Asian Transitions in an Age of Global Change Stearns, Ch. 22 Chapter Summary The Asian Trading World and the Coming of Europeans • European Goods=Dollar Store • Limited missionary success. • Subsequent voyages map out the Asian sea trading network. (see map on page 385) Asian Sea Trading Network Specializes in glass, carpets and tapestries. Cotton textiles Paper, porcelain, and silk textiles Chinese Zone ArabZone Indian Zone Portuguese Expansion Portuguese Bases Dominant Goods • Arab Zone Persian Gulf: Glass, carpets, textiles, horses East Africa: Ivory, forest products, animal hides, gold, slaves • Indian Zone India: Cotton textiles, gems, elephants, salt Sri Lanka: Cinnamon • Chinese Zone China: Paper, porcelain, silk textiles Japan: Silver Indonesia/Oceana: Spices, forest products. kangaroo poo (not in high demand) Two General Characteristics of the Asian Trading Network 1.No government controlled it. 2.There was no military presence for commercial exchanges. So what? Can you see what's coming? Might Doesn't Make Right (but it can make you rich) • Mercantilism and trading in bullion Fear that trade in gold or silver would enrich Muslim enemies. • Portuguese resolve to seize markets by force. Create tribute regimes in Africa and India Defeat a combined Egyptian and Indian fleet. • Portuguese set out to capture strategic ports. Ormuz (1507) Goa (1510) Malacca (1511) • Portuguese seek a monopoly on the cinnamon and spice trade. Can set prices high. Institute a licensing system to control merchants Too difficult to enforce licenses evenly. Portuguese Vulnerability • Limited manpower • Asian resistance, military deficiencies, corruption. • In two words: rapid overexpansion. And Another Thing • Portugal's king dies without an heir. Succession dispute Spain's Phillip II claims the throne. • Spain's enemies become Portugal's enemies. Bring on the English Bring on the Dutch. Dutch Incursion • Capture Malacca and build new port at Batvia (on Java),1620 • Concentrate on East Indian spice trade. • Able to beat back English who had to settle for India. Dutch Trading Empire • Fortified towns and factories • Warships on patrol • Limited number of products strictly controlled. • Uprooted cloves, nutmeg, etc. on islands they did not control. Wiped out peoples who tried to compete. • Eventually learned that peaceful trade brought the highest returns. Why? Armies and navies, regulation and such cost a lot of money Limits to Conquest in Asia • Navies strong enough to take islands and coastal regions. Portuguese choke-points Dutch on Batvia and Java English in India Spanish Luzon and the Philippines • Asian armies too strong far inland, logistical nightmares. • Daily life left alone as long as leaders paid tribute. Missionary Activity • Mostly Catholic Spain and Portugal; Protestant Dutch and English not so much. Why? Perhaps the Portuguese and Spanish zeal came from their recent history of conflict with the Moors. • Franciscan and Dominican missionaries set to work especially in India. Why were Hindus more likely to convert than Muslims? Or were they? • More success with lower caste than upper caste. Horses of a Different Color: China & Japan (not racist) • Farther away, so more isolated. • See Europeans as barbarians. • Not so easy to pushover. The Ming Restoration • Mongols completely out by 1368, and the Ming will rule until 1644. • Zhu Yuanzhang declared Hongwu emperor in 1368. • Restoration of the central bureaucracy. • New, stronger xenophobia Aim to remove all Mongol influence China as suspicious of outsiders as ever. The Scholar-Gentry: Back in Black • Hongwu Emperor’s dilemma • suspicious of scholar-gentry. • needs a functioning bureaucracy. • Confucianism revived; Confucian scholars earn the highest imperial offices. Subsidies for academies and colleges Civil service examinations as important as ever. The MP* Examination (*Ming Placement) • Remember The Examination • Prefectural exams in two of every three years. • Exams given in central compounds to supervise the thousands of examinees. • Exam took several days; examinee slept & ate where he worked (small cubicle). • Highest scores competed for few spots (4,000 candidates for 150 degrees). • Provincial posts good; Imperial posts better. • Crickets actually fight. I mean, yeah, I know. Wow! Ming Reforms • Fighting corruption. A good emperor can’t rely too heavily on his bureaucracy. • Hongwu abolishes position of Chief Minister. Too powerful, too much of a rival. He assumes those powers himself, which will work as long as the emperor is up to the task. • Public beatings for dishonest, disloyal, or undiscplined officials. Beatings could be lethal. Even if you survived, the degradation was permanent. • Emperors' wives could only be for humble origins Eliminates palace intrigue. Aristocratic families cannot meddle in the royal family. Limited number of eunichs; reduced their independent powers. Exiled potential rivals to estates in the provinces; barred them from political activity. Thought control: Mencius's writings censored and forbidden on exams. • Reforms work unless the emperor is inept or in attentive to state matters. Peasant Relief • Hongwu had been a peasant... • Promoted public works projects dike building irrigation systems to increase arable soil. • A Chinese Homestead Act Anyone who cleared and worked unoccupied land could have it taxfree • Reduced labor demands from imperial government and gentry • Promote silk and cotton textiles as supplemental incomes. • But as the rural gentry gained more power, peasants lost. • Loansharking and running gambling rackets allowed them to foreclose on farm, reducing Chinese yeomen to tenant farmers. • Revising history: The wealthy gradually celebrated themselves as industrious Poor scorned as indolent. Other Stratification • Continued subordination of youths to elders, women to men (per Confucianism) Violent measures taken to ensure people stayed in their place Women could have behind-the-scenes influence It was all at the man's pleasure. Women had to settle for what men offered. Economic Growth • Yangtze region benefits from Spanish and Portuguese trade. • New American foods (corn, sweet potatoes, and peanuts) help fuel a population increase. Zheng He Chinese Naval Power Ming Outreach Ming Economic Intervention • Economic problems exacerbated by rampant counterfeiting (typical curse of paper money) • "Single-whip" system based on silver currency. • First source: Japanese silver; eventually replaced by Spanish silver via trade with Spanish Philippines. • Initial explosions in commerce slowed down by rapid influx of American silver (from Spanish), devalues Ming currency over time. Ming Decline • Just as Europeans set their sights on China. Things start turning bad for the Ming. • Pirate raids on port cities disrupt trade and revenues. • Portuguese establish themselves in Macao. • Internal problems: 17th century famines, peasant revolts. • In 1644, the Ming hire Qing warriors from Manchuria, but instead of putting down the revolts, they host a coup d'état. • Mings out; Qings (aka Manchus) in--will rule until 1912. About Those Famines... • New crops (cassava, corn, peanuts, potatoes, etc.) from Europe, Africa, America, and other parts of Asia were high in calories and easy to grow. • Allows for a huge population increase and productivity boon. • A mini-Ice Age (climate change!) hurt farming, lots of people starve. WWAGD? Qing/Manchu China • They weren't ethnically Chinese; comprise only 3% of the population. • Use language barrier as a way to remain ethnically elite (I'm thinking of the Norman Conquest and the origin of some of our "bad" words) • No Chinese/Manchu intermarriage. • Still, expediency required Chinese participation in the bureaucracy, so the examinations become more important than ever. Even the talented members of the lowest classes could take examinations. Not Chinese but Not Unchinese • Manchu emperors steeped in Chinese traditions. This makes ruling the Chinese easier and more tolerable. • Emperor Kangxi (r.1662-1722) was a Confucian scholar, as was his successor, Qianlong (r.1735-1795). • Both emperors support the arts & expansion Kangxi takes Taiwan and pushes into Mongolia, Central Asia, and Tibet. Qianlong takes Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal. Nature of Manchu Conquest and Trade • Not for the sake of conquering the world. No Alexander or Genghis Khan ambitions. Focus on China's neighbors--buffer zones? • Although the Manchu traded with Portugal, Britain, and the Netherlands, they made sure to control trade relations. They were no pushovers. • When they felt threatened culturally, they reacted fiercely. 1724: Christianity banned. 1757: European trade restricted to Canton. • Still, European trade thrived. Europeans bought silk, porcelain, and tea in exchange for silver, which created a new merchant class in Chinese coastal cities (where most of China's wealth and industry is to this day) Japan's Unification • Oda Nobunaga, an early proponant of firearms, begins unification process in mid-16th century. Deposes last Ashikaga shogun in 1573 but betrayed and killed, 1582. • His general, Toyomoto Hideyoshi, continues the unification process, breaking daimyo power, invades Korea twice (fail) dies in1590. • Tokugawa Ieyasu succeeded Hideyoshi. Emperor makes him shogun in 1603. Political unity in Japan from Edo (Tokyo), central Honshu province. Tokugawa Shogunate lasts until mid 19th century. Japanese and Europeans • Since 1543 European traders and missionaries in contact with Japan. • Trade consisted of firearms, clocks, and printing presses for silver, copper, and artisan products. • Firearms will changed Japan. Nobunaga adopts them, and Japanese begin manufacturing their own. • Nobunaga protected Catholic missionaries as a counter to his Buddhist opponents. By 1580s there were hundreds of thousands converted. • Hideyoshi has no Buddhist problem: they'd been crushed. So he sees Catholicism as a threat. Knowledge of European conquests fuels his suspicions. Isolationism • Hideyoshi enacts laws to limit foreign influences as early as the 1580s. • Christian missionaries evicted and Christians were persecuted by 1590s. Christianity banned in 1614 by Ieyasu. After unsuccessful rebellions, Christians driven underground. • Ieyasu restricts European trade to a few cities; by 1640s only Deshima (island port in Nagasaki Bay) is open to the Dutch. Why just the Dutch? • By 1630s Japanese merchants forbidden to sail overseas. • European books were banned. School of National Learning • To emphasize Japan's unique historical experience and revival of indigenous culture-inoculate against Confucianism and other Chinese influences. • Some elites still follow Western developments, but the mentality emerges that whatever isn't Japanese is garbage. In a Nutshell • By 1700, after two centuries of contact, Europeans had little impact on people's of south, southeast, and east Asia. • Important trade routes linked Europe to Asia, but not too much cultural diffusion. Exceptions include the Spanish Philippines and key ports like Goa, Calicut, and Batvia. • European economic domination of the Indian Ocean trade will weaken Muslim ports and empires. • Overall, Asian goods found their way to Europe, but European ideas did not take hold in Asia. • Chinese and Japanese isolationism will have long term (and bad) consequences.