World Englishes
Bridget Green
Based on
http://www.slideshare.net/aidenyeh/world-englishes
WTUC
A lecture
 Listen.
 Ask questions.
 Take notes.
 Take a quiz using your notes.
Ready?
English is a global language.
What does that mean?
What are the top five languages?
Mandarin
Spanish
English
Hindi
Russian
In order…
But Mandarin is
not considered a
global language.
Why not?
1
Mandarin
2
English
3
Hindi
4
Spanish
5
Russian
The estimated ranking of languages when second language use
is taken into account. (Based on Ostler, 2005)
Did you know…?
English is spoken in countries
on all five continents.
www.mapsofworld.com
Do you know…?
Worldwide what percentage of
people speak English?
One out of five!
20%
Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council
Did you know…?
More than one and a half billion people
are learning English worldwide.
1,500,000,000
Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’
Did you know…?
66 %
More than _________
of the
world’s scientists read in English.
Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council
Did you know…?
68 %
More than _________
of websites
on the internet are in English.
Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council
Did you know…?
75
%
More than _________
of the
world’s mail is written in English.
Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council
Did you know…?
80
%
More than _________
of the
world’s electronically stored
information is written in English.
Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council
Did you know…?
There are 350 million+ native
English speakers.
Source: English 2000 Facts and Figures by the British Council
Did you know…?
There are more than 1 billion
non-native English speakers.
Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’
Compare:
non-native
English speakers
native
English speakers
350 million
x 3 100 million+
1: 3
Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’
Where did it start?
Native English speakers come
from many countries…
UK
New Zealand
Australia
Ireland
South Africa
USA
Canada
“The Inner Circle”
Source: Kachru 1992
How many are there?
Distribution of Native English speakers
by country…
Ireland
New Zealand
South Africa
etc
Source: Wikipedia/David Crystal 1997
And then what happened?
“The Outer Circle”
imperialism
a political system in which one country rules a lot
of other countries
Source: Kachru 1992
And then what happened?
“The Outer Circle”
colonialism
when a powerful country rules a weaker one, and
establishes its own trade and society there
Source: Kachru 1992
And then what happened?
“The Outer Circle”
Nigeria Zambia Tanzania
Bangladesh
Sri Lanka
Ghana
Singapore
India
The Philippines
Kenya
Malaysia
Pakistan
Source: Kachru 1992
The Outer Circle?
Nigeria Zambia Tanzania
Bangladesh
Lanka
English is used insideSrithe
Ghana
Singapore
country as an official language.
India
The Philippines
Kenya
Pakistan
Malaysia
Source: Kachru 1992
And then what happened?
“The Expanding Circle”
Nigeria Zimbabwe Russia
English is used by Taiwan
China
Egypt
professionals
Indonesia
Israel Japan
Source: Kachru 1992
Nepal
in some contexts.
Saudia Arabia
Korea
The Expanding Circle?
pilots
scientists
travel agents
researchers
computer programmers
news media
teachers
etc.
Nigeria Zimbabwe Russia
China
Taiwan
English
is recognized
an
English
is used byas
Egypt
Nepal
importantininternational
professionals
some
contexts.
Indonesia
language.
Saudia Arabia
Israel Japan
Korea
Source: Kachru 1992
English has been exported…
English
Japan:
China:
Native
American:
ketchup,
canoe,
chopsticks,
chipmunk,
bonsai,
skunk,
yen,
china,
squash,
tea,
etc
hurricane,
avocado,
cocoa,
chili,
chocolate,
etc
English
aikido,
Africa:
banzai,
bonsai,
chimpanzee,
trek,futon,
voodoo,
yam,haiku,
etc judo,
kamikaze,
sake,
samurai,
tofu, sushi,
shogun,
Middle
East:
tycoon,
typhoon,
alcohol, apricot,
Zen, etc
zero, assassin,
giraffe, algebra,
etc
Different varieties of English…
Dialect =
Why do
dialects
develop?
Source: Answers.com
a variety of a language distinguished
by pronunciation, grammar, and
vocabulary
1. group
2. time
3. isolation
Different varieties of English…
1. group
2. time
3. isolation
Dialects of English have
developed in all of the countries
that use English daily.
= inner and outer circle countries
Source: Answers.com
Different varieties of English…
sound different.
Carribean English:
He come wit me dat day.
New Zealand English: I hev a pine in my hid.
Indian English:
Source: Answers.com
I hate to pay the tex.
Different varieties of English…
use different vocabulary.
Indian English:
My head is paining.
African English:
You are looking very fat.
Australian English: If he’s within cooee, we’ll find him.
Different varieties of English…
use different grammar.
Indian English:
I am understanding about it.
Carribean English:
Where _ dat bai?
British English:
I’m fine. I needn’t go to _ hospital.
World Englishes
This is why we say
World Englishes.
It’s not one English.
It’s many different Englishes.
Language and dialect
 Languages:
English, German, Japanese, etc.
 Dialects:
South Asian English, British English,
South African English, American English,
etc.
Different varieties of English…
Which English is correct?
British English because it was first?
American English because it has the most
‘native speakers?’
Source: Wikipedia.com
All!
No dialect is more ‘correct’
than any other.
What’s the difference?
What’s the difference between a
language and a dialect?
A languageAislanguage
exactly the
is asame
dialect
as a dialect
with
but bigger
an army
and
and
stronger.
a navy.
HA!
Source: http://www.olestig.dk/scotland/weinreich.html
Why is this important?
 English is a world language and has
been for hundreds of years.
 Each isolated group, over time, develops
its own dialect.
 All dialects are ‘correct’.
 One dialect is not ‘better’
than another.
Why learn about World Englishes?
(= expanding circle)
Non-native speakers use English to
1. get ‘international’ jobs and
2. speak to other non-native
speakers from other countries.
English…
 is a tool.
 can be used in your home
country.
 can be used in other nonnative English-speaking
countries.
Remember:
native It is highly likelynon-native
that
most of your future
contact
English
speakers
English
speakers
1: 3
in English
will be with other non-native speakers.
Source: David Crystal ‘Why English: The Historical Context’
World Englishes
A tool that
you can use
for the rest of
your life!
Descargar

World Englishes