Diversity, Inclusivity and Civility:
Developing and Enhancing Students'
Cultural Competence
Part 1
Innovative Educators Webinar
www.tbrownassociates.com
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1
In order to be effective in a
diverse world?
We must use our powers of
observation….
2
Count the Fs
FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF
-IC STUDIES COMBINED WITH
THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.
3
Count the Fs
FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF
-IC STUDIES COMBINED WITH
THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.
4
Being Aware, Conscious, and
Paying Attention
Count the Fs
FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF
-IC STUDIES COMBINED WITH
THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.
5
Blink
Most of us make judgments in
less than two seconds….
Many of our conclusions are less
rational than we think.
6
PARIS
IN THE
THE SPRING
PARIS
IN THE
THE SPRING
Perception: The process of making
sense of the world around us…
people, situations, etc.
Reality from our point of view.
Our perceptions reinforce what we have
been taught or expect, and they can
shape our interactions with others
different or similar to ourselves.
10
Workshop Overview
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Why does diversity matter?
What is cultural competence?
Can cultural competence be
developed?
How can does cultural competence
contribute to creating a more inclusive
and civil community?
Can cultural competence be assessed?
11
Imagine a school where all kinds of
people feel comfortable showing up,
secure in the knowledge that they
have a place they don’t have to defend
every time they turn around, where
they are encouraged to do their best,
and are valued for it….
Allan G. Johnson, 2006
12
Increased focus on
diversity and inclusion
Rhode Island College recognizes the essential
role diversity plays in an educational
exchange, informed by cultural inquiry and
designed to stimulate critical and creative
thinking. The college seeks to create an
inclusive, respectful environment that dispels
stereotypes, discrimination, and intolerance.
Rhode Island College Diversity Statement
13
Increased focus on
diversity and inclusion
UMass Boston is a community that naturally
extends itself to, and welcomes into its student
body, faculty, and staff, a broad spectrum of
people in terms of race, ethnicity, age, and
economic background. It is our belief that the
academic experience here is enriched and
enhanced by the inclusion of the varied
backgrounds and perspectives that we all bring
to it.
Chancellor J. Keith Motley
14
The American college campus is one
of the very few places on earth where
people from so many diverse
backgrounds come together for a
common purpose.
15
Pre-college experiences of US students
* Public universities ** Private universities
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>71% grew up in neighborhoods that were
“mostly or completely white.”
+/-15% grew up in neighborhoods that
were “mostly or completely non-white.”
61*-65%** attended high schools that were
“mostly or completely white.”
13**-16%* attended high schools that were
“mostly or completely non-white.”
2009 Freshman Survey
16
The American college campus is one
of the very few places on earth where
people from so many diverse
backgrounds come together for a
common purpose.
The only other is the American workplace.
17
Why does diversity matter?
Diversity expands worldliness. Whether we
like it or not, many times we find ourselves
segregated from other groups in schools,
churches, and our own neighborhoods. A
college campus is like opening the door to
the entire world without traveling anywhere
else.
Why Does Diversity Matter at College Anyway?
US News and World Report , August 12, 2009
18
Cultural diversity is an integral part of
our nation’s history, going back before
the early colonies.
Native Americans were culturally
different, belonging to different tribes,
speaking different languages, and
having a variety of different values and
beliefs.
US National Guard and Army website
19
Why does diversity matter?
Mission
Answers the question:
Why does your college or university
exist?
20
Mission
Gloucester County College
acknowledges and recognizes the
importance of diversity in our College
community and, therefore, embraces
diversity by providing a welcoming
environment that celebrates the rich
culture and experiences of all
populations.
21
Mission
MATC offers quality education and
training opportunities and services to
its diverse, metropolitan community by
collaborating with partners to advance
the lives of its students.
Milwaukee Area Technical College
22
Diversity is a reality of the human
experience; the question is what we do with
the diversity we encounter in our lives.
The issue is less about diversity and more
about what we do to create inclusive
communities—on campus and beyond.
23
Creating Unum,
from the Pluribus
24
Diversity to inclusivity
An inclusive organization where
all people are empowered to do
their best work.
Simma Lieberman
25
Inclusive Campus Policies
The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh reaffirms
support for non-discrimination based on:
 Age

 Ancestry

 Arrest or conviction
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record
Color
Creed
Disability
Marital status
National origin
 Political affiliation
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Race
Relationship to other
employees
Religion
Sex
Gender identity or
expression
Sexual orientation
Veteran's status
Membership in the
National Guard
26
Santa Monica College Policies
No person shall be subjected to discrimination on the
basis of:
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accent
age
ancestry
citizenship status
color
disability
economic status
ethnic group
identification
gender
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language
marital status
medical condition
national origin
parental status
race
religion
sexual orientation
transgender
veteran status
27
Tennessee State University recognizes
that planning for diversity, inclusion, and
access is an integral component of the
University’s future….and harnesses this
plurality to promote the common interest
of the institution and the various publics
it serves.
28
DiversityInclusivityCivility
Civility matters because treating one
another with respect is necessary to
effective communication, community
building, and finding common
ground.
The Dance of Incivility in Nursing
Dr. Cindy Clark, Boise State University
29
DiversityInclusivityCivility
California State University Channel
Islands is committed to building and
maintaining a diverse, accessible,
civil, and supportive learning
community.
It fosters respect and understanding
among all cultures and all individuals
who work, study, live, and teach
within this community.
30
What is Cross Cultural Competence
31
What is Cross Cultural Competence
A set of congruent knowledge, attitudes
and behaviors that enable persons from
one culture to understand,
communicate, and interact effectively
with people of another culture.
Multiple sources
32
Cultural competence
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Cultural knowledge
Cultural awareness
Cultural skill
Cultural encounters
Cultural desire
Campinha-Bacote, 1999
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Cross cultural competence
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Developing an awareness of one's own culture,
existence, sensations, thoughts, and
environment
Accepting and respecting cultural differences
Resisting judgmental attitudes such as
"different is not as good"
Being open to cultural encounters
Being comfortable with cultural encounters
“The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence”
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Health
Summer 2005
34
Cross cultural competence
requires more than acquiring
knowledge…. It is leveraging…
knowledge, attitudes, and skills to
engage and intervene
appropriately…across cultures.
Latino 101, Maria Hernandez, 2007
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How does increasing cultural
competence support student
learning, growth and development?
36
Diversity and Education
Southern Oregon University
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Diversity capitalizes on the unique experiences
and common wisdom of all cultures by
providing a fertile ground for contrast and
comparison.
Provides a view of other peoples so distinct
from, yet similar to, ourselves that our own
lives and experiences are given new
perspective and meaning.
Diversity is an enriching and necessary
component of the total educational experience.
37
Chickering’s Seven Vectors:
Developmental Tasks for College Students
1. Developing competence
2. Managing emotions
3. Moving through autonomy toward
interdependence,
4. Developing mature interpersonal relationships
5. Establishing identity
6. Developing purpose
7. Developing integrity
Chickering & Reisser, 1993
38
Developing Competence
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Involves using one’s mind to build skill
using analytical and comprehensive
thought and the development of forming
points of view in dealing with
experiences in life.
Encompass skills of listening,
understanding, and communicating and
functioning in different relationships.
Chickering & Reisser, 1993
39
Developing Mature
Interpersonal Relationships
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Tolerance and appreciation of
differences
Acceptance is both intercultural and
interpersonal. Openness for the
understanding of a person for what
qualities they possess, instead of
stereotyping, is an increase in tolerance.
Chickering & Reisser, 1993
40
Developing Mature
Interpersonal Relationships
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Acceptance and appreciation of
differences
Acceptance is both intercultural and
interpersonal. Openness for the
understanding of a person for what
qualities they possess, instead of
stereotyping, is an increase in tolerance.
Chickering & Reisser, 1993
41
Developing Identity
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Comfort with body and appearance
Comfort with gender and sexual
orientation
A sense of self in a social, historical,
and cultural context
Clarification of self-concept through
roles and life-style
Chickering & Reisser, 1993
42
Developing Integrity
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Integrity for one’s beliefs, values, and
purposes must be established.
Also, thinking about others’ beliefs and
points of view
The willingness to preserve self-respect
while monitoring behavior.
Chickering & Reisser, 1993
43
Cross Cultural Competence includes:
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Willingness to Engage
Cognitive Flexibility & Openness
Emotional Regulation
Tolerance of Uncertainty
Self- Efficacy
Ethnocultural Empathy.
44
Developing competence is a process
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Cultural competence is not acquired
quickly or casually, rather it requires an
intentional examination of one’s thoughts
and behaviors.
The first step toward becoming culturally
competent is realizing that you probably
aren’t.
“Cultural Competence in the Biology Classroom”
Kimberly Tanner & Deborah Allen, 2007
45
Developing competence is a process
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Denial: individuals refuse all interaction with other
cultures and show no interest in discovering cultural
differences. They may also act aggressively during
cross cultural situations.
Defense: individuals consider all other cultures to be
inferior to their own culture and will constantly criticize
behavior or thoughts by someone from another
culture.
Minimization: individuals start believing that all
cultures share common values. They will also minimize
any cultural differences by correcting people to match
their expectations.
Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity
Dr. Milton Bennett
46
Developing competence is a process
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Acceptance: Individuals may still judge other cultures
negatively but they will tend to recognize that cultures
are different and they may become curious about
cultural differences
Adaptation: Individuals gain the ability to adapt their
behavior by intentionally changing their own behavior
or communication style.
Integration: this stage, individuals instinctively change
their behavior and communication style when
interacting with other cultures. This stage tends to only
be achieved by long term expatriates living and
working abroad or Global Nomads.
Dr. Milton Bennett
47
Don’t ask students to get out of
their comfort zone….
48
Don’t ask students to get out of
their comfort zone….
Challenge and support them to
stretch their comfort zone.
49
The Value of Study Abroad
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Study abroad programs enhance
students’ cross-cultural skills and global
understanding.
Study abroad significantly contributes to
preparing students to function in a
multicultural world and promote
international understanding.
Anastasia Kitsantas
College Student Journal, 2004
50
The Value of Study Abroad
Study abroad students reported
higher levels of
emotional resilience
 openness and flexibility
 perceptual acuity
 personal autonomy
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Kitsantas, 2004
51
Attention to diversity might even be
perceived as divisive and inhibiting
community.
A strategy to counter the divisive
perceptions of diversity is to broaden
our definition of diversity, in ways that
highlight the intersectionality of
race/ethnic, gender, class, religion,
sexual orientation, within a framework
of marginalization and justice.
Marilyn Fernandez, Santa Clara University
52
Making “Diversity” More Inclusive
“Culture” is often viewed in the U.S. as
being primarily related to race, ethnicity,
and gender
However, effective diversity/inclusivity
programs must also address other kinds
of diversity which lead to
marginalization and exclusion.
53
Diversity at Wellesley College
Diversity is defined as those
dimensions of social identity that
matter and are important to any
member of the Wellesley community.
Recognizing that the community
members are multi-dimensional
beings, all dimensions of their
identities and the intersections of the
same are equally valued at Wellesley.
If the World Were a Village of 100 People
49 would be male, 51 would be female
82 people of color; 18 white
33 Christians
22 Muslims, 15 Hindus
14 would speak Chinese, Mandarin
8 English
8 Hindi
7 Spanish
89 would be heterosexual; 11 Lesbian, Gay,
Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT)
67 would be unable to read
5 would control 32% of the entire world’s wealth;
all 5 would be US citizens
1 would have a college education
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Seven kinds of diversity
Beverly D. Tatum, 1999
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Race/ethnicity
Gender
Religion
Sexual Orientation
Socio-economic status
Age
Physical/Mental Ability
Students At-Risk
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First-generation/Low SES
Adult and re-entry
Students with disabilities
LGBTQ students
Multicultural students
International/ESL students
Student-athletes
First-Year students
Undecided students
Veterans
Underprepared
Transfers
57
Multiple issues
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First-generation/Low SES AND also…
Adult and re-entry
Students with disabilities
LGBTQ students
Multicultural students
International/ESL students
Student-athletes
First-Year students
Undecided students
Veterans
Underprepared
Transfers
58
Addressing Some Issues
59
Socio-economic issues
60
What do we believe about poverty?
Poverty in the US is decreasing
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The number of Americans living in poverty
increased in 2008 over 2007, from about
37.3 million to about 39.8 million
61
What do we believe about poverty?
The poor are lazy and unwilling to
work…
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2/3 of people living in poverty work an
average of 1.7 jobs
1 in 4 earns poverty level wages (less than
$8.84 an hour)
27% of working families have INCOMES
below 200% of the poverty level
62
What do we believe about poverty?

Government assistance is sufficient
and encourages dependence.
It is almost impossible to get out of
poverty by relying on government
assistance alone.
In 2005, the average welfare check for one
parent with two children was $478 a
month. 20 years ago, it was $408.
63
What do we believe about poverty?
Poverty is an “inner city” problem.
Since 2000, suburban poverty rates
have increased by 53% compared to
26% in cities.
Brookings Institution, October 2011
64
Facts about US poverty…
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The federal “poverty threshold” in 2009 for a
family of four with two children 17 or younger
is $21,834. However, a majority of Americans
believe it takes at least $35,000 annually.
The rate of child poverty is higher in the United
States than in most other economically
advanced countries.
Nine out of ten Americans believe the federal
government has a responsibility to alleviate
poverty.
65
The 400 richest Americans, now own MORE
than the bottom 150 million Americans
own…
Between 2002 and 2004, inflation-adjusted median
household income declined $1669 a year.
Wealth Inequality Destroys US Ideals Don Monkerud , 2009
66
Diversity and inclusivity
are about understanding…
not necessarily agreeing.
67
Religious Diversity
68
Religious diversity
I am noticing more women wearing
head scarves (hijab) and they seem to
draw some negative reactions from
faculty, staff and students.
Campus Diversity Needs Assessment
69
Religious Intolerance
“There’s a level of hatred and
animosity that’s shocking. I’ve been
doing this for 31 years and I have never
seen such hostility toward Muslim
workers….”
Mary Jo O’Neill, EEOC Attorney Phoenix
New York Times, 9/23/2010
70
It’s
only
a cap!
…or is it?
71
Religious diversity?
Americans are slowly becoming less
Christian and in recent decades the
challenge to Christianity in America
does not come from other world religions
[but] from a rejection of all organized
religions.
Pew Forum on Religion in Public Life, 2008
72
Attitudes toward religious diversity
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92% of Americans said they would vote
for a Jewish person (+10% from 1967)
72% of Americans said they would vote
for a Mormon (-3% from 1967)
46% said they would vote for an atheist.
USA Today/Gallup Poll, 2007
73
Enhancing empathy exercise: Religion
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Imagine that you awoke this morning and you had
converted from being Christian or Jewish to Islam,
or from being a Muslim or a Christian to Judaism.
How would people treat you differently: in your
community, at school, at work, on your team?
How might family or friends treat you differently?
What opportunities might open or close for you?
What rewards might or might not come your way?
What other positive or negative changes might you
experience?
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and
Transgender Issues
75
LGBT are “among the most despised
groups in the United States today….”
Blumenfeld, 2003
Gays As the Domestic al-Qaeda?!?
“They are the biggest threat that our
nation has, even more so than
terrorism or Islam…."
Oklahoma Rep. Sally Kern, 2008
Students, staff, professors, or
administrators who identify as LGBT
report significant harassment at their
colleges and discomfort with the
overall campus climate….
Chronicle of Higher Education, 9/14/2010
78
Intergenerational Perspectives
42% of all Americans believe same
sex couples should have the right
to marry.
CBS News poll April 2009
70% of first-year college students
believe same sex couples should
have the right to marry.
Freshman Survey, Fall 2009
What about my own personal
beliefs or religious views?
80
The responsibility of your choice:
To support your institution’s
mission and values
The Institute for Extended Learning —
does not discriminate on the basis of
race, color, national origin, sex, disability,
sexual orientation or age in its programs,
activities or employment
Enhancing empathy exercise:
Sexual orientation
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If you are heterosexual, imagine that you awoke
this morning and, if you are male, you are gay; if
you are female, you are lesbian.
How would people treat you differently in your
community, at school, at work, on your team?
How might family or friends treat you differently?
What opportunities might open or close for you?
What rewards might or might not come your way?
What other changes might you experience?
Ethnic and Racial Issues
83
Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality
If current population trends
continue, minority group members
will be 54% of US population in
2050 compared to 24% in 1990.
US Census Bureau, August 14, 2008
84
Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality
English language learners (ELLs) are
the fastest-growing population in
American schools. Their numbers,
estimated at 5.5 million today, are
projected to grow to one in four K-12
students by 2025.
Diversity Learning K-12
85
U.S. College Enrollment Trends
Source: US Census Bureau, 2011
1980
Total
enrollment
11,400
2000
15,314
2008
18,632
%age
Increase:
1980-2008
+63.4%
millions
Male
5,430
6682
8311
53.0
Female
Asian
Black
Hispanic/
Latino/a
White
5,947
n/a
1,163
443
8631
n/a
2,164
1426
10,321
1,211
2,481
2277
73.5
n/a
113%
413%
11,400
11,999
14,405
26.3
86
The adjustment to college is more
difficult for first-generation students
from ethnic minority and low income
backgrounds than for students from
middle income backgrounds.
Retention of Students from First Generation &
Low Income Backgrounds
Paul Thayer, 2000
87
A Challenge in Diversity Training
Efforts to teach about diverse groups
can lead to stereotyping.
People from the same group are also
“diverse” in terms of socio-economic
status, education, age, sexual
orientation, individual experiences, and
otherwise.
88
Asian Pacific American Groups
Asian Indian Chinese Filipino
Guamanian
Hawaiian
Hmong
Japanese Korean
Laotian
Pakistani Samoan Thai
Vietnamese
Philippines:
7000 islands
100 languages
Principle: Diversity in Diversity
89
Diversity in Diversity: Black
Is that “Black” person African
American, an African international
student, or from a West Indian
immigrant family?
As with all groups, it is important to
make distinctions based on socioeconomic class, gender, and
other qualities.
90
Diversity in Diversity: Latino/Hispanic
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Twenty Spanish and Portuguese speaking
countries in the Western Hemisphere
Often “Latino” is used in contrast to others
who are not Spanish speaking
Often identify based on country of origin
(e.g., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba)
91
All ethnic groups in our country
are an aggregate of many distinct
subgroups.
92
Culture is learned.
You are not born with culture.
93
Music
Language
Clothes
Food
Values
Attitudes about time
Beliefs about men &
women-gender roles
Proxemics
Political beliefs
Art
Attitudes
about Family
Attitudes toward “others”
Religious beliefs
Sexuality Beliefs
Attitudes toward
authority
Beliefs about Beauty
The Iceberg of Culture
These are learned
and can be changed
Music
Language
Clothes
Food
Proxemics
Values
Attitudes about time
Beliefs about men &
women-gender roles
Political beliefs
Art
Attitudes
about Family
Attitudes toward “others”
Religious beliefs
Beliefs about Beauty
Sexuality Beliefs
Attitudes toward
authority
The Iceberg of Culture
Acquired or absorbed from our environment: harder to change
Cultures differ from one another in the
ways they view the world—worldviews.
Cultural competence: Understanding
worldviews as different not necessarily
deficient.
Implicit Cultural Assumptions
North American
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Egalitarian/equality
Can control the environment
Future oriented
Informal
Direct in communications
Youth valuing
“Friendliness”
Optimism
Action oriented: Change now
Ethnocentric: our way is the
best way
“Contrast” Cultures
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Hierarchy
Belief in fate
Present focus
Formal
Indirect (non-verbal cues)
Age valuing
More closed to “strangers”
Fatalism
Change takes time
Ethnocentric: our way is
the only way
It is hard to recognize your own
culture and cultural assumptions
because they are so pervasive and
dominant.
98
Culture is learned first in the family,
then in school, then in the community
and other social organizations such
as the church.
Purnell, 2005
99
Our attitudes toward race, gender, and
other diversity operate at two levels:
Conscious: what we choose to believe.
Unconscious: immediate, automatic
associations that tumble out before
we’ve had time to think.
Blink, Malcolm Gladwell
100
Implicit Associations Test
www.implicit.harvard.edu
101
Understanding cultural difference doesn’t
make the difference go away.
However, the person who understands
how difference causes communication to
break down can take the initiative to try
and make the communication work.
You Just Don’t Understand, D. Tannen
102
Creating a culture of civility
requires communication,
interaction, and an appreciation
for the interests each person
brings to the relationship.
Cynthia Clark, 2008
103
Diversity + Inclusivity + Civility =
Community
Our mission is to create a campus environment
that embraces diversity and encourages inclusion.
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The Office of Diversity and Inclusion's
overarching goals include:
Informed understanding of diverse groups,
ways of life, and points of view;
Civil discourse characterized by mutual respect.
Tarleton State University
104
When we believe we are right about
something or someone, we assume we
are right…
to the point that we will destroy
relationships in order to defend our
position.
Don Miguel Ruiz
The Four Agreements
105
The point is not that we’re bad at
saying “I don’t know.”
The point is that we are bad at
knowing when we don’t know.
Kathryn Schultz
Being Wrong, 2010
106
Without civility, we miss
opportunities to really listen
and understand others’
points of view.
Clark, 2008
107
We must listen and listen and listen if
we hope to change our relationships
for the better.
Harville Hendrix, 1988
108
Communication for community:
To Listen More
As soon as we think we are right about
something, we narrow our focus,
attending only to the details that
support our belief, or we cease
listening altogether….
Schultz, 2010
109
Communication for community:
To Listen More
A key element in learning from those
who are different from you is to listen
to their feelings of being “the other” in
some are of their lives.
From Diversity to Inclusivity
Tom Brown, 2010
110
Diversity + Inclusivity + Civility =
Community
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We Value:
Excellence in teaching and learning that we
enhance through diversity, inclusiveness,
integrity and collegiality.
A positive culture that fosters mutual respect
and trust [and] promotes this atmosphere
through open communication.
An environment that recognizes and respects
cultural diversity by recognizing and being
responsive to individual needs.
Elizabethtown Community & Technical College
111
Gaining the intellectual tools for
diversity competence should become a
strategic learning outcome that is
woven through the core curriculum.
Diversity & Cultural Competence
A Model for Inclusive Excellence
Marilyn Fernandez, Santa Clara University
112
Diversity/Inclusivity Outcomes
Developing and enhancing cultural
competence must be the primary outcome
of diversity/inclusivity programs.
Cultural competence is the ability to
understand, communicate and
effectively interact with people across
cultures.
Cultural Competence



From the Cobleskill Creed comes the
following:
Embrace and respect diversity and equality:
I will accept and learn from others who are
different from me
I will participate in multicultural experiences
and diversity workshops and encourage
participation by others
The College has already included cultural
competence language in its creed.
SUNY Cobbleskill Creed
114
Draft some cross-cultural
learning outcomes



Cognitive: How can students demonstrate
what they know?
Affective: How can students demonstrate
what they appreciate and value?
Behavioral: What should students be able
to do?
115
Assessing Cross Cultural Competence
The Cross Cultural Competence
Inventory
Karol G. Ross, Carol A. Thornson, Daniel P. McDonald
Meagan C. Arrastia
https://www.deomi.org/contribute/EOEEOResources/
documents/Development_of_the_CCCI-Ross.pdf
116
Institutions can’t change.
People change institutions.
We must be the change
We want to see happen.
Gandhi
117
Comments
Questions
Effective strategies
EVALUATIONS
http://www.smc.edu/Projects/336/SMC_Workshop_Evaluation_Form_Inclusivity_WEBINARS_ONLY_Editable.pdf
118
Developing and Enhancing
Cultural Competence
in Support of Student Success
Part 2
Innovative Educators Webinar
March, 2011
www.tbrownassociates.com
[email protected]
119
Culturally competent teaching



The ability to successfully teach students who
come from different cultures from your own.
It entails:
mastering personal and interpersonal
awarenesses and sensitivities,
learning, specific bodies of cultural knowledge
mastering a set of skills that underlie effective
cross-cultural teaching
Cultural Competence: A Primer for Educators
Jerry Diller and Jean Moule, 2005
120
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Perhaps the greatest inequity in our nation’s schools is