INTERNATIONAL
RELATIONS
2013–2014 Update
Tenth Edition
Joshua S. Goldstein
Jon C. Pevehouse
Chapter One:
The Globalization of
International Relations
Chapter One: The Globalization of
International Relations
International Space Station, 2010.
1.1 Globalization, International Relations,
and Daily Life
• International Relations
• Core Principles of IR
• IR as a Field of Study
MyLab Media
Simulations. Why Study International Relations?
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_mpsk_media_1/si
ms_2011/why_study_ir/player.html
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password before accessing this link.
Core Principles of IR
• IR revolves around one key problem
• Collective goods problem
• Three basic principles offer possible solutions to collectivegoods problems
TOUCHED BY WAR
IR affects our lives in many ways. This
woman’s boyfriend died in Iraq in 2006.
TRAVEL COMPANIONS
Collective goods are provided to all members of a group, regardless
of their individual contributions. For example, these migrant workers
crossing the Sahara desert in Niger in 2006 all depend on the
truck’s progress, even while perhaps jostling for position among
themselves. In many issue areas, such as global warming, the
international community of nations is similarly interdependent.
However, the provision of collective goods presents difficult
dilemmas as players seek to maximize their own share of benefits.
IR as a Field of Study
• IR is about international politics
• The field is interdisciplinary
• Mix of conflict and cooperation in relationships
among countries
• Subfields
Aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, New Jersey, 2012.
Global climate stability is a collective good.
1.1 Globalization, International Relations, and Daily Life
Q. What key problem does international relations revolve
around?
A) How to deal with the issue of global warming
B) How to solve global poverty
C) How a group can reconcile its collective and
individual interests
D) How to properly negotiate treaties
Answer:
C) How a group can reconcile its collective and
individual interests
True-False
A person who achieves the position of power through a
struggle between his/her siblings is an example of
dominance.
Answer:
True
1.2 Actors and Influences
• State Actors
• Nonstate Actors
• Levels of Analysis
• Globalization
MyLab Media
Video: Conflict Diamonds and the Kimberly Process.
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State Actors
•
•
•
•
Territory
Government
Population
Sovereignty
• International system - set of relationships among
world’s states
POWERS THAT BE
States are the most important actors in IR. A handful of states are
considered great powers and one a “superpower.” Here, leaders of
Britain, the United States, and Germany watch a British-German
soccer game (overtime shootout) together during a G8 summit at
Camp David, 2012.
Nonstate Actors
• Transnational actors when they operate across international
borders
• Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
• Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
• Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
• Substate actors
POWERS THAT BE
Nonstate actors participate in IR alongside states, although
generally in less central roles. Nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs) are becoming increasingly active in IR. Here, the singer
and activist Bono helps present an Amnesty International award
to Burma’s Aung San Suu Kyi, 2012.
Levels of Analysis
• Four levels of analysis in the study of IR:
•
•
•
•
Individual
Domestic
Interstate
Global
Globalization
• Expanded international trade, telecommunications,
monetary coordination, multinational corporations,
technical and scientific cooperation, cultural
exchanges, migration and refugee flows, relations
between world’s rich and poor countries
• First view
• Second view
• Third view
THINK GLOBALLY
As the world economy becomes more integrated, markets and
production are becoming global in scope. This Hong Kong
container port ships goods to and from all over the world, 2008.
1.2 Actors and Influences
Q: Which of the following is only informally recognized as a
state, despite being a political entity often referred to as one?
A)
Israel
B)
Iraq
C)
Taiwan
D)
Western Sahara
Answer:
C) Taiwan
True-False:
The head of state and of government are one in the same
in every nation.
Answer:
False
1.3 Global Geography
• North-South gap
• Most important geographical element at the
global level of analysis
• North
• South
1.3 Global Geography
Q: In the global North, the GDP per capita is roughly how many
times as high as in the global south?
A)
Three
B)
Four
C)
Five
D)
Six
Answer:
D) Six
True-False:
Russia/CIS has the lowest GDP per capita in The North
Region.
Answer:
True
1.4 The Evolving International System
• The Two World Wars, 1900-1950
• The Cold War, 1945-1990
• The Post-Cold War Era, 1990-2013
The Two World Wars, 1900-1950
• Cult of the offensive
• Trench warfare
• Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations
• Munich Agreement
• Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima, Negasaki
The Cold War, 1945-1900
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Yalta, Marshall Plan
NATO and Warsaw Pact, containment
Sino-Soviet split
Korean War
Sputnik, U-2 spy plane, Bay of Pigs
Cuban Missile Crisis
Proxy Wars
Vietnam War
Tiananmen Square
Perestroika and glasnost - fall of Soviet Union
IRON CURTAIN
During the Cold War, the U.S. and Soviet sides sought spheres of
influence. Europe was divided, and Germany itself was split, with
its capital, Berlin, also divided. In 1961 the communist side built the
Berlin Wall, seen here in 1962, to keep its population from leaving.
It was dismantled as the Cold War ended in 1989.
IRON CURTAIN
Peaceful trends mark the post–Cold War era, though war and
terrorism continue. The Arab Spring popular uprisings in 2011–13
brought the world’s latest wave of democracy to the Middle East.
They overthrew governments in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen;
sparked civil war in Syria; and reshaped the region’s international
dynamics. Here, supporters of newly elected Islamist president
Mohammed Morsi celebrate in Tahrir Square—in the capital of
Egypt, at the heart of the Arab world—in 2012.
The Post-Cold War Era, 1990-2013
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gulf War - Iraq occupied Kuwait
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Somalia and Rwanda
September 11, 2001; Afghanistan, Iraq
More peaceful than Cold War
Globalization in international economic relations
China more central to world politics
1.4 The Evolving International System
Q: What was the result of the Korean War at the time of the
1953 truce?
A)
North Korea controlled more of the Korean peninsula.
B)
China shifted its support to South Korea.
C)
The United States shifted its support to North Korea.
D)
South Korea became a key political ally in Asia.
Answer:
D) South Korea became a key political ally in Asia.
True-False:
The Gulf War was initiated when Iraq invaded Qatar.
Answer:
False
Chapter Discussion Question
Using the current war in Afghanistan and the Vietnam War for
comparison, what are some evolving approaches to
international relations? You might focus on summit meetings,
containment, crises, drone strikes, and assassinations.
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The Globalization of International Relations