Chapter 12: Psychological
Disorders
Lectures 15 & 16
Learning Outcomes
• Define psychological disorders and describe
their prevalence.
• Describe the symptoms, types, and possible
origins of schizophrenia.
Learning Outcomes
• Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
mood disorders.
• Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
six types of anxiety disorders.
Learning Outcomes
• Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
somatoform disorders.
• Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
dissociative disorders.
• Describe the symptoms and possible origins of
personality disorders.
Truth or Fiction?
In the Middle Ages, innocent people were
drowned as a way of proving that they were not
possessed by the Devil.
People with schizophrenia may see and hear
things that are not really there.
Truth or Fiction?
Feeling elated may not be a good thing.
Some people have more than one personality
dwelling within them, and each one may have
different allergies and eyeglass prescriptions.
Some people can kill or maim others without
feelings of guilt.
What is Normal?
1. When Behavior Is Abnormal/Disordered?
• Several Questions can help determine when
behavior is abnormal
– Is the behavior considered strange within the
person’s own culture?
– Does the behavior cause personal distress?
– Is the behavior maladaptive?
– Is the person a danger to self or others?
– Is the person legally responsible for his or her
act?
2. What Are Psychological Disorders?
• Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that
cause emotional distress and/or substantial
impairment in functioning
3. Explaining Psychological Disorders
• Biological Perspective
– Genetics, evolution, the brain,
neurotransmitters, hormones
• Treatment
– Diagnose and treat like any other physical disorder
(drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, or psychosurgery)
4. Explaining Psychological Disorders
• Biopsychosocial perspective
– From combination of biological, psychological, & social
• Treatment
– An eclectic approach employing treatments that include
both drugs and psychotherapy
5. Explaining Psychological Disorders
• Psychodynamic perspective
– Disorders are symptoms of underlying
unconscious processes that stem from
childhood conflicts
• Treatment
– Bring disturbing repressed material to consciousness
and help patient work through unconscious conflicts
6. Explaining Psychological Disorders
• Learning perspective
– Abnormal thoughts, feelings, & behaviors are learned
and sustained like any other behaviors, or there is a
failure to learn appropriate behavior
• Treatment
– Use classical & operant conditioning & modeling to
extinguish abnormal behavior and to increase adaptive
behavior (behavior therapy, behavior modification)
7. Explaining Psychological Disorders
– Cognitive Perspective
• Faulty thinking or distorted perceptions can cause
psychological disorders
– Treatment
• Change faulty, irrational, &/or negative thinking
(Beck’s cognitive therapy, rational-emotional
therapy)
8. Classifying Psychological Disorders
• Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)
– Includes information on medical conditions,
psychosocial problems and global assessment
of functioning
– Concerns about reliability and validity of the
standards
• Predictive validity
9. Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
• 50% of us will experience a psychological
disorder at some time
– Most often starts in childhood or adolescence
• 25% will experience a psychological disorder in
any given year,
• More than 44 million adults, are diagnosed with
mental disorder of some kind (NIMH, 2001)
10.Schizophrenia
• DSM-IV
• Characterized by the presence of psychotic symptoms, including
hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, bizarre behavior, &
loss of contact with reality
• Severe psychological disorder characterized by
disturbances in
– Thoughts, language & memory
– perception and attention
– motor activity
– mood
– social interaction & communication
• Play Etta Video
Schizophrenia
PLAY
VIDEO
11. Schizophrenia
• Afflicts nearly 1% of the population worldwide
• Onset occurs relatively early in life
• Adverse effects tend to endure
12. Positive Versus Negative Symptoms
• Positive symptoms
– Excessive symptoms
• Hallucinations, delusion, looseness of
association
• Negative symptoms (look in my book)
– Deficiencies
• Lack of emotional expression and motivation
• Social withdrawal
• Poverty of speech
13. Positive Versus Negative Symptoms
• Positive symptoms
– More likely an abrupt onset
– Retain intellectual abilities
– More favorable response to antipsychotic
medication
14. Positive Versus Negative Symptoms
• Negative symptoms
– More likely a gradual onset
– Severe intellectual impairments
– Poorer response to antipsychotic medication
15. Types of Schizophrenia
• Paranoid Schizophrenia
– Systematized delusions
• Disorganized Schizophrenia
– Incoherence; extreme social impairment
• Catatonic Schizophrenia
– Motor impairment; waxy flexibility
• Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
– When symptoms do not conform to the criteria of any of
one type of sch. Or conform to more than one type
16. Origins of Schizophrenia
Biological Perspectives
• Brain abnormality
• Risk factors
– Heredity, major part
– Complications during pregnancy and birth
– Birth during winter
• Dopamine theory of schizophrenia
17. The Biopsychosocial Model of
Schizophrenia
18. Probability of Developing Schizophrenia
• Identical twins
– If one has schizophrenia,
the other twin has 46%
chance also to develop it
• In fraternal twins
– 14% chance
• One parent schizophrenic
– 13% chance
• Both parents
– 46 % chance
Data from Nicol & Gottesman
(1983)
• Sibling
– Less than 10%
• Nephew/niece
– 2-3%
• SPOUSE
– 2%
• Unrelated person
– Less than 1%
Mood Disorders
19. Mood Disorders
• Characterized by extreme and unwarranted
disturbances in emotion or mood
20. Types of Mood Disorders
• Major Depressive Disorder (1 person in 5 or 6 over
the course of lifetime)
– Persistent feelings of sadness, loss of interest,
feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and inability
to concentrate
– Psychomotor retardation
• Bipolar disorder (1.2 % of the U.S. population)
– Mood swings from ecstatic elation to deep
depression
Expression of Mood
PLAY
VIDEO
21. Origins of Mood Disorders
• Biological
– Genetic factors
• Psychological (cognitive factors)
– Learned helplessness
– Perfectionism and unrealistic expectations
– Ruminating about depression
– Attributional styles (internal/external/global/specific/stable/unstable)
• Biopsychosocial
– Biologically predisposed interact with selfefficacy expectations and attitudes
22. Risk Factors in Suicide
• 31,000 American commit suicide each year.
• Feelings of depression, hopelessness
• What psychological problems are common for suicidal adolescents?
•
•
•
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Stressful life events
Anxiety over “discovery”
Poor problem solver
Familial experience with psychological disorders
and/or suicide
23. Sociocultural Factors in Suicide
• Third leading cause of death among young people
aged 15 to 24
• More common among college students than
people of the same age who do not attend college
• Older people are more likely to commit suicide
than teenagers
24. Sociocultural Factors in Suicide
• One in six Native Americans has attempted
suicide
• African Americans are least likely to attempt
suicide
• Three times as many females attempt suicide
• Four times as many males succeed in suicide
25. Myths about Suicide
• Individuals who threaten suicide are only seeking
attention
• People who would take their own lives are insane
• Discussing “suicide” with a depressed person…
Anxiety Disorders
26. Anxiety Disorders
• Phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety,
OCD, & stress disorders.
• Psychological features of anxiety
– Worrying, fear of worst case scenario,
nervousness, inability to relax
• Physical features of anxiety
– Arousal of sympathetic branch of autonomic
nervous system
27. Phobias
• Specific phobias
– Irrational fears of specific objects or situations
• Social phobias
– Persistent fears of scrutiny by others
• Claustrophobia
• Agoraphobia
– Fear of being in places from which it would be
difficult to escape or receive help
28. Panic Disorder
• Abrupt attack of acute anxiety not triggered by a
specific object or situation
– Physical symptoms
• Shortness of breath, heavy sweating,
tremors, pounding of the heart
• Other symptoms that may “feel” like a heart
attack
Panic Disorder: Symptoms
PLAY
VIDEO
29. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
• Persistent anxiety
– Cannot be attributed to object, situation, or
activity
• Symptoms include
– Motor tension
– Autonomic overarousal
– Excessive vigilance
30. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
• Obsessions
– Recurrent, anxiety-provoking thoughts or
images that seem irrational and beyond control
• Compulsions
– Thoughts or behaviors that tend to reduce the
anxiety connected with obsessions
– Irresistible urges to engage in specific acts,
often repeatedly
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
PLAY
VIDEO
31. Stress Disorders
• Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTDS)
– Caused by a traumatic event
– May occur months or years after event
• Acute stress disorder, within a month (2-4 wks)
– Unlike PTDS, occurs within a month of event
and lasts 2 days to 4 weeks
32. Sleep Problems Among Americans Before
and After September 11, 2001
33. Origins of Anxiety Disorders
• Biological
– Genetic factors
• Psychological and Social
– Phobias as conditioned fears
– Cognitive bias toward focusing on threats
• Biopsychosocial
– Interaction between biological, psychological,
social factors
Somatoform Disorders
34. Somatoform Disorders
• Physical problems (such as paralysis, pain, or
persistent belief of serious disease) with no
evidence of a physical abnormality
• Conversion disorder, hypochondriasis, & body
dysmorphic disorder
35. Conversion Disorder
• “convert” a source of stress into a physical
difficulty
• Major change in, or loss of, physical functioning,
although there are no medical findings to explain
the loss of functioning.
– Not intentionally produced
– Loss of vision at night (pilots), paralyzed legs,
loss of hearing, etc.
36. Hypochondriasis
• Insistence of serious physical illness, even though
no medical evidence of illness can be found
• May seek opinion of one doctor after another
37. Body Dysmorphic Disorder
• Preoccupation with a fantasized or exaggerated
physical defect in their appearance
• May assume others see them as deformed
38. Origins of Somatoform Disorders
• Biopsychosocial perspective
– Psychologically, the disorder has to do with
what one focuses on to the exclusion of
conflicting information
– Self-hypnosis
– Tendencies toward perfectionism and
rumination (heritable)
Dissociative Disorders
39. Dissociative Disorders
• Disorders in which, under unbearable stress,
consciousness becomes dissociated from a
person’s identity or her or his memories of
important personal events, or both
• Trauma, usually psychological.
• Dissociation- the loss of one’s ability to integrate
all the components of self into a coherent
representation of one’s identity.
40. Types of Dissociative Disorders
• Dissociative Amnesia
– Suddenly unable to recall important personal
information; not due to biological problems
• Dissociative Fugue
– Abruptly leaves home or work and travels to
another place, no memory of previous life
41. Types of Dissociative Disorders
• Dissociative Identity Disorder
– Two or more identities, each with distinct traits,
“occupy” the same person
• Formerly known as multiple personality
disorder
• Play Video (CD#2;31)
Personality Disorders
42. Personality Disorder
• A long standing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of
behaving and relating to others, which usually
begins in early childhood or adolescence.
• Impair personal or social functioning
• The most common of mental disorder (10-15%)
• Cause unknown, & treatment options are few
• Source of distress
• Paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid, borderline,
antisocial, & avoidant personality disorder
43. Cluster A: Odd Behavior
• Paranoid Personality Disorder
– Interpret other’s behavior as threatening or
demeaning (Stalin)
• Schizotypal Personality Disorder
– Odd appearance, unusual thought patterns,
perceptions, or behavior, lack of social skills
• Schizoid Personality Disorder
– Indifference to relationships and flat emotional
response; isolates self from others
44.Cluster B: Erratic, overly dramatic behavior
• Narcissistic, Histrionic, BPD, & Antisocial
• Borderline Personality Disorder
– Instability in relationships, self-image, and mood
• Antisocial Personality Disorder
– Persistently violate the law
– Show no guilt or remorse and are largely
undeterred by punishment
45. Cluster C: Anxious, fearful behavior
• Obsessive-Compulsive; Dependant
• Avoidant Personality Disorder
– Avoid relationships for fear of rejection
46. Origins of Personality Disorders
• Biological
– Genetic factors
• Personality traits that may be inherited
• Antisocial personality – less gray matter in prefrontal cortex
• Psychological
– Learning theory
• Childhood experiences
– Cognitive
• Misinterpretation of other people’s behaviors
• Sociocultural
– Borderline personality – may reflect the fragmented society in
which one lives
Warning Signs of Suicide
• Changes in eating and sleeping patterns
• Difficulty concentrating on school or the job
• A sharp decline in performance and attendance at
school or on the job
• Loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities
• Giving away prized possessions
• Complaints about physical problems when no
medical basis for problems can be found
Warning Signs of Suicide
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•
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Withdrawal from social relationships
Personality or mood changes
Talking or writing about death or dying
Abuse of drugs or alcohol
An attempted suicide
Availability of a handgun
A precipitating event
Warning Signs of Suicide
• In the case of adolescents, knowing or hearing
about another teenager who has committed
suicide (which can lead to “cluster” suicides)
• Threatening to commit suicide
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Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders