dictionaries)
33
Assignment
 Continue
to assign LCSH as always, including
form subdivisions
 Assign
as many terms as necessary from
LCGFT, LCMPT, and LCDGT to bring out the
pertinent facets
 If
the classification number reflects a particular
form, genre, audience, or creator/contributor
demographic, assign it as the first term
34
Record Availability

LCGFT, LCMPT, and LCDGT all available through
 Classification
Web
 LC’s Linked Data Service (http://id.loc.gov)
LCGFT also available through LC authorities
(http://authorities.loc.gov) and MARC Distribution
Service
 LCMPT and LCDGT also available through MARC
download pages

 LCMPT:
http://classificationweb.net/LCMPT/
 LCDGT: http://classificationweb.net/LCDGT/
35
The Work of the SAC
Subcommittee on Genre/Form
Implementation (SGFI)
Adam L. Schiff
Chair, SAC SGFI
Principal Cataloger, University of Washington Libraries
[email protected]
Charge
• Acts as facilitator of two-way communication between the Library of Congress cataloging
Policy and Support Office (PSD) and the cataloging communities with an interest in
genre/form headings, including but not limited to the moving image, music, and law
communities. To fulfill this charge, the subcommittee will both disseminate information
from the Library of Congress to the cataloging communities, and act as an advisory body
to LC in the matter of genre/form heading implementation. The subcommittee will
identify areas to prioritize in genre/form heading establishment, coordinate interested
parties in the cooperative creation of genre/form authority records and retrospective
conversion of topical headings (150) to genre/form headings (155), and facilitate the
sharing of best practices information. The subcommittee will develop general principles
answering questions in the application of genre/form headings, including but not limited
to which subject analysis conventions are appropriate (subdivisions, for example), and
how genre/form headings should be indexed and used in systems.
Projects
• LCGFT general terms
• LCGFT literature terms
• MARC development
• 046, 385, 386, 388, relator terms
• Policies and best practices
• Genre/form headings manual
• DCM Z1 (Descriptive Cataloging Manual)
• Definition and scope of genre/form for LCGFT
LCGFT General Terms
• Working Group chaired by Yael Mandelstam
• Goal: to get a group of general, non-disciplinary terms into LCGFT
• Predecessor: 185/155 Working Group in 2011 reviewed the 255 Library of
Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) free-floating form subdivisions and
recommended that 127 of them be included in the genre/form thesaurus
• PSD initially agreed that 75 of them should be considered for general terms
project and formally asked SGFI to undertake a project with them in 2012
• Working Group also looked at non-free-floating form subdivisions and at
other thesauri to identify additional potential general terms
• Negotiated back and forth with LC PSD until a final group of terms was
included on Tentative Monthly List 13 (January 2015); approved Monthly List
of about 190 terms is available at http://classificationweb.net/approvedsubjects/1513.html
• 040 $a has MARC code for SAC: IlChALCS
LCGFT General Terms
• Terms which are not specific to a particular discipline
Abridgments
Almanacs
Bibliographies
Blogs
Conference papers and proceedings Diaries
Dictionaries
FAQs
Guidebooks
Newsletters
Obituaries
Sayings
Textbooks
Yearbooks
Zines
• Terms for ephemera (e.g., Calendars; Postcards; Theater programs)
• Terms for puzzles and games (e.g., Crossword puzzles; Palindromes)
• Terms for types of toy and movable books (e.g., Flip books; Pop-up books;
Tunnel books)
• Some terms originally considered by the Literature Working Group (e.g.,
Captivity narratives; Creative nonfiction; Shaggy dog stories; Travel
writing)
LCGFT General Terms
• Many have corresponding headings or form subdivisions in LCSH, but
the LCGFT headings may not be identical. For example:
LCSH: $v Biography
LCGFT: Biographies
LCSH: $v Congresses
LCGFT: Conference papers and proceedings
LCSH: $v Handbooks, manuals, etc.
LCGFT: Handbooks and manuals
LCSH: Imaginary histories
LCGFT: Counterfactual histories
LCSH: Playbills
LCGFT: Playbills (Posters)
LCSH: Sound effects books
LCGFT: Sound books
LCSH: $v Tables
LCGFT: Tables (Data)
LCSH: $v Exhibitions
LCGFT: Exhibition catalogs
LCGFT General Terms
• Divided into 10 “top” terms: Commemorative works; Creative
nonfiction; Derivative works; Discursive works; Ephemera;
Illustrated works; Informational works; Instructional and
educational works; Recreational works; Tactile works
• These are mainly for gathering the general terms into broad categories; they
will rarely be assigned in a bibliographic record because more specific terms
are available
• Some of the more specific terms may be in the hierarchies of multiple top
terms. For example, Handbooks and manuals has two BTs, Instructional and
educational works and Reference works, which is an NT of Informational
works
Examples
100 1_ Carbone, Gregory J., $e author.
245 14 The atmosphere, seventh edition, Frederick K. Lutgens, Edward
J. Tarbuck : $b laboratory manual / $c Greg Carbone.
246 14 Laboratory manual, the atmosphere, seventh edition
650 _0 Atmosphere $v Laboratory manuals.
650 _0 Meteorology $v Laboratory manuals.
650 _0 Weather $v Laboratory manuals.
655 _7 Laboratory manuals. $2 lcgft
Examples
110 2_
245 10
310 __
650 _0
650 _0
College Bound Scholarship (Program : Wash.), $e author.
Program manual / $c College Bound Scholarship.
Annual
Scholarships $z Washington (State) $v Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Government aid to education $z Washington (State) $v
Handbooks, manuals, etc.
650 _0 Student aid $x Government policy $z Washington (State) $v
Handbooks, manuals, etc.
655 _7 Handbooks and manuals. $2 lcgft
655 _7 Serial publications. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1_
245 14
650 _0
655 _7
Gross, John, $d 1935-2011, $e compiler.
The Oxford book of aphorisms / $c chosen by John Gross.
Aphorisms and apothegms.
Sayings. $2 lcgft
100 1_ Cordry, Harold V., $d 1943- $e compiler.
245 14 The multicultural dictionary of proverbs : $b over 20,000
adages from more than 120 languages, nationalities, and
ethnic groups / $c Harold V. Cordry.
650 _0 Proverbs.
655 _7 Sayings. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1_
240 10
245 14
600 10
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
Frank, Anne, $d 1929-1945, $e author.
Achterhuis. $l English
The diary of Anne Frank ...
Frank, Anne, $d 1929-1945 $v Diaries.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam
$v Personal narratives.
Jewish girls $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v Diaries.
Jews $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v Diaries.
Diaries. $2 lcgft
Personal narratives. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1_ Crowther, Robert, $e author.
245 10 Amazing pop-up trucks / $c Robert Crowther.
520 __ Text and pop-up illustrations introduce five different kinds of
trucks from cement truck to garbage truck, and explain what
they can do.
650 _0 Trucks $v Juvenile literature.
650 _1 Trucks.
650 _1 Pop-up books.
650 _1 Toy and movable books.
655 _7 Pop-up books. $2 lcgft
Examples
245 00
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
The New York times theater reviews.
Theater $z United States $v Reviews $v Periodicals.
Theater reviews. $2 lcgft
Serial publications. $2 lcgft
245 00
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
The New York times film reviews.
Motion pictures $v Reviews $v Periodicals.
Motion picture reviews. $2 lcgft
Serial publications. $2 lcgft
Examples
245 00
650 _0
651 _0
610 20
655 _7
655 _7
655 _7
Oregon child fatality review ... annual report.
Children $x Mortality $z Oregon $v Statistics $v Periodicals.
Oregon $v Statistics, Vital $v Periodicals.
Oregon State Child Fatality Review Team $v Directories.
Vital statistics. $2 lcgft
Directories. $2 lcgft
Annual reports. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1_
240 10
245 10
600 10
650 _0
655 _7
Dior, Christian, $e author.
Christian Dior et moi
Christian Dior & moi / $c par Christian Dior.
Dior, Christian.
Fashion designers $z France $z Paris $v Biography.
Autobiographies. $2 lcgft
LCCGT Literature Terms
• Working Group chaired by Alex Thurman
• Goal: to get an initial group of terms for literature into LCGFT that can
be used for BOTH individual works and compilations
• PSD generated an initial list of potential terms from LCSH
• Working Group examined other thesauri and reference sources for
additional terms
• Negotiated back and forth with LC PSD until a final group of about 400
terms was included on Tentative Monthly List 15 (March 2015); about
half of terms were approved; others deferred to Monthly List 16
(September 2015) due to workload issues in PSD. Approved Monthly
List 15 is available at http://classificationweb.net/approvedsubjects/1515.html
• 040 $a has MARC code for SAC: IlChALCS
LCGFT Literature Terms
• Top term: Literature
• Five high-level terms under Literature: Comics (Graphic works); Drama;
Fiction; Folk literature; Poetry
• Some terms originally considered by the General Terms Working Group
(e.g., Bestiaries)
LCGFT Literature Terms
• Many have corresponding headings in LCSH, but the LCGFT headings may not be identical.
For example:
LCSH: Adventure stories
LCSH: Motion picture plays
LCGFT: Action and adventure fiction LCGFT: Screenplays
LCSH: Horror comic books, strips, etc.
LCGFT: Horror comics
LCSH: Comic books, strips, etc.
LCGFT: Comics (Graphic works)
LCSH: Nonfiction novel
LCGFT: Nonfiction novels
LCSH: Gothic fiction (Literary genre)
LCGFT: Gothic fiction
LCSH: Horror tales
LCGFT: Horror fiction
LCSH: Moralities
LCGFT: Morality plays
LCSH: Spy stories
LCGFT: Spy fiction
LCSH: Plot-your-own stories
LCGFT: Choose-your-own stories
LCSH: Comedy
LCGFT: Comedy plays
LCSH: Tragedy
LCGFT: Tragedies (Drama)
LCSH: Mysteries and miracle-plays
LCGFT: Mystery and miracle plays
LCSH: Magic realism (Literature)
LCGFT: Magic realist fiction
LCSH: Suspense fiction
LCGFT: Suspense fiction and Thrillers
(Fiction)
LCGFT Literature Terms
• Explicit aspects like audience, creator characteristics, place of origin, language, and time
period of creation that are often included in LCSH were out of scope for LCGFT if they are
explicit in the term, so you will not find terms like these from LCSH: Children’s poetry;
Buddhist stories; Christian fiction; Gay men’s writings; College prose; Byzantine literature;
Literature, Medieval; Russian drama
• However, when not explicit, terms may be in LCGFT, e.g.
Azharot [Jewish liturgical poems on 613 commandments in the Torah]
Bible plays [specific religion is not explicit]
Chansons de geste [a medieval French genre]
Comedies of humours [an English 16th-17th century drama genre]
Fabliaux [bawdy medieval tales]
Hyangga [Korean poetry from Unified Silla (668-935) and Koryŏ dynasties (935-1392)]
Jataka stories [Buddhist tales about the previous births of the Buddha]
LCGFT Literature Terms
• As mentioned earlier, there was a process of negotiation back and forth
with LC PSD
• Not all proposed terms were accepted, e.g., Chick lit; Feminist fiction; Film
tie-in fiction; Gentle reads; Manga; Patriotic poetry
• Other proposed terms were deferred, e.g.:
• Ethnic performing arts terms that have non-literary aspects such as music and dance,
e.g., Kamishibai plays; Kōwaka plays; Topeng plays; Yakṣagāna plays. LC wants to
further consider how (or if) they fit into LCGFT.
• Terms for styles, e.g., Dadaist poetry; Expressionist drama. LC wants to further
consider whether style is appropriate for LCGFT.
• Working Group on LCGFT Literature Terms will follow up with LC on deferred terms
LCGFT Literature Terms
• Working Group on LCGFT Literature Terms also has identified similarities
between some approved music terms and some unapproved literature
terms, which it will discuss further with LC, e.g.:
Country gospel music
Country rock music
Folk-rock music
Paranormal romance fiction
Paranormal suspense fiction
Romantic comedy plays
Alma mater songs
Campaign songs
Christmas music
Sea shanties
Complaint poetry
Ecofiction
Revolutionary poetry
Sea stories
Examples
245 04
260
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
The Faber book of gay short fiction / $c edited by Edmund White.
London ; $a Boston : $b Faber and Faber, $c 1991.
Gay men $v Fiction.
Gay men's writings, English.
Gay men's writings, American.
Short stories, American.
Short stories, English.
Short stories. $2 lcgft
Examples
245 04
260
260 3_
310
362 0_
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
The best American poetry.
New York, N.Y. : $b Collier Books, $c c1988$3 <2011->: $a New York : $b Scribner Poetry
Annual
1988American poetry $y 20th century $v Periodicals.
American poetry $y 21st century $v Periodicals.
Poetry. $2 lcgft
Serial publications. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1_
245 14
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
651 _0
655 _7
655 _7
655 _7
Tartt, Donna, $e author.
The goldfinch / $c Donna Tartt.
Young men $v Fiction.
Loss (Psychology) $v Fiction.
Artists $v Fiction.
Self-realization $v Fiction.
New York (N.Y.) $v Fiction.
Novels. $2 lcgft
Bildungsromans. $2 lcgft
Fictional autobiographies. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1_
245 10
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
Feiffer, Jules, $e author, $e artist.
Kill my mother : $b a graphic novel / $c Jules Feiffer.
Private investigators $v Comic books, strips, etc.
Murder $v Comic books, strips, etc.
Graphic novels. $2 lcgft
Noir comics. $2 lcgft
MARC Developments
• 385 – Audience Characteristics
• 386 – Creator/Contributor Characteristics
• 388 – Time Period of Creation
• 046 – Special Coded Dates
• 370 – Associated Place
• Relator Terms
Audience and Creator/Contributor Characteristics
• Explicit indications of audience and creators/contributors of works
and expressions are out of scope for LCGFT (although currently there
are a few exceptions)
• This information needs to be retained somewhere
LCSH: Children’s periodicals
LCGFT: Periodicals
LCSH: Young adult fiction
LCGFT: Fiction (or Novels, Short stories, etc.)
LCSH: American poetry--Jewish authors
LCGFT: Poetry
MARC 385 – Audience Characteristics
• Indicators both blank
• Subfields:
$a – Audience term (R)
$b – Audience code (R)
$m – Demographic group term (NR)
$n – Demographic group code (NR)
$0 – Authority record control number or standard number (R)
$2 – Source (NR)
$3 – Materials specified (NR)
MARC 386 – Creator/Contributor Characteristics
• Indicators both blank
• Subfields:
$a – Creator/contributor term (R)
$b – Creator/contributor term code (R)
$m – Demographic group term (NR)
$n – Demographic group code (NR)
$0 – Authority record control number or standard number (R)
$2 – Source (NR)
$3 – Materials specified (NR)
MARC 385/386 $m and $n
$m – Demographic group term (NR)
$n – Demographic group code (NR)
• During the development of the 385 and 386 fields, some commented that
many class of persons headings belong to broader group categories that
users might want to search or limit by. For example, children, tweens,
teenagers, young adults, middle-aged persons, and senior citizens are all
examples of age groups. Catholics, Baptists, Jews, Buddhists, Mormons,
Muslims, Hindus, and Wiccans are all examples of religious groups.
• LC PSD maintains the list of group terms and codes:
http://www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/lcdgt.html
http://www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/lcdgt.html
Also now established:
Mental and physical disability group
[mpd]
Use for the medical or psychological
condition, or the physical or mental
disability, of the group members (e.g.,
cancer patients, schizophrenics,
paraplegics, blind).
Sexual orientation group [sxo]
Use for the sexual orientation of the
group members (e.g., heterosexuals,
lesbians).
Social group [soc]
Use for identifiable social groups that
cannot be included in the other
categories (e.g., blondes, vegans).
385/386 Fields
• $m or $n are optional
• $2 is optional, but recommended if terms recorded are from a
controlled vocabulary
• Repeat $a when terms are from the same vocabulary:
386 __ Women $a Canadians $a Librarians $a Archivists
$2 lcdgt
A work or works created by Canadian women librarians
and archivists
• Repeat the field if $m or $n is used and terms belong to
different demographic categories:
386 __ $n gdr $a Women $2 lcdgt
386 __ $n nat $a Canadians $2 lcdgt
386 __ $n occ $a Librarians $a Archivists $2 lcdgt
385/386 Fields
• Repeat field if terms are from different controlled
vocabularies:
385 __ $n age $a Teenagers $2 lcdgt
385 __ $n age $a Adolescents $2 ericd
A work or works for teenagers
386 __ $n eth $a Indians, North American $2 mesh
386 __ $n eth $a American Indians $2 ericd
386 __ $n eth $a Indians of North America $2 lcsh
A work or works created by Native Americans
385/386 Fields
• Generally, break up compound terms into their
components. For example:
386 __ African American women librarians $2 lcsh
use instead:
386 __ African Americans $a Women $a Librarians
$2 lcdgt
or
386 __ $n eth $a African Americans $2 lcdgt
386 __ $n gdr $a Women $2 lcdgt
386 __ $n occ $a Librarians $2 lcdgt
A work or works created by African American
women librarians
Which Vocabularies to Use?
• Any vocabularies that are on the Subject Heading and
Term Source Codes list or other appropriate specialized
lists such as Occupation Term Source Codes
http://www.loc.gov/standards/sourcelist/subject.html
• LCDGT is being developed as a preferred vocabulary to
use in these fields
Examples - Bibliographic Records
100 1_
240 10
245 14
386
600 10
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
Frank, Anne, $d 1929-1945, $e author.
Achterhuis. $l English
The diary of Anne Frank ...
Girls $a Teenagers $a Dutch $a Jews $a Holocaust victims $2 lcdgt
Frank, Anne, $d 1929-1945 $v Diaries.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v
Personal narratives.
Jewish girls $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v Diaries.
Jews $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v Diaries.
Diaries. $2 lcgft
Personal narratives. $2 lcgft
Examples - Bibliographic Records
100 1_ Lindgren, Astrid, $d 1907-2002, $e author.
240 10 Pippi Långstrump i Humlegården. $l English
245 10 Pippi Longstocking in the park / $c by Astrid Lindgren ; with pictures by
Ingrid Nyman.
385
$n age $a Children $2 lcdgt
386
$n nat $a Swedes $2 lcdgt
386
$n gdr $a Women $2 lcdgt
600 10 Longstocking, Pippi $v Juvenile fiction.
650 _0 Parks $v Juvenile fiction.
650 _0 Criminals $z Sweden $v Juvenile fiction.
650 _0 Girls $z Sweden $v Juvenile fiction.
651 _0 Sweden $v Juvenile fiction.
600 11 Longstocking, Pippi $v Fiction.
650 _1 Parks $v Fiction.
651 _1 Sweden $v Fiction.
655 _7 Fiction. $2 lcgft
Examples - Bibliographic Records
245 04
260
386
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
The Faber book of gay short fiction / $c edited by Edmund White.
London ; $a Boston : $b Faber and Faber, $c 1991.
Gay men $a Britons $a Americans $2 lcdgt
Gay men $v Fiction.
Gay men's writings, English.
Gay men's writings, American.
Short stories, American.
Short stories, English.
Short stories. $2 lcgft
Examples - Bibliographic Records
245 04
260
260 3_
310
362 0_
386
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
The best American poetry.
New York, N.Y. : $b Collier Books, $c c1988$3 <2011->: $a New York : $b Scribner Poetry
Annual
1988$n nat $a Americans $2 lcdgt
American poetry $y 20th century $v Periodicals.
American poetry $y 21st century $v Periodicals.
Poetry. $2 lcgft
Serial publications. $2 lcgft
Examples - Bibliographic Records
100 1_ Dees, David B., $e author.
245 10 Quick Spanish for emergency responders : $b essential words and phrases
for firefighters, paramedics, and EMTs / $c David B. Dees.
385
Emergency Responders $2 mesh
385
Emergency medical technicians $a Fire fighters $2 lcsh
385
First responders $2 lcdgt
650 _0 Spanish language $v Conversation and phrase books (for medical personnel)
650 _0 Spanish language $v Conversation and phrase books (for fire fighters)
650 _2 Emergency Medical Services $v Phrases $x English.
650 _2 Emergency Medical Services $v Phrases $x Spanish.
650 _2 Emergency Medical Services $v Terminology $x English.
650 _2 Emergency Medical Services $v Terminology $x Spanish.
655 _7 Phrase books. $2 lcgft
Examples - Authority Records
100 1_
380
385
386
386
Lindgren, Astrid, $d 1907-2002. $t Pippi Långstrump
Fiction $2 lcgft
$n age $a Children $2 lcdgt
$n gdr $a Women $2 lcdgt
$n nat $a Swedes $2 lcdgt
Examples - Authority Records
130 _0
380
386
400 1_
Anthology of North American Indian and Eskimo music
Folk dance music $a Folk songs $2 lcgft
Indians of North America $a Eskimos $2 lcsh
Asch, Michael. $t Anthology of North American Indian and
Eskimo music
430 _0 Musica degli Indiani e degli Eschimesi dell'America del Nord
670
An anthology of North American Indian and Eskimo music [SR]
1973: $b label (An anthology of North American Indian and Eskimo
music / compiled and edited by Michael I. Asch)
670
Musica degli Indiani e degli Eschimesi dell'America del Nord [SR]
p1974: $b label (Musica degli Indiani e degli Eschimesi
dell'America del Nord)
Examples - Authority Records
130 _0
380
386
430 _0
430 _0
670
Love + relAsianships
Drama $2 lcgft
Asian Canadians $a Canadians $2 lcdgt
Love and relAsianships
Love plus relAsianships
Love + relAsianships : a collection of contemporary
Asian-Canadian drama, 2009.
Examples - Authority Records
130 _0
380
380
386
386
670
Gallaudet deaf literature series
Monographic series $a Series (Publications) $2 lcsh
Literature $2 lcgft
$n mpd $a Deaf $2 lcdgt
$n mpd $a Persons With Hearing Impairments $2 mesh
Deaf American prose 1980-2010, c2012: $b t.p. (The
Gallaudet deaf literature series)
Time Period of Creation
• Explicit indications of the time period when works and expressions
were created are out of scope of LCGFT
• This information needs to be retained somewhere
LCSH: Operas--18th century
LCGFT: Operas
LCSH: Rock music--1961-1970
LCGFT: Rock music
LCSH: English essays--20th century
LCGFT: Essays
LCSH: Literature, Medieval
LCGFT: Literature
MARC 388 – Time Period of Creation
• First indicator – Type of time period
# – No information provided
1 – Creation of work
2 – Creation of aggregate work
• Subfields:
$a – Time period of creation term (R)
$0 – Authority record control number or standard number (R)
$2 – Source (NR)
$3 – Materials specified (NR)
MARC 046 – Special Coded Dates
• Indicators blank
• Subfields:
$k – Beginning of single date created (NR)
$l – Ending date created (NR)
$o – Single or starting date for aggregated content (NR)
$p – Ending date for aggregated content (NR)
Examples - Bibliographic Records
046
100 1_
240 10
245 14
386
600 10
650 _0
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
$k 19420614 $l 19440801
Frank, Anne, $d 1929-1945, $e author.
Achterhuis. $l English
The diary of Anne Frank ...
Girls $a Teenagers $a Dutch $a Jews $a Holocaust victims $2 lcdgt
Frank, Anne, $d 1929-1945 $v Diaries.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v Personal
narratives.
Jewish girls $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v Diaries.
Jews $z Netherlands $z Amsterdam $v Diaries.
Diaries. $2 lcgft
Personal narratives. $2 lcgft
Examples - Bibliographic Records
046
$k 2001 $o 1778 $p 1838
245 00 Women's writing, 1778-1838 : $b an anthology / $c edited with an
introduction and notes by Fiona Robertson.
264 _1 Oxford ; $a New York : $b Oxford University Press, $c 2001.
386
Britons $a Women $2 lcdgt
388 1_ 1778 - 1838 $2 fast
388 1_ Nineteenth century $2 lcsh
388 1_ Eighteenth century $2 lcsh
650 _0 English literature $x Women authors.
650 _0 Women $z Great Britain $x History $y 19th century $v Sources.
650 _0 Women $z Great Britain $x History $y 18th century $v Sources.
650 _0 English literature $y 19th century.
650 _0 English literature $y 18th century.
650 _0 Women $v Literary collections
655 _7 Literature. $2 lcgft
Examples - Bibliographic Records
046
245 04
260
260 3_
310
362 0_
386
388 1_
388 1_
650 _0
650 _0
655 _7
655 _7
$o 1987 $p 9999 $2 marc
The best American poetry.
New York, N.Y. : $b Collier Books, $c c1988$3 <2011->: $a New York : $b Scribner Poetry
Annual
1988$n nat $a Americans $2 lcdgt
1987 - 1999 $2 fast
2000 - 2099 $2 fast
American poetry $y 20th century $v Periodicals.
American poetry $y 21st century $v Periodicals.
Poetry. $2 lcgft
Serial publications. $2 lcgft
Examples - Authority Records
046
130 _0
380
386
388 1_
430 _0
670
$o 16
Borzoi anthology of 17th-century English literature
Literature $2 lcgft
$n nat $a Britons $2 lcdgt
Seventeenth century $2 lcsh
Borzoi anthology of seventeenth-century English literature
Seventeenth-century English poetry, 1967: $b series title page (The
Borzoi anthology of 17th-century English literature)
Examples - Authority Records
046
130 _0
380
388 1_
430 _0
400 0_
$k 07uu/1100 $2 edtf
Beowulf
Epic poetry $a Narrative poetry $2 lcgft
Anglo-Saxon (culture or style) $2 aat
Bjowulf
Aldfrith, $c King of Northumbria, $d -705. $t Beowulf
Geographic Characteristics
• Explicit indications of the geographic place where works and
expressions were created are out of scope of LCGFT
• This information needs to be retained somewhere
LCSH: American poetry--California--San Francisco
LCGFT: Poetry
MARC 370 – Associated Place
• Indicators not defined
• Subfields:
$c – Associated country (R)
$f – Other associated place (R)
$g – Place of origin of work (R)
$s – Start period (NR)
$t – End period (NR)
$u – Uniform Resource Identifier (R)
$0 – Authority record control number or standard number (R)
$2 – Source of term (NR)
Example - Bibliographic Records
046
$o 20
245 00 Feather floating on the water : $b poems for our children : an anthology
of contemporary San Francisco poets / $c edited by Virginia Barrett.
370
$c United States $g San Francisco (Calif.) $2 naf
385
Children $2 lcdgt
386
Californians $a Americans $2 lcdgt
388 1_ Twenty-first century $2 lcsh
650 _0 Children's poetry, American $z California $z San
Francisco.
650 _0 American poetry $y 21st century.
655 _7 Poetry. $2 lcgft
Example - Authority Records
046
130 _0
370
380
388 1_
430 _0
400 0_
$k 07uu/1100 $2 edtf
Beowulf
$g England $2 naf
Epic poetry $a Narrative poetry $2 lcgft
Anglo-Saxon (culture or style) $2 aat
Bjowulf
Aldfrith, $c King of Northumbria, $d -705. $t Beowulf
But wait! There’s also:
MARC 751 – Added Entry—Geographic Name
• Indicators not defined
• Subfields:
$a – Geographic name (NR)
$e – Relator term (R)
$0 – Authority record control number (R)
$2 – Source of heading or term (NR)
$3 – Materials specified (NR)
$4 – Relator code (R)
Examples - Bibliographic Records
046
$o 20
245 00 Feather floating on the water : $b poems for our children : an
anthology of contemporary San Francisco poets / $c edited by
Virginia Barrett.
385
Children $2 lcdgt
386
Californians $a Americans $2 lcdgt
388 1_ Twenty-first century $2 lcsh
650 _0 Children's poetry, American $z California $z San Francisco.
650 _0 American poetry $y 21st century.
655 _7 Poetry. $2 lcgft
751
San Francisco (Calif.) $2 naf
Relator Terms
Four new relator terms proposed by SAC SGFI have been approved by LC NDMSO:
Origination place [orp] use in 751
A place from which a work or expression originated
Capture place [cap] use in 751
A place associated with the capture (i.e., recording, filming, etc.) of the
content of a resource
Discovery place [dvp] use in 751
A place where a natural object or artifact was discovered
Setting [stg] use in 651
An entity in which the activity or plot of a work takes place, e.g., a geographic
place, a time period, a building, an event
Examples - Bibliographic Records
046
$o 20
245 00 Feather floating on the water : $b poems for our children : an
anthology of contemporary San Francisco poets / $c edited by
Virginia Barrett.
385
Children $2 lcdgt
386
Californians $a Americans $2 lcdgt
388 1_ Twenty-first century $2 lcsh
650 _0 Children's poetry, American $z California $z San Francisco.
650 _0 American poetry $y 21st century.
655 _7 Poetry. $2 lcgft
751
San Francisco (Calif.), $e origination place. $2 naf
Examples - Bibliographic Records
046
100 1_
245 10
370
386
600 10
600 10
600 10
650 _0
651 _0
655 _7
655 _7
$k 1978
Maupin, Armistead, $e author.
Tales of the city / $c Armistead Maupin.
$c United States $2 naf
Americans $a Gay men $2 lcdgt
Singleton, Mary Ann $c (Fictitious character) $v Fiction.
Tolliver, Michael $c (Fictitious character) $v Fiction.
Madrigal, Anna $c (Fictitious character) $v Fiction.
City and town life $z California $z San Francisco $v Fiction.
San Francisco (Calif.), $e setting.
Humorous fiction. $2 lcgft
Novels. $2 lcgft
Policies and Best Practices
• Genre/form headings manual
• DCM Z1 (Descriptive Cataloging Manual)
• Definition and scope of genre/form for LCGFT
Genre/Form Headings Manual
• SAC SGFI, in collaboration with PSD, is making a first stab at drafting a manual
similar to the Subject Headings Manual. Draft policies will be submitted to PSD
for review, discussion, revision, and eventual publication as an LC manual
• Revised drafts of instruction sheets being reviewed at this conference
• Examples of potential instruction sheets:
Order of Genre/Form Headings
Assigning and Constructing Genre/Form Headings
Foreign Terms
Parenthetical Qualifiers in Genre/Form Headings
“Used for” References
Scope Notes
Legal Materials: Legislation
Audience Characteristics
DCM Z1 (Descriptive Cataloging Manual)
• SAC SGFI has written draft instruction sheets for LC/NACO policies for
use of fields 385, 386, and 388 in authority records
• PCC Standing Committee on Training is reviewing/revising and will
announce when they are available
Definition and Scope of Genre/Form for
LCGFT
• SAC SGFI Working Group on the Definition and Scope of Genre/Form
for LCGFT, chaired by Lia Contursi, was formed in January 2015, with
representatives from each completed and ongoing project (art, AV,
cartographic, general, law, literature, music, and religion)
• Recent expansion of LCGFT to include music, literature, and general
terms made it obvious that documentation needed updating
• Its report was approved by SAC and sent to LC PSD on May 28, 2015
• Proposes revisions to the Introduction to Library of Congress
Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials
Summary
• SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation has had a very
productive and successful three years in collaboration with LC
• Addition of many hundreds of general and literature terms to LCGFT
• New and revised MARC fields to accommodate characteristics of
works/expressions related to genre/form
• Development of policies and best practices
• Thank you to subcommittee members, members of the subcommittee
working groups, and LC PSD for the hundreds of hours devoted to achieving
all this
The New Music Vocabularies
Hermine Vermeij
UCLA Cataloging & Metadata Center
[email protected]
Outline
• LCGFT music terms
• LCMPT (Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus)
• Best Practices
• Examples
LCGFT Music Terms
• Music Library Association Genre/Form Task Force, formed in 2009
• Medium of performance separated early on
• Most terms taken from LCSH
• 567 proposals approved in February 2015
• Music community has been using them for a few months.
LCGFT Music Terms – Top Terms
Music
Accompaniments (Music)
Arrangements (Music)
Art music
Chants
Dramatic music
Folk music
Functional music
Glitch music
Humorous music
Medleys (Music)
Notated music
Popular music
Sacred music
Songs
Teaching pieces (Music)
Full hierarchy available: http://www.musiclibraryassoc.org/page/cmc_genremediumproj
LCGFT Music Terms - Highlights
• Terms in LCSH are often sorted by geographical areas or ethnic aspects; not so in
LCGFT:
Tejano music [LCSH]
Tejano music [LCGFT]
BT Folk music—Texas
BT Mexican Americans—Texas—Music
BT Popular music—Texas
BT Folk music
BT Popular music
• No medium of performance qualifiers
LCSH
LCGFT
Sonatas (Accordion)
Sonatas
Sonatas (Alto horn and piano)
Sonatas (Arpeggione and piano) … etc.
• Many terms in the Notated music hierarchy were form subdivisions in LCSH
LCSH
$v Parts
$v Scores
$v Vocal scores with [piano, etc.]
LCGFT
Parts (Music)
Scores
Vocal scores
LCGFT Music Terms – What’s not There
• Individual psalms and other texts of sacred music not considered
forms
Yes
Psalms (Music)
Requiems
Masses
No
Psalms (Music)—64th Psalm
Dies irae (Music)
Agnus Dei (Music)
• Headings denoting medium of performance and/or the number of
instruments (e.g., Quartets; Nonets; String quartets; Piano trios)
• Many performing arts terms are on hold until they can be addressed
by a larger community.
LCMPT (Library of Congress Medium of
Performance Thesaurus)
• Music Library Association Subject Access Subcommittee (now
Vocabularies Subcommittee)
• Instruments, voices, and ensembles—any forces needed to perform a
piece of music
• Over 800 terms approved in February 2014
• Most derived in some way from LCSH
• Generally lower-case and singular
• MARC work to accommodate authority records for terms (162, 462,
562) as well as expanding the 382 for greater granularity
LCMPT – Top Terms
ensemble
performer
visuals
LCMPT – Deep Hierarchy
performer
instrument
wind instrument
woodwind instrument
reed instrument
single reed instrument
saxophone
alto saxophone
LCMPT - Highlights
• Some gathering terms taken from a well-known instrument classification by
Sachs and Hornbostel, e.g., “aerophone;” “membranophone.”
• Generally divided into single performers (instruments and voices) and
ensembles.
flute
child‘s voice
brass instrument
• Unusual terms
mouseketier
leaf
tin can
flute choir
children’s chorus
brass ensemble
Best Practices
• Best Practices for Using LCGFT for Music Resources, available:
http://www.musiclibraryassoc.org/page/cmc_genremediumproj
• Provisional Best Practices for Using LCMPT, available:
http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.musiclibraryassoc.org/resource/resm
gr/BCC_Resources/ProvisionalBestPracticesforU.pdf
• Both are provided for the interim period between the release of the
terms and the release of the LC genre/form manual.
LCGFT for Music Best Practices - Overview
• Generally choose the most specific appropriate term available
Rock music
NOT
Popular music
• For notated music, add one or more appropriate form terms in addition to any other
genre/form terms
[score and parts of a sonata]
Sonatas
Scores
Parts (Music)
• For works of art music that cannot be described using more specific terms in the Art
music hierarchy, assign Chamber music or Art music.
Jigs (Music)
Art music
Jigs (Music)
Folk music
• Do not use “Art music” and “Folk music” for the music of cultures with no art/folk music
division; when in doubt, don’t assign them.
LCMPT Best Practices - Overview
• Generally choose the most specific term appropriate.
Medium of performance: alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, and baritone saxophone:
382 01 $a alto saxophone $n 1 $a tenor saxophone $n 1 $a baritone saxophone $n 1 $s
3 $2 lcmpt
NOT
382 01 $a saxophone $n 3 $s 3 $2 lcmpt
• LCMPT terms can be coded in 382 subfields $a (Medium of Performance),
$b (Soloist), $d (Doubling Instrument), and $p (Alternate Medium of
Performance). MARC Formats and best practices document provide details.
• Use $n with terms from the performer hierarchy, if the number of
performers is known; do not use $n with ensemble terms (upcoming MARC
proposal for $e?)
382 01 $b viola $n 1 $a orchestra $2 lcmpt
Examples
100 1# $a Paganini, Nicolò, $d 1782-1840, $e composer.
245 10 $a Sonata concertata : $b per chitarra e violino : M.S.2 / $c
Niccolò Paganini.
382 01 $a guitar $n 1 $a violin $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmpt
650 #0 $a Sonatas (Violin and guitar) $v Scores.
655 #7 $a Sonatas. $2 lcgft
655 #7 $a Scores. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1# $a Saint-Saëns, Camille, $d 1835-1921, $e composer.
245 10 $a Quintett in A für Pianoforte, zwei Violinen, Viola und
Violoncello, op. 14 / $c komponiert von Camillo Saint-Saëns.
382 01 $a piano $n 1 $a violin $n 2 $a viola $n 1 $a cello $n 1 $s 5 $2
lcmpt
382 01 $a piano $n 1 $a violin $n 2 $a viola $n 1 $a cello $n $a double bass
$n 1 $v double bass ad lib. $s 6 $2 lcmpt
650 #0 $a Piano quintets $v Scores and parts.
650 #0 $a Sextets (Piano, violins (2), viola, cello, double bass) $v Scores and
parts.
655 #7 $a Chamber music. $2 lcgft
655 #7 $a Scores. $2 lcgft
655 #7 $a Parts (Music) $2 lcgft
Examples
046 ## $k 1993
110 2# $a RF7 (Musical group), $e composer, $e performer.
245 10 $a Traditional values / $c RF7.
382 01 $a singer $n 1 $a guitar $n 1 $a bass guitar $n 1 $a drumset $n
1 $s 4 $2 lcmpt
650 #0 $a Punk rock music.
650 #0 $a Rock music $y 1991-2000.
655 #7 $a Punk rock music. $2 lcgft
Examples
100 1# $a Rodgers, Richard, $d 1902-1979, $e composer.
245 14 $a The King and I : $b vocal selection / $c music by Richard
Rodgers ; lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II.
382 01 $a singer $n 1 $a piano $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmpt
650 #0 $a Musicals $v Excerpts $v Vocal scores with piano.
655 #7 $a Musicals. $2 lcgft
655 #7 $a Excerpts. $2 lcgft
655 #7 $a Vocal scores. $2 lcgft
Examples
Authority record:
046 ## $k 1936
100 1# $a Prokofiev, Sergey, $d 1891-1953. $t Detskie pesni
380 1# $a Songs $a Art music $2 lcgft
382 0# $a singer $n 1 $a piano $n 1 $s 2 $2 lcmpt
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