World Englishes Bridget Green Based on http://www.slideshare.net/aidenyeh/world-englishes WTUC A lecture Listen. Ask questions. Take notes. Take a quiz using your notes. Ready? English is a global language. What does that mean? What are the top five languages? Mandarin Spanish English Hindi Russian In order… But Mandarin is not considered a global language. Why not? 1 Mandarin 2 English 3 Hindi 4 Spanish 5 Russian The estimated ranking of languages when second language use is taken into account. (Based on Ostler, 2005) Did you know…? English is spoken in countries on all five continents. www.mapsofworld.com Do you know…? Worldwide what percentage of people speak English? One out of five! 20% Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council Did you know…? More than one and a half billion people are learning English worldwide. 1,500,000,000 Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’ Did you know…? 66 % More than _________ of the world’s scientists read in English. Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council Did you know…? 68 % More than _________ of websites on the internet are in English. Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council Did you know…? 75 % More than _________ of the world’s mail is written in English. Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council Did you know…? 80 % More than _________ of the world’s electronically stored information is written in English. Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council Did you know…? There are 350 million+ native English speakers. Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council Did you know…? There are more than 1 billion non-native English speakers. Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’ Compare: non-native English speakers native English speakers 350 million x 3 100 million+ 1: 3 Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’ Where did it start? Native English speakers come from many countries… UK New Zealand Australia Ireland South Africa USA Canada “The Inner Circle” Source: Kachru 1992 How many are there? Distribution of Native English speakers by country… Ireland New Zealand South Africa etc Source: Wikipedia/David Crystal 1997 And then what happened? “The Outer Circle” imperialism a political system in which one country rules a lot of other countries Source: Kachru 1992 And then what happened? “The Outer Circle” colonialism when a powerful country rules a weaker one, and establishes its own trade and society there Source: Kachru 1992 And then what happened? “The Outer Circle” Nigeria Zambia Tanzania Bangladesh Sri Lanka Ghana Singapore India The Philippines Kenya Malaysia Pakistan Source: Kachru 1992 The Outer Circle? Nigeria Zambia Tanzania Bangladesh Lanka English is used insideSrithe Ghana Singapore country as an official language. India The Philippines Kenya Pakistan Malaysia Source: Kachru 1992 And then what happened? “The Expanding Circle” Nigeria Zimbabwe Russia English is used by Taiwan China Egypt professionals Indonesia Israel Japan Source: Kachru 1992 Nepal in some contexts. Saudia Arabia Korea The Expanding Circle? pilots scientists travel agents researchers computer programmers news media teachers etc. Nigeria Zimbabwe Russia China Taiwan English is recognized an English is used byas Egypt Nepal importantininternational professionals some contexts. Indonesia language. Saudia Arabia Israel Japan Korea Source: Kachru 1992 English has been exported… English Japan: China: Native American: ketchup, canoe, chopsticks, chipmunk, bonsai, skunk, yen, china, squash, tea, etc hurricane, avocado, cocoa, chili, chocolate, etc English aikido, Africa: banzai, bonsai, chimpanzee, trek,futon, voodoo, yam,haiku, etc judo, kamikaze, sake, samurai, tofu, sushi, shogun, Middle East: tycoon, typhoon, alcohol, apricot, Zen, etc zero, assassin, giraffe, algebra, etc Different varieties of English… Dialect = Why do dialects develop? Source: Answers.com a variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary 1. group 2. time 3. isolation Different varieties of English… 1. group 2. time 3. isolation Dialects of English have developed in all of the countries that use English daily. = inner and outer circle countries Source: Answers.com Different varieties of English… sound different. Carribean English: He come wit me dat day. New Zealand English: I hev a pine in my hid. Indian English: Source: Answers.com I hate to pay the tex. Different varieties of English… use different vocabulary. Indian English: My head is paining. African English: You are looking very fat. Australian English: If he’s within cooee, we’ll find him. Different varieties of English… use different grammar. Indian English: I am understanding about it. Carribean English: Where _ dat bai? British English: I’m fine. I needn’t go to _ hospital. World Englishes This is why we say World Englishes. It’s not one English. It’s many different Englishes. Language and dialect Languages: English, German, Japanese, etc. Dialects: South Asian English, British English, South African English, American English, etc. Different varieties of English… Which English is correct? British English because it was first? American English because it has the most ‘native speakers?’ Source: Wikipedia.com All! No dialect is more ‘correct’ than any other. What’s the difference? What’s the difference between a language and a dialect? A languageAislanguage exactly the is asame dialect as a dialect with but bigger an army and and stronger. a navy. HA! Source: http://www.olestig.dk/scotland/weinreich.html Why is this important? English is a world language and has been for hundreds of years. Each isolated group, over time, develops its own dialect. All dialects are ‘correct’. One dialect is not ‘better’ than another. Why learn about World Englishes? (= expanding circle) Non-native speakers use English to 1. get ‘international’ jobs and 2. speak to other non-native speakers from other countries. English… is a tool. can be used in your home country. can be used in other nonnative English-speaking countries. Remember: native It is highly likelynon-native that most of your future contact English speakers English speakers 1: 3 in English will be with other non-native speakers. Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’ World Englishes A tool that you can use for the rest of your life!