Michigan state university
Definition&Cultural Views of
Penny Zhu
Hyun-Woo Lee
Xun Zhang
Zheming Yuan
Why plagiarism is wrong?
Cultural views
Definition of plagiarism: Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries
as "the wrongful appropriation, close imitation, or purloining
and publication, of another author's language, thoughts,
ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as
one's own original work"
1. to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as
one’s own
2. use another’s production without crediting the source to
commit literary theft: present as new and original an idea or
product derived from an existing source
Plagiarism under academic environment:
Academic plagiarism has become the most common and
serious problem in colleges and universities all over the world.
Students, whom are caught cheating, can be given warnings,
bad grades or even expelled out of school. Today, information
is flowing freely and with ease through the Internet. Having this
option would make students think more about cheating.
1.Most academicians are the opinion that this form of
plagiarism transpires when a writer recurrently uses
the exact words and phrases from the work of
someone else and passes it off as his own without
any reference to the original work or source.
2. Mixing of paragraphs from different sources or
from different pages of the same source or even
skipping some lines and joining the phrases, thus
presenting the end result in such a discreet way as
though it was an original piece of work.
3. In some instances the beginning statements may
be taken from a book going on to some other
manuscript and quoting examples if required from a
third source.
This form of academic plagiarism is found mostly in
technical, scientific reports and papers submitted by
students of Science and Engineering. For instance:
“The use of a lubricant serves several purposes: (a) to make
motion between mechanical parts possible, (b) to reduce the
wear and tear of these parts and (c) to reduce friction between
these parts. The fluid flow in the usual lubrication process is of
the laminar or viscous type. The speeds may be high but the
channels dimensions in current practice are so small that the
Reynolds numbers are low.”
Even after careful reading and scrutiny of the above plagiarized
passage it is very difficult to judge that the sentences are taken
from different sources to form the complete paragraph.
4. Another form of Academic plagiarism occurs when a complete
article is taken from some book or research paper of an author
or person, some sentences are changed, a few words added or
subtracted here and there, but most phrases and complete
sentences are copied entirely.
“Looking at the building on a bright September morning, I
couldn’t help thinking that if the Tatar’s architects and masons
had built in his honor, they would have lost their heads. “If you
want to judge our strength, look at our monuments”, Tamer had
said. (Original)
“Viewing the building on that sunny September morning, it left
one wondering if the Tatars architects and masons had built in
his honor, they would have had their heads cut off. If you want to
judge our strength, look at our monuments.” Tamer had said.
(Plagiarized version)
5.Although in some plagiarized academic work the real
author or book is acknowledged, but in spite of this the
original work or text is reproduced with a few changes
without using any quotations marks or foot notes.
6.Another technique which is used in Academic plagiarism
is that quite often lengthy arguments and paragraphs are
7.Sometimes a deliberate attempt is made to change the
appearance but not the contents of the sentences. In this
way it seems that the plagiarized article is less noticeable.
While plagiarism is condemned in academia and
journalism, in the arts is often a major part of the
creative process. An prominent example is music,
where musical plagiarism and musical quotation, are
widely accepted as standard practices. Prominent
avant-garde composer John Zorn explained that the
composition process of each of his pieces is based
on the plagiarism from multiple sources that are
patched together and transposed into his own
aesthetic criteria.
Why plagiarism is wrong?
1. It is a form of theft. By taking the ideas and words of others
and pretending they are your own, you are stealing someone
else’s intellectual property.
2. plagiarizer subsequently benefits from this theft.
3. A degree is evidence of its holder’s abilities and knowledge.
If someone gains employment on the basis of a qualification
they have not earned, they may be a risk to others.
What’s the punishment?
First case, If a student is caught in the act and it is proved
that his work is plagiarized he is often expelled from his
institution of learning.
Second case, if a student plagiarizes a whole paper, they get
an F for the semester. If it's just a major portion, the student
get an F for the quarter. [3]
What’s the punishment?
Even if the student is not expelled permanently, all
colleges have the right to include details about the
student’s academic history on transcripts. These
transcripts will eventually go to future employers and
will haunt the student for the rest of his or her life. [4]
Level 1 Example : Student A turned in an assignment
with phrases that the professor found suspicious. When
the professor searched online for the phrases that the
student used, the professor was able to locate the source
of the phrases. The student failed to cite the source for
this information. This is an act of plagiarism. Plagiarism
is taking credit for the work of others. [6]
Level 2 Example: Student D turned in a set of annotations
for a project. However, the student’s annotations were, in
fact, direct, unaccredited quotations from print and Internet
sources. This is plagiarism, or taking credit for the words or
ideas of other people. [6]
Level 3 Example: Student D, from the Level 2 example given
above, committed a second act of plagiarism. In a different class,
Student D plagiarized portions of an annotated bibliography that
she was to prepare for a term paper. The bibliography was worth
10% of the course grade. [6]
Level 4 Example: Student F, a graduate student,
plagiarized major portions a final paper. His sanction
was a two-semester suspension and a grade of “F”
in the course. [6]
Level 5 Example: Students G and H were discovered
copying from one another during an exam. Both students
failed the course and were suspended for two semesters. [6]
The essence of divergent
cultural views of plagiarism
1. The hasty generalization of ethical
 1) Moral effect
(1) Approaching way
(2) Definition of ethic
 2) Problem cannot be solved
(1) Culture plagiarism
 3) My approach way on this issue
(1) Brain structure & Learning process
(2) Psychology analysis
(3) Theory application
 2.
The learning process
 1)
Our brain
(1) evolution
(2) The triune brain [1]
 2)
The reptile reaction
(1) mimic and simulation
 3.
Interest and selfishness
 1) Our nature
(1) Selfishness
(2) Pursuit of interests
 2)
(1) Baby’s consciousness
(2) Lost control
 4.
The fallacy of our mind
 1) Plagiarism is reasonable
under some circumstances
(1) National defenses
 2) The deficiency in
(1) Nobel prize
(2) Justice
5.Different cultural views of plagiarism
 1) American
American academic systems are inclined to find
plagiarism before acceptable borrowing.[3]
 2) Chinese
Obey the rules which are made by Western
education system, but not so strict.
 3) Korean
Ninety-one percent of the professors and 64
percent of students identified Korean students as
not able to be pragmatic, critical or direct in their
reasoning style.[2]
 4) Arab
Plagiarism is a crime, is cheating.[4]
 [2]http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR
 [3]http://law.marquette.edu/lawreview/fall200
 [4]http://www.aou.edu.jo/index.php?option=co
use another’s production
to build a new one
Plagiarism under environment
Become common
Internet helps cheating
Form of plagiarism
1.copy exact words and phrases
2.mixing paragraphs from different
3.copy beginning statement
4.change sentences or words
5.reproduce without reference
6.abridge lengthy article
7.change appearance but not the content
Why plagiarism is wrong?
1. Form of theft
2. Plagiarizer can benefit from it
3. Plagiarizer will be a risk to
be expelled
get “F”
The bad transcripts will appear the plagiarizer’s rest of life.
Brain structure
Psychology analysis
Cultural views

Definition&Cultural Views of Plagiarism