INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 2013–2014 Update Tenth Edition Joshua S. Goldstein Jon C. Pevehouse Chapter One: The Globalization of International Relations Chapter One: The Globalization of International Relations International Space Station, 2010. 1.1 Globalization, International Relations, and Daily Life • International Relations • Core Principles of IR • IR as a Field of Study MyLab Media Simulations. Why Study International Relations? http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_mpsk_media_1/si ms_2011/why_study_ir/player.html Please log into MyPoliSciLab with your username and password before accessing this link. Core Principles of IR • IR revolves around one key problem • Collective goods problem • Three basic principles offer possible solutions to collectivegoods problems TOUCHED BY WAR IR affects our lives in many ways. This woman’s boyfriend died in Iraq in 2006. TRAVEL COMPANIONS Collective goods are provided to all members of a group, regardless of their individual contributions. For example, these migrant workers crossing the Sahara desert in Niger in 2006 all depend on the truck’s progress, even while perhaps jostling for position among themselves. In many issue areas, such as global warming, the international community of nations is similarly interdependent. However, the provision of collective goods presents difficult dilemmas as players seek to maximize their own share of benefits. IR as a Field of Study • IR is about international politics • The field is interdisciplinary • Mix of conflict and cooperation in relationships among countries • Subfields Aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, New Jersey, 2012. Global climate stability is a collective good. 1.1 Globalization, International Relations, and Daily Life Q. What key problem does international relations revolve around? A) How to deal with the issue of global warming B) How to solve global poverty C) How a group can reconcile its collective and individual interests D) How to properly negotiate treaties Answer: C) How a group can reconcile its collective and individual interests True-False A person who achieves the position of power through a struggle between his/her siblings is an example of dominance. Answer: True 1.2 Actors and Influences • State Actors • Nonstate Actors • Levels of Analysis • Globalization MyLab Media Video: Conflict Diamonds and the Kimberly Process. http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_mpsk_vcs_1/vcs2_ 33_conflict_diamonds_and_the_kimberly_process.html Please log into MyPoliSciLab with your username and password before accessing this link. State Actors • • • • Territory Government Population Sovereignty • International system - set of relationships among world’s states POWERS THAT BE States are the most important actors in IR. A handful of states are considered great powers and one a “superpower.” Here, leaders of Britain, the United States, and Germany watch a British-German soccer game (overtime shootout) together during a G8 summit at Camp David, 2012. Nonstate Actors • Transnational actors when they operate across international borders • Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) • Multinational Corporations (MNCs) • Substate actors POWERS THAT BE Nonstate actors participate in IR alongside states, although generally in less central roles. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are becoming increasingly active in IR. Here, the singer and activist Bono helps present an Amnesty International award to Burma’s Aung San Suu Kyi, 2012. Levels of Analysis • Four levels of analysis in the study of IR: • • • • Individual Domestic Interstate Global Globalization • Expanded international trade, telecommunications, monetary coordination, multinational corporations, technical and scientific cooperation, cultural exchanges, migration and refugee flows, relations between world’s rich and poor countries • First view • Second view • Third view THINK GLOBALLY As the world economy becomes more integrated, markets and production are becoming global in scope. This Hong Kong container port ships goods to and from all over the world, 2008. 1.2 Actors and Influences Q: Which of the following is only informally recognized as a state, despite being a political entity often referred to as one? A) Israel B) Iraq C) Taiwan D) Western Sahara Answer: C) Taiwan True-False: The head of state and of government are one in the same in every nation. Answer: False 1.3 Global Geography • North-South gap • Most important geographical element at the global level of analysis • North • South 1.3 Global Geography Q: In the global North, the GDP per capita is roughly how many times as high as in the global south? A) Three B) Four C) Five D) Six Answer: D) Six True-False: Russia/CIS has the lowest GDP per capita in The North Region. Answer: True 1.4 The Evolving International System • The Two World Wars, 1900-1950 • The Cold War, 1945-1990 • The Post-Cold War Era, 1990-2013 The Two World Wars, 1900-1950 • Cult of the offensive • Trench warfare • Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations • Munich Agreement • Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima, Negasaki The Cold War, 1945-1900 • • • • • • • • • • Yalta, Marshall Plan NATO and Warsaw Pact, containment Sino-Soviet split Korean War Sputnik, U-2 spy plane, Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis Proxy Wars Vietnam War Tiananmen Square Perestroika and glasnost - fall of Soviet Union IRON CURTAIN During the Cold War, the U.S. and Soviet sides sought spheres of influence. Europe was divided, and Germany itself was split, with its capital, Berlin, also divided. In 1961 the communist side built the Berlin Wall, seen here in 1962, to keep its population from leaving. It was dismantled as the Cold War ended in 1989. IRON CURTAIN Peaceful trends mark the post–Cold War era, though war and terrorism continue. The Arab Spring popular uprisings in 2011–13 brought the world’s latest wave of democracy to the Middle East. They overthrew governments in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen; sparked civil war in Syria; and reshaped the region’s international dynamics. Here, supporters of newly elected Islamist president Mohammed Morsi celebrate in Tahrir Square—in the capital of Egypt, at the heart of the Arab world—in 2012. The Post-Cold War Era, 1990-2013 • • • • • • • • Gulf War - Iraq occupied Kuwait Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Breakup of Yugoslavia Somalia and Rwanda September 11, 2001; Afghanistan, Iraq More peaceful than Cold War Globalization in international economic relations China more central to world politics 1.4 The Evolving International System Q: What was the result of the Korean War at the time of the 1953 truce? A) North Korea controlled more of the Korean peninsula. B) China shifted its support to South Korea. C) The United States shifted its support to North Korea. D) South Korea became a key political ally in Asia. Answer: D) South Korea became a key political ally in Asia. True-False: The Gulf War was initiated when Iraq invaded Qatar. Answer: False Chapter Discussion Question Using the current war in Afghanistan and the Vietnam War for comparison, what are some evolving approaches to international relations? You might focus on summit meetings, containment, crises, drone strikes, and assassinations.