Psychological disorders
Bielsa, A.
What should we consider abnormal?
* Deviation from the average
What should we consider abnormal?
* Deviation from ideal or cultural standard
What should we consider abnormal?
* Abnormality as subjective discomfort
¤ Nose picking
· 8.7% claim that they have never picked
their nose. (liars)
· 91% stated they did it. Only 49.2% of
the respondents actually thought that
nose-picking was common in adults.
What should we consider abnormal?
* Abnormality as an inability to function
What should we consider abnormal?
* Legal definitions- can’t understand the
difference between right and wrong
History of Psychopathology
* Philippe Pinel
· 1793, first to propose humane
treatment for insane
* Louis Pastore
· 1880, studied relation between syphilis
and general paresis (deterioration of
the brain).
Classification of Mental Health Aids
* psychiatrist - physician with post graduate
training in mental health
* psychoanalyst – either a physician or
psychologist with special training in
* clinical psychologist – PhD or PsyD who
assesses and treats psychological problems
Classification of Mental Health Aids
* psychological social worker – Masters
degree in treating people in home or
community settings
* counseling psychologist – treats day to day
Models of Abnormality
* Medical model
¤ suggests that physiological causes are at
the root of abnormal behavior
* Psychoanalytic model
¤ abnormal behavior stems from childhood
Models of Abnormality
* Behavioral model
¤ abnormal behavior is a learned response
* Cognitive model
¤ assumes cognitions (people’s thoughts
and beliefs) are central to abnormal
Models of Abnormality
* Humanistic model
¤ emphasizes people’s control and
responsibility for their own behavior
* Sociocultural model
¤ assumes behavior is shaped by family,
society, and culture
Classifying Psychological Disorders
* Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders DSM IV
¤ Assumes the medical model
Classifying Abnormal Behavior
* Five axes of the DSM-IV
* DSM is designed to be primarily descriptive
and devoid of suggestions as to the
underlying causes of an individual’s
behavior and problems
DSM IV: Contains five major axes
* First three axes focus on:
¤ Personality problems
¤ Developmental problems
¤ Physical disorders
DSM IV: Five major axes
* Last two axes examine:
¤ Examine current stressors
¤ Examine current level of functioning
Criticisms of DSM IV
* Chinese Menu Approach
¤ Rosenhan experiment
· pretended to hear voices
Anxiety Disorders
* Anxiety Disorder
¤ the occurrence of anxiety without obvious
external cause, intruding on daily
Anxiety Disorders
* Phobic Disorder
¤ intense, irrational fears of specific objects
or situations
* Panic Disorder
¤ anxiety that manifests itself in the form of
panic attacks that last from a few seconds
to as long as several hours
Anxiety Disorders
* Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
* Obsession
¤ a thought or idea that keeps recurring in one’s
* Compulsion
¤ an urge to repeatedly carry out some act that
seems strange and unreasonable, even if the
sufferer realizes it is unreasonable
Anxiety Disorders
* Generalized Anxiety Disorder
· symptoms
· link page
Anxiety Disorders
* Phobias
¤ Agoraphobia (fear of the market place).
· Panic Attacks
· Depersonalization feeling your not
really there
· Derealization world isn't real
· Hyperventilate
Etiology of Agoraphobia
* Premorbid personality
* Stress
Treatment of Agoraphobia
* Cognitive/behavioral
· Externalization
· Progressive muscle relaxation
· Relaxation and imagery
Anxiety Disorders
* Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
· General information
· links page
Somatoform Disorders
* Takes form in a physical manner
¤ No apparent physical symptom
· General information and treatments
Somatoform Disorders
* Hypochondriasis
¤ constant fear of illness, and physical sensations
are misinterpreted as signs of disease
* Conversion disorder
¤ involves an actual physical disturbance, such
as the inability to use a sensory organ or the
complete or partial inability to move an arm or
Somatoform Disorders
* Conversion Disorders
¤ Can’t speak/move limbs
Dissociative Disorders
* Dissociative disorder
¤ psychological dysfunctions characterized
by the splitting apart of critical
personality facets that are normally
integrated, allowing stress avoidance by
Dissociative Disorders
* Person separates from own life
* Suddenly experience a sudden loss of
memory or change of personality
Dissociative Disorders
* Amnesia
* Fugue
Dissociative Disorders
* Dissociative identity disorder (multiple
¤ a disorder in which a person displays
characteristics of two or more distinct
Dissociative Identity Disorder
* Two or more coherent and well-developed
personalities in the same person
¤ each personality is able to lead a
relatively stable life and to take full
control of the person’s behavior
¤ Characteristics
· Very different personalities
· Amnesia
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Bliss’s Hypothesis:
Person between 4 & 6 experiences severe
Person is highly susceptible to self-hypnosis
Discovers that creating another personality
relieves emotional burden
Mood Disorders
* Mood disorder
¤ affective disturbances severe enough to
interfere with normal living
* Major depression
¤ a severe form of depression that
interferes with concentration, decision
making, and sociability
Mood Disorders
* Depression loss of appetite, no sex drive
¤ Beck's Depression Inventory a good test
to evaluate depression
Mood Disorders
* Major Depressive Disorder
* Bipolar Disorder
· Norepinephrine too much become
· Serotonin too little get depressed
Mood Disorders
* Etiology
¤ Biological varying levels of amines in the
¤ Cognitive theory we get depressed
because we don't think right.
¤ Psychoanalytic approach depressed
because we have repressed anger
Mood Disorders
* Schizophrenia-split from reality
¤ Disturbed perceptions
* Some evidence of biological contributions
· Dopamine hypothesis-caused by
overactive dopamine cite in brain
· Drugs that block the re-uptake of
dopamine decrease symptoms
Most generally, schizophrenia is a
disorder of thinking and troubled mood.
· Are lunatics or madmen
· Have split personalities
· Will never recover
* Schizophrenia
¤ a class of disorders in which severe distortion
of reality occurs
· decline from a previous level of functioning
· disturbances of thought and language
· delusions
· perceptual disorders
· emotional disturbances
· withdrawal
* Positive symptoms- addition of behaviors
* Negative symptoms- absence of some
* Process Schizophrenia- lifelong
* Reactive Schizophrenia- occurs in reaction
to event
* Delusions-strongly held beliefs that can't be
¤ Delusions of grandeur
¤ Delusions of reference
Disordered Thought PROCESSES
¤ Clang Associations-associate items in
sentences based on sound, not meaning
¤ Neologisms- create new words
¤ Attentional Deficits- Cognitive Distractibility
¤ Over-inclusiveness-Example:
I wish you then a happy, joyful, healthy, blessed,
and fruitful year, and many good wine-years to
come, as well as a healthy and good apple-year, and
sauerkraut and cabbage and squash and seed year.
* Thought disturbances
¤ Thought broadcasting
¤ Thought insertions
¤ Thought withdrawal
* Thought disturbances
¤ Loss of association- ideas shift from topic
to topic with no correlation or sense
· Perceptual hallucination
· Inappropriate affect
· Psychomotor behavior- highly
energetic, bouncing off the walls
· Catatonic stupor
Causes of Schizophrenia
Neurochemisty: The Dopamine Hypothesis
similarity between symptoms of amphetamine
psychosis and acute paranoid schizophrenia
AP results from an overproduction of dopamine
Phenothiazines relieve symptoms of schizophrenia
increased number of dopamine receptor sites in
Causes of Schizophrenia
Brain Structure/ Frontal Lobes:
 Chronic schizophrenics may have smaller frontal
 PET scans show reduced frontal lobe function and
decreased metabolism in schizophrenics
Brain Ventricles:
seem to be larger in schizophrenics than in other people
ventricles on left side tend to be larger than those on the
large brain ventricles suggest deterioration or atrophy
of brain tissue
Personality Disorders
* Personality disorder
¤ a mental disorder characterized by a set
of inflexible, maladaptive personality
traits that keep a person from functioning
properly in society
Personality Disorders
* Antisocial or sociopathic personality disorder
· a disorder in which individuals tend to
display no regard for the moral and ethical
rules of society or the rights of others
* Borderline personality disorder
· a disorder in which individuals have
difficulty in developing a secure sense of who
they are
Personality Disorders
* Antisocial/Sociopathic Personality Disorder
¤ Lack remorse, morals
· Highly intelligent
Personality Disorders
* Antisocial or sociopathic personality
· no regard for the moral and ethical rules
of society or the rights of others
* Borderline personality disorder
· difficulty in developing a secure sense of
who they are
* Narcissistic personality disorder
· exaggerated sense of self-importance
· Lack empathy
Personality Disorders
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
¤ Inflated sense of self
· Lack empathy
Sexual Dysfunctions
* Masters and Johnson
* Sexual response cycle 3 stages
¤ Desire- sex drive
¤ Arousal- blood flow to the genitals,
marked by
· Myotonia- muscle tension
¤ Orgasm rhythmic contractions
Sexual Dysfunctions
* Problem can arise in any or all phases
¤ Inhibited sexual desire
¤ Arousal- erectile dysfunction
¤ Can't control orgasm
· Premature ejaculation, retarded
· Primary orgasmic dysfunction
Myths of Sexuality and Problems
* Sex should be natural and spontaneous
· (this notion inhibits talk about sexual
* Men should be the experts about sex
¤ (communication is essential for good sex)
* Sex equals intercourse
Treatments for sexual inadequacies
* Types of therapy
¤ Abstinence paradox- problem
· Sensate Focus Exercise
· Drugs
Other Issues Relating to Sex
* Homosexuality
· Intragender empathy
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD)
* Disorder marked by
impulsiveness, a low
tolerance for
frustration, and
generally a great deal
of inappropriate