English 121
09/13/05
Topics:
Your first homework assignment
World English(es)
Standard English(es)
Your homework
Subsystems of language
– phonology/phonetics
– morphology
– syntax
– semantics
– pragmatics
– language variation
The systematic nature of language
A connection between sounds, words,
thoughts, and actions
At some level, these connections are
culturally specific
– Example 1: an essay for a class in English
has a thesis and support
– Example 2: How do you refuse an invitatio to
a party?
Cross Language comparison
Lexical differences
– mistake---errore/Fehler/erreur
Word order
– Adjective noun order
ADJ
N
terrible mistake
– Article a/the/0
N
ADJ
mistake terrible
– Order of sentence elements
Object
Subject
a terrible mistake I
Verb
Subject
Verb
made
(OSV)
a terrible mistake
(VSO)
Object
made
I
Subject
Verb
I
made a terrible mistake
Object
(SVO)
Words that you made up
4.
Scmoch
Kongheart
Cerealed
Re-hi
5.
Kamakazeestylee
6.
Herm
Godical
1.
2.
3.
7.
8.
9.
Matt Williams
superfantasterrific
a. Not eating a proper lunch
b. say “hello” to someone again
c. A sarcastic kind of goodness
d. Used to replace the annoying
him/her distinction
e. Those who voted for Bush
due to the “God Issue”
f. A strong person with a lot of heart
g. Participating in an activity with
reckless abandon
h. A failure
i. Annoying or exasperating
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
I
F
A
B
G
D
E
H
C
How many speakers of English?
Native speakers
Second language users
Foreign language users
1.9 billion speakers
including nearly 350 million native
speakers
Why English?
1. Historical reasons —Imperialism/colonialism
2. Political reasons —English used as a “neutral means of
communication
3. Economic reasons —pressure for other countries to use the
same language as an economic power
4. Practical reasons—English used for air travel, sea travel,, many
businesses
5. Intellectual reasons—most academic information, most
electronic information
6. Entertainment reasons—music, movies, video games
Is English linguistically superior to
other languages?
Is it more logical?
Does it sound more beautiful?
Is it easier to pronounce?
Is it more simple?
The answer to all of these questions is a
resounding…
NO!
1.9 million speakers? The circles
of English
The circles of English
Does everyone speak the same form of
English among all of the circles?
Does everyone speak the same form of
English within each circle?
Terms used to describe use and
teaching of Englishes
EAP-English for Academic Purposes
EFL—English as a Foreign Language
EIL-English as an International Language
ENL-English as a Native Language
ESL-English as a Second Language
ESP-English for Specific Purposes
EST-English for Science and Technology
TESOL-Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
TEFL-Teaching English as a Foreign Language
TESL-Teaching English as a Second Language
TEIL-Teaching English as an International Language
Terms used to describe English
Language Users
L1-First Language
L2-Second Language
NNV-Non-native variety of English
MT-Mother tongue (or NL-Native Language)
WE-World English
Standard English—What it isn’t
Peter Trudgill http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/SEtrudgill.htm
Not a language--a variety of language
Not an accent—people with different
accents still can speak a standard
Standard English is not a style
a. Father was exceedingly fatigued subsequent to his extensive
peregrination.
b. Dad was very tired after his lengthy journey.
c. The old man was bloody knackered after his long trip .
If a standard speaker said “c”, does this mean that the person is no
longer speaking standard English?
So what is it?
A socially-prestigious dialect
of English
Contains regional varieties
Countries in Which English Is
an Official Language (red areas)
World English and a Standard
Variety?
Is there a World Standard
English?
If so, where is it spoken?
Thursday
Quiz #1
– Material: SOE Chapter 1, CEEL 2-7; 396-402;
106-111, lectures, film “An English-Speaking
World”
– 25 Multiple-choice questions
– The quiz will be given at the start of class.
CEEL 8-29—Old English
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English 121 09/13/05 - Northern Arizona University