HEAD FOR SUCCESS
Business Studies – Grade 12
TERM 2
Topic 2: Human Rights, Inclusivity
and Environmental Issues
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
INTRODUCTION:
 Businesses have a responsibility to further the interests
of society.
 Business operations must support human rights and
inclusivity and not be harmful to the environment.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
THE 10 PRINCIPLES OF THE UN GLOBAL COMPACT:
 The UN Global Compact is a United Nations (UN)
initiative which aims to encourage businesses
worldwide to implement sustainable business practices.
 The 10 principles of the UN Global Compact are
divided into four categories:
 Human Rights
 Labour
 Environment
 Anti-corruption
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
The 10 principles of the UN Global Compact are divided into four categories:
Category
Ten principles
Human Rights Principle 1
Labour
Businesses should support the protection of human rights.
Principle 2
Businesses should make sure they are not complicit in human
rights issues.
Principle 3
Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the
right to collective bargaining.
Principle 4
Businesses should eliminate all forms of forced ad compulsory
labour.
Principle 5
Businesses should abolish child labour.
Principle 6
Businesses should eliminate discrimination in respect of
employment and occupation.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
 The 10 principles of the UN Global Compact are divided into four categories:
Category
Environment
Anticorruption
Ten principles
Principle 7
Businesses should support a precautionary approach to
environmental challenges
Principle 8
Businesses should undertake initiatives to promote greater
environmental sustainability.
Principle 9
Businesses should encourage the development and diffusion
of environmentally friendly technologies.
Principle 10
Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms,
including extortion an bribery.
The ten principles of the UN Global Compact emphasises the importance of
human rights, inclusivity and environmental issues in business.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ASSESS A BUSINESS VENTURE AGAINST CRITERIA THAT MEASURE HUMAN
RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:
 Business operations may not violate a person’s human rights or
be harmful to the environment and should support inclusivity.
 Examples of business operations that do not consider human
rights, inclusivity and the environment, include:
 Businesses that dump waste in rivers.
 Businesses that do not pay fair wages.
 Employers who treat employees unfairly.
 Employers who risk the health and safety of employees and clients
by not doing regular maintenance on machinery.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
HUMAN RIGHTS:
 Human rights are basic rights and freedoms that all human beings
are entitled to.
 Human rights must be respected by all.
 Our human rights are protected by the Bill of Rights in the
Constitution.
 If a business discriminates against employees or applicants in
terms of age, race, gender, culture, religion, pregnancy, marital
status, family responsibility, disability, HIV-status or political
opinion, the business is violating basic human rights.
 A business’ policy should not show favour, prejudice or bias
towards anyone and business enterprises must guard against
unfair discrimination and treat all employees, applicants and
people they do business with, equally and fairly.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
HUMAN RIGHTS:
Human rights:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The right to be treated in a dignified manner.
The right to practice one’s religion.
The right to freedom of speech.
The right to be treated equally and fairly.
The right to education.
Freedom of occupation of profession.
Freedom of association.
Consumer rights:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The right to information.
The right to choose.
The right to representation.
The right to compensation.
The right to safety.
The right to a healthy environment.
Employee rights:
 Examples of human rights, consumer rights and employee rights:
•
•
•
•
•
The right to fair treatment in the workplace.
The right not to be discriminated against.
The right to be included in decisions that directly affect the employee.
The right to belong to a trade union.
The right to fair remuneration.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
HUMAN RIGHTS:
 Assessment – what businesses can do to promote human rights:
 Businesses can make positive contributions towards human rights issues
by implementing poverty alleviation programmes, e.g. by donating land
which can be used to teach people entrepreneurial skills by showing
them how to use the land productively..
 Business enterprises can also help reduce unemployment through
implementing skills development programmes, entrepreneurial
programmes and by encouraging indigenous practices.
 Businesses must respect employees’ rights to work in a safe
environment, e.g. by doing regular machine maintenance.
 Businesses must pay fair remuneration to employees.
 Employees must be treated equally and fairly.
 Freedom of association in the workplace must be allowed.
 Employees should be encouraged and provided with opportunities to
further their education.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
INCLUSIVITY:
 Inclusivity means that no one should be discriminated against.
 Inclusivity aims to:
 Redress the imbalances of the past
 Address gender discrimination
 Address discrimination against disabled people
 Address unfair discrimination
 Ensure that the demographics of the country are reflected in the workplace.
 Provide greater opportunities for women in the workplace.
 Complaints regarding inclusivity issues are handled by the Huma Rights
Commission.
 In South Africa we have the following legislation to promote inclusivity:
 Skills Development Act
 Employment Equity Act and Affirmative Action
 Black Economic Empowerment and Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
INCLUSIVITY:
 Assessment – what businesses can do to promote inclusivity:
 Redress the imbalances of the past by, for example, implementing
Affirmative Action.
 Address gender discrimination by appointing both men and women in
all positions, including management.
 Address discrimination against disabled people by appointing disabled
persons.
 Address unfair discrimination by providing employees with equal access
to opportunities for training and promotion.
 Make sure that the demographics of the country are reflected in the
workplace by appointing people rom all races and genders.
 Provide greater opportunities for women in the workplace through for
example, skills development.
 Draw up policies that address the issue of discrimination.
 Show mutual respect for colleagues, superiors and subordinates.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:
 Businesses use resources found in the natural environment in their daily operations.
 This leads to exploitation of natural resources, pollution and global warming.
 Businesses generate a lot of commercial waste through their daily operations.
 Environmental issues are serious – global warming could have serious consequences
for life on this planet.
 A lot of attention is being paid to environmental issues in the media – Al Gore, an
American politician, for example, won the 2007 Nobel prize for his contribution to
global warming (he produced a film: “An inconvenient truth” to raise awareness
about environmental issues).
 Environmental protection organisations, e.g. WESSA and Green Peace, have been
formed to fight for nature conservation.
 Government has devised and is in the process of devising laws and strategies to deal
with environmental issues.
 Business enterprises must also comply with these laws and strategies.
 Examples of environmental laws and strategies include:

National waste management strategy implementation

National strategy for sustainable development

National Environmental Management Act

Environment Conservation Act

The Green and Blue Scorpions were established to protect parks, water reserves, fisheries, etc.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ENVIRNMETNAL ISSUES:
 Assessment – what businesses can do about environmental issues:
 Business enterprises can show their commitment towards nature
conservation by donating money/launching initiatives to protect the
environment.
 Business should focus on sustainability, rather than on making profit at
any cost.
 Business enterprises should develop environmental policies to:
 Promote nature conservation.
 Ensure environmental sustainability.
 Lead to the development of alternative sources of energy.
 Minimise pollution.
 Restore environmental damage.
 Businesses can donate money to help find alternative sources of energy.
 Materials that can be recycled, must be recycled.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Environmental
issues:
Inclusivity:
Human Rights:
CONCLUSION:
• In General, people are more aware of their human rights than
they were only a few decades ago.
• In South Africa, there are organisations that promote human
rights.
• Our human rights are protected by the Constitution.
• Legislation exists to promote inclusivity.
• Businesses have implemented and are still implementing
Affirmative Action policies to ensure inclusivity.
• Environmental issues are receiving a lot of media attention.
• Many businesses are spending money in an attempt to “go
green”.
• Some customers prefer to support “green businesses”.
• Not only businesses, but consumers have become more
aware of environmental issues.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
 Diversity refers to a variety or a mixture.
 The South African business landscape is diverse, because businesses deal
with people:
 Who come from different backgrounds and cultures
 Who speak different languages
 With different levels of education
 Who differ in terms of age and gender
 Other issues of diversity in businesses include:
 Poverty
 Inequality
 Race
 Gender
 Language
 Age
 Disability
 Education
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS :
Poverty
 Other issues of diversity in businesses include:
Employees
• Businesses employ people with different income levels.
• Managers often earn decent salaries and are able to maintain a
reasonable standard of living.
• Employees, like cleaners, are on the lower end of the salary scale.
• Poverty is often caused by lack of education and skills
development.
• Skills levies paid by businesses are used to develop workers’ skills.
Consumers
• A person is poor when he/she does not have enough money to
satisfy his/her most basic needs.
• Many businesses, especially businesses that sell necessities, face the
predicament of asking a price that is high enough to make profit,
while keeping goods affordable for customers who are struggling
financially.
• Consumers range from very poor to very rich.
• Businesses can play a part in fighting poverty through CSI
involvement.
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
Employees
• Inequality involves unfairness and discrimination.
• Although employees are on different levels of a business, all
employees should be treated equally and fairly.
• This means that all employees must get equal opportunities to be
considered for a raise, a better position or skills development.
Consumers
• Consumers must be treated fairly.
• Employees must guard against showing prejudice towards
consumers.
• All consumers must be treated with respect.
Employees
• Employees must represent the country’s demographics.
• This means that businesses must employ people from different
racial groups.
• Previously, racial imbalances occurred in the workplace.
• These imbalances are now being addressed through various acts,
including Employment Equity, BBBEE and Affirmative Action
policies.
Consumers
• South Africans are also known as “The Rainbow Nation”.
• It is challenging to market products to a diverse group of people,
who hold different values and beliefs.
• Businesses must not offend any person with their marketing.
Race
Inequality
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
• Businesses employ both males and females.
• Males and females are entitled to equal treatment in the
workplace.
• A few decades ago, most employers believed that men should be
promoted rather than women.
• The Employment Equity Act forbids gender discrimination and
states that men and women should receive equal treatment and
have access to equal opportunities in the workplace.
• BBBEE promotes the economic empowerment of women.
Consumers
• Consumers comprise males and females.
• It is challenging to find a marketing strategy which is appealing to
both men and women.
• Male and female customers should be treated with equal respect.
Gender
Employees
Language
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
Employees • Businesses employ people who speak different languages.
• Although it is a person’s constitutional right to speak the language of
his/her choice, multilinguism in the workplace can create problems, if
employees are not capable of understanding one another.
• A person may feel excluded if he/she cannot understand what
colleagues are saying.
• It is a good idea to identify a common language for meetings and
general communication in the workplace
Consumers • Consumers speak different languages.
• It creates a very good impression of a business if clients can be
assisted in their language of choice.
Age
Employees
• Ages of employees usually differ.
• Older employees may feel that younger employees lack experience
to do certain tasks.
• Many businesses use a “mentorship system” where a more
experienced employee acts as a coach or mentor for an
inexperienced employee.
Consumers • Ages of consumers differ.
• Businesses should guard against discriminating against young or old
consumers.
Education
Disability
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Employees
• The Employment Equity Act encourages businesses to employ disabled
people.
• Employees must guard against showing prejudice towards disabled
employees.
• Disabled people must receive equal treatment and equal access to
opportunities.
Consumers
• Many consumers are disabled.
• Disabled consumers must be accommodated by businesses in terms of
factors like parking and accessibility.
Employees
•
•
•
•
Consumers
• Consumers come from different educational backgrounds.
• A business should not exploit a consumer’s lack of education when a
transaction takes place.
• A consumer must be fully aware of the terms and conditions of a
transaction.
Employees come from different educational backgrounds.
Some employees are highly qualified, while others may be illiterate.
This is largely due to South Africa’s pre-1994 political policy.
A lot has been done by both government and businesses to bridge the
educational divide, for example skills development.
• Employers should encourage employees and provide them with
opportunities to further their education.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
Other factors:
 Personalities:
Employees have different personalities that could lead to conflict in the
business, but it can also be applied to consider and resolve challenges from
various angles.
 Culture:
It is valuable to the business if different cultural groups are present in the
present.
They will help to identify and solve problems from different cultural
perspectives.
 Beliefs:
Employees may have different beliefs.
The diverse knowledge and perspectives of the different religious groups can be
useful when strategies are planned.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
Other factors:
 Legislation:
To promote an inclusive workforce from the diversity of the community, the
government introduced several laws, namely:
 Employment Equity Act.
 The Promotion of Equality Act
 The Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act
 The Act Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act, etc.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
 Advantages of diversity in business:
Increased
creativity
Increased
productivity
Increased
tolerance
Creativity increases when diverse team members work together.
When a diverse team pulls together by focusing on their strengths,
increased levels of productivity will be achieved.
Colleagues learn to value and respect one another even if they do not
hold similar values and beliefs.
Acquisition of new A diverse workforce brings different skills to the workplace, for
skills
example language skills.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
DIVERSITY IN THE BUSINESS:
 The impact of diversity in the workplace:
 Although a diverse workforce contributes to a business’ success,
diversity must be managed.
 Managers must be aware of their own prejudices when managing a
diverse workforce.
 Employees must learn to value and appreciate colleagues who come
from different backgrounds or cultures.
 If not managed properly, diversity can lead to conflict in the
workplace.
 Management must establish a work environment where all
employees feel equal and inclusive.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND HUMAN HEALTH:
 Every person has the right to live in a healthy environment.
 Business operations should neither compromise the environment nor
human health.
 All possible steps must be taken to minimise the effect of business
operations on the environment.
 Environmental laws specify permissible levels of pollution and businesses
must stay within these parameters.
 Business operations can pose risks to human health in several ways, for
example:
 Dumping waste in rivers where people collect drinking water can cause
diseases like cholera and typhoid.
 Air pollution can cause respiratory diseases like asthma, emphysema and
lung cancer.
 Exposure to radiation can cause Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) which
prevents body cells from dividing normally.
 Some businesses manufacture dangerous goods (like chemicals) or use
processes that may be dangerous (like mining).
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND HUMAN HEALTH :
 These businesses, as well as other businesses, should take all the
necessary precautions to ensure the health and safety of employees and
protect the environment.
 The Occupational Health and Safety Act (No 85 of 1993) makes
provision for a number of regulations regarding safety, for example:
 Workers must be provided with protective gear to protect themselves
against potential dangerous situations.
 First aid kits must be readily available at the workplace and in the
factory.
 Fire extinguishers must be strategically placed on the business’
premises.
 Machines must be serviced regularly.
 History has shown us many examples of business operations that
harmed the environment and compromised human health.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND HUMAN HEALTH :
 Strategies to protect the environment and human health include:
 Adhere to environmental legislation
 Educate people about hygiene issues
 Test water before using it
 Regular health checks
 It is the employer’s duty to make sure working conditions, as well as the
working environment, adhere to health and safety requirements.
 Noise levels must be within the parameters of the Occupational Health and
Safety Act (No. 85 of 1993).
 Employers must provide employees with protective clothing and gear when
the job requires, e.g. construction workers must work with helmets.
 Caution must be taken when hazardous materials, e.g. chemicals or medical
waste are disposed of.
 Access to hazardous materials must be limited and kept in a safe place.
 Working conditions must make provision for adequate lighting and
ventilation.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
EQUALITY, RESPECT AND DIGNITY:
 People have the right to be treated with equality, respect and
dignity.
 These rights may not be violated by businesses.
Equality
Definition:
Violation:
• Involves fairness and
• Denying some
absence of discrimination.
employees an
• Employees must be treated
opportunity to
equally and fairly.
receive skills
• All employees must have
training.
equal opportunities.
Implikasies vir besighede:
• Businesses must devise
policies that promote
equality in the workplace.
• Employees who feel they
were discriminated against
might consider taking legal
action against their
employer.
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
EQUALITY, RESPECT AND DIGNITY :
Violation:
• To value a person, because
he/she is a human being.
• Talking down to
a person.
• Businesses must create
opportunities where
employees can casually
interact and learn to know
one another.
• A workforce who respects
one another will be very
effective.
• Refers to a person’s right
to be treated with respect.
• Offending a
person.
• Businesses must create
opportunities where
employees can casually
interact and learn to know
one another.
Dignity
Respect
Definition:
Implikasies vir besighede
HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUSIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS:
 Many of our human rights ca be categorised into one of the
following three categories:
Examples
How these rights are
promoted
Economic
rights
•
•
•
•
•
Freedom of trade
• Tax money is being spent
Freedom of occupation and profession
on improving people’s
Right to fair labour practices
living conditions.
Right to have access to adequate housing • Our economic rights are
Right to belong to a trade union
protected in the Labour
relations Act.
Social rights
•
•
•
•
Right to freedom of association
Right to basic education
Right to healthcare
Right to security
Cultural
rights
• Right to use the language of choice
• Right to participate in cultural activities
of choice
• Various strategies have
been devised to ensure
access to these rights, for
example the Skills
Development Act.
• South Africa has eleven
official languages – each
language is recognised.
Descargar

Document