The Morning After: Exploring the Impact of New Leadership in D.C. David Shallenberger, Ken Reade, John Deziel, and Kara Haas November 5, 2008 NAFSA Region XI Conference Agenda • Introduction to the presenters and the issues • Candidates’ stances on relevant issues • View from Government Affairs • Discussion The Key Issues of the US Populace CBS News/New York Times Poll. Oct. 25-29, 2008. % Issue 55 Economy and jobs 13 Terrorism and national security 9 Health care 7 Gas prices and energy policy 6 The war in Iraq 4 Illegal immigration 6 Something else The Candidates on Our Issues •Foreign Affairs •Immigration •Education Foreign Affairs • Barack Obama • John McCain Foreign Affairs • Barack Obama • Foreign and domestic development • Empower citizens in developing world to follow their own paths • Diplomacy, bipartisanship and openness John McCain • Restoration of America’s standing as world’s leading example of liberal democracy • Moral credibility and ideological consistency • Strong tie with national security Foreign Affairs And to all those watching tonight from beyond our shores, from parliaments and palaces, to those who are huddled around radios in the forgotten corners of the world, our stories are singular, but our destiny is shared, and a new dawn of American leadership is at hand Foreign Affairs To all those who have wondered if America's beacon still burns as bright - tonight we proved once more that the true strength of our nation comes not from our the might of our arms or the scale of our wealth, but from the enduring power of our ideals: democracy, liberty, opportunity, and unyielding hope. Obama on Foreign Affairs Overall Principles • Interdependence • Image and example • Common humanity Obama on Foreign Affairs Process • Consultative Group • Town hall meetings Obama on Foreign Affairs Diplomacy • Talk • Dignity and respect • Partnerships • (Re)opening consulates Obama on Foreign Affairs Poverty • Eradicating poverty = enhancing security • Double foreign aid Obama on Foreign Affairs Iraq and the Middle East • End the war in Iraq responsibly • Use range of instruments • Deepen our knowledge • Export opportunity Obama on Foreign Affairs Other regions • Europe and Eurasia • Asia • Latin America • Africa McCain on Foreign Affairs Overall Principles • Larger and more capable military • Rally around common causes (freedom, security, etc) • Economic leadership • Restore moral credibility McCain on Foreign Affairs Diplomacy and International Education • Replace closed USIA • All service academy cadets on study abroad • Overseas service opportunities McCain on Foreign Affairs Iraq and the Middle East • Need to succeed in Iraq • Sanctions on Iran • Support Israel McCain on Foreign Affairs Partnerships • League of Democracies • EU • G-8 • Asia • Latin America • Africa McCain on Foreign Affairs Military • Increase 20% • Army Advisory Corps Immigration • Barack Obama • John McCain Obama on Immigration Plan for Immigration • “The time to fix our broken immigration system is now… We need stronger enforcement on the border and at the workplace… But for reform to work, we also must respond to what pulls people to America… Where we can reunite families, we should. Where we can bring in more foreign-born workers with the skills our economy needs, we should” • — Barack Obama, Statement on U.S. Senate Floor, May 23, 2007 Obama on Immigration Believes the immigration issue “has been exploited by politicians to divide the nation rather than find real solutions. This divisiveness has allowed the illegal immigration problem to worsen…” “… our broken immigration system can only be fixed by putting politics aside and offering a complete solution that secures our border, enforces our laws and reaffirms our heritage as a nation of immigrants.” Obama’s main points on immigration • Create Secure Borders (Preserve the integrity of borders, support additional personnel, infrastructure and technology on the border and ports of entry) • Improve Our Immigration System (Fix dysfunctional immigration bureaucracy, increase the number of legal immigrants to keep families together, meet the demand for jobs that employers cannot fill) • Remove Incentives to Enter Illegally (Remove incentives to enter the country illegally by cracking down on employers who hire undocumented immigrants) • Bring People Out of the Shadows (Support a system that allows undocumented immigrants who are in good standing to pay a fine, learn English, and go to the back of the line for the opportunity to become citizens) • Work with Mexico (Do more to promote economic development in Mexico to decrease illegal immigration) Obama Votes of note • 1 of 50 co-sponsors to the Simon Study abroad bill (S.991) • 1 of 26 co-sponsors of the “Dream Act” (S.774) • Sponsor of the Citizenship Promotion Act of 2007 (S.795) Flashback: Comprehensive Immigration Reform 2006-2007 • McCain was a major proponent--and 1 of only 6 cosponsors--of the initial C.I.R. bill in February, 2006 (S. 2611). (Corresponding House Bill was H.4437) • The co-sponsors of S. 2611 are: Senators Kennedy (DMA), Brownback (R-KS), Hegel (R-NE), Martinez (R-FL) & Graham (R-SC) • S.2611 stalled in April 2006 (i.e. November 2006 midterm elections) and was effectively shelved entirely in June 2007 as a result of Senate filibuster (i.e. 2008 presidential elections) McCain’s main points on immigration • I. Securing Our Borders First • II. Comprehensive Immigration Initiatives for a Secure Nation I. Securing Our Borders First • Securing the border through physical and virtual barriers; adequate funding is provided for resources on the ground; training facilities, support staff and the deployment of technologies. • Dedicating funding to US Attorney’s offices in border states. • Implementing sound policies for contracting Department of Homeland Security software and infrastructure. • Deploy Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and other aircraft where needed and appropriate in the border region. II. Comprehensive Immigration Initiatives for a Secure Nation • Prosecutes “Bad-Actor” Employers. • Implements a secure, accurate, and reliable electronic employment verification system to ensure that individuals are screened for work eligibility in a real-time fashion. Aggressively prosecute employers that continue to hire illegal immigrants. Comprehensive Immigration Initiatives for a Secure Nation (con’t) • Meets America’s Labor Needs. Implement temporary worker programs that will reflect the labor needs of the United States in both the high-tech and low skilled sectors while protecting the employment opportunities for US workers: • Highly Skilled workers: 1) Ensure high skilled workers trained and educated in the United States have the opportunity to stay and work in the United States upon graduation. 2) Reform caps for H-1B visa program to rise and fall in response to market conditions. Reduce bureaucracy and waiting times for workers to arrive in the United States. 3) Increase available green card numbers to reflect employer and employee demand. 4) Extend the ability for H-1B visa holders to renew their H-1B status while waiting for their green card number to become available. 5) Ensure available and qualified American workers are given adequate and fair opportunities to apply for available positions. Comprehensive Immigration Initiatives for a Secure Nation (con’t) • Low-skilled non-agricultural workers: 1. Implement a usable, market based system for low-skilled workers to enter the United States in an orderly fashion. 2. Ensure that the cap rises and falls with market demand to meet the changing needs of the economy. 3. Provide for adequate worker protection to guard against employer abuses of temporary workers. 4. Protect American workers by designing a program that allows willing and eligible United States workers adequate opportunity to apply for available positions. 5. Ensure that workers return to their home countries after their temporary period in the United States. 6. Allow for appropriate visa renewals to assure that both the employer and employee have stability in the workforce. 7. Offer a limited number of green cards to reflect the small number of workers that may wish to remain in the United States permanently. 8. Reform the H-2A visa program to provide a non-bureaucratic, adaptable, useable program that is reflective of market needs and protects both the immigrant and US workers. Comprehensive Immigration Initiatives (continued) • Address the Undocumented. Address the fact that we have a large number undocumented individuals living in the United States and working in our economy: 1. All undocumented individuals will be required to enroll in a program to resolve their status. Use background checks to identify criminal aliens for prosecution and deportation. 2. Assure that the remaining undocumented immigrants learn English, pay back taxes and fines, and pass a citizenship course as part of a path to legal status. 3. Guarantee that no person in the U.S. illegally receives a green card before those that have been legally waiting outside the country. 4. Provide a system that is fair, humane, realistic, and ensures the rights of the individual and families will be protected. 5. Ensure that families are reunited. 6. Address in an expedited manner the status of individuals brought here illegally as minors through no will or intention of their own. (McCain was 1 of 26 co-sponsors-- along with Obama-- of the Dream Act) 7. Eliminate the Family Backlog. Commit to clearing out the backlog of individuals that are waiting legally outside of the country, some for up to 20 years, for their green card number to become available. Considerations of Comprehensive Immigration Reform in an Obama Administration Obama/Democrats Cons • • • • • Historical loyalty to labor unions and “blue collar” workers/working class issues Rhetoric of protecting American workers and jobs… foreign workers can be seen as a threat Hesitancy in some free trade issues, particularly NAFTA Pros • A progressive Obama administration could work in a more non-partisan manner on the issue • Consideration of the root causes of migration/illegal immigration and better diplomatic relations with other countries, including Mexico and Latin America • A Democratic majority in the House, Senate and control of the Executive branch (Obama) could force new legislation through Congress • Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid has listed C.I.R. as a top priority in future Congressional sessions Considerations of Comprehensive Immigration Reform in a McCain Administration McCain/Republicans Cons • Conservative/”nativest” approach to threats of illegal immigration; greater emphasis on punishment and deportation • Very vocal and influential rightwing element of the G.O.P. has already shown its ability to scuttle and oppose C.I.R. in most forms Pros • “Big Business” and industry are traditionally Republican supporters and generally view immigrants as costeffective labor supply • McCain has substantial record as being a leader in Congress on the specific issue of C.I.R. and has likely learned a lot from previous experience and failure of S.2611 • Provisions of McCain’s previous C.I.R. bill (S. 2611) would most likely form the foundation of future legislation on the issue • V.P. Palin can see Russia from her house… International Education • Barack Obama • John McCain Next President Should Make International Education Central to Meeting National Needs • The United States Still Needs an International Education Policy. The purpose of establishing a U.S. International Education Policy is to get to a point where we have a clear policy articulated by the highest level of government -- and by this, NAFSA means the president -- that brings together government, higher education, and the private sector in a concerted effort to ensure that we reap the maximum benefits from this national asset. • One thing is clear… a U.S. International Education Policy should be a central part of our next president’s solution to re-establishing America’s rightful place as a respected leader of the world and to restoring hope for a more prosperous, secure future. United States International Education Policy History • November 10, 1999, a speech was given by NAFSA Executive Director & CEO Marlene Johnson explaining the origins and purposes of a national international education policy presented at the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) • Such a policy needs to identify goals for: – – – – – International student recruitment Study abroad Foreign-language learning Exchanges of citizens and scholars Mobilization and coordination of international-education efforts and resources at various levels. President Clinton Issues Executive Memorandum on International Education • President Clinton gave NAFSA's strategic objective of pursuing a U.S. international education policy a big boost when he signed an April 19, 2000 memorandum to the heads of executive departments and agencies calling for an international education policy. The executive memorandum reflects the substance, as well as the details, outlined in the NAFSA/Alliance international education policy statement issued earlier this year. NAFSA views this presidential action as the first step in putting the international education policy into practice. • Quickly following up with President Clinton: NAFSA's Policy Statement entitled "Toward an International Education Policy for the United States", co-written with the Alliance for International Educational and Cultural Exchange, is a condensed and updated version of the NAFSA/Alliance February 22, 2000 policy statement. Senate Concurrent Resolution 7 107th Congress • On February 1, 2001, Senators John Kerry (D-Mass.) and Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind.) introduced the resolution in the U.S. Senate "expressing the sense of Congress that the United States should establish an international education policy to enhance national security and significantly further United States foreign policy and global competitiveness….“ • The co-sponsors of the resolution are Senators Christopher J. Dodd (D-Conn.), Bob Graham (D-Fla.), Jesse Helms (R-N.C.), Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Tex.), Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt.), Carl Levin (D-Mich.), Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind.), Zell Miller (D-Ga.), Harry M. Reid (D-Nev.), and Paul D. Wellstone (DMinn.) House Concurrent Resolution 201 107th Congress • On July 26, 2001, Representatives Jim Kolbe (R-Ariz.) and James L. Oberstar (DMinn.) introduced a concurrent resolution (H.Con.Res.201) in the U.S. House of Representatives calling for a national international education policy to significantly "further United States foreign policy and economic competitiveness, and promote mutual understanding and cooperation among nations.” • The full Senate unanimously approved a similar resolution (S.Con.Res 7), introduced by Sens. John Kerry (D-Mass.) and Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), on April 6, 2001. • The bipartisan resolution (S.Con.Res 7), was cosponsored by Representatives David Dreier (R-Calif.), Benjamin A. Gilman (R-N.Y.), Maurice D. Hinchey (D-N.Y.), James A. Leach (R-Iowa), James P. McGovern (D-Mass.), Ralph Regula (R-Ohio), and Fred Upton (R-Mich.), highlights the importance of international education to "meet national security, foreign policy, economic, and other global challenges facing the United States." NAFSA Updates International Education Policy Statement • In May 2003, NAFSA updates it’s Policy Statement entitled “Toward an International Education Policy for the United States”, co-written with the Alliance for International Educational and Cultural Exchange. This paper is an update of the December 2000 version of the NAFSA/Alliance statement. • An international education policy should: – Promote international, foreign-language, and area studies. – Create a comprehensive strategy to restore America’s status as a magnet for international students and scholars. – Create a comprehensive strategy to establish study abroad as an integral component of undergraduate education. – Strengthen citizen- and community-based exchange programs. Further Momentum… United States should establish an International Education Policy • On March 16, 2005, U.S. Representative Jim Kolbe (R-Ariz.) and Rep. Jim Oberstar (D-Minn.) introduced a bipartisan resolution, H.Con.Res.100, calling on Congress that the United States should establish an international education policy to foster mutual understanding among nations, promote a world free of terrorism, further United States foreign policy and national security, enhance United States leadership in the world, and for other purposes. This resolution received several cosponsors, but was not passed by the end of the 109th Congress. While NAFSA continues to advocate for a national policy on international education, individual NAFSA members across the country are building momentum for this effort by working to get their state to pass a state-level international education resolution modeled after H. Con.Res. 100. Survey of American Public: International Education is Key to Preparing Next Generation • On January 11, 2006, Survey Published… “Survey of American Public: International Education is Key to Preparing Next Generation Americans in overwhelming numbers believe that international education is a key to preparing their children for success in the global age. They believe that foreign language skills will make their children more competitive in the job market, and they feel it is important for the next generation to have the opportunity to study abroad and to interact with students from other countries while in college.” Special Note: These are the findings of a new national survey commissioned by NAFSA: Association of International Educators, which polled more than 1,000 adults representing a broad cross-section of the American public during the first week of December 2005. Enhancing US Leadership, Security and Competiveness Through International Education • December 18, 2006, A Bipartisan Legislative Agenda for the 110th Congress. There was hope… “The 110th Congress will have an opportunity to address a pressing national need to enhance U.S. international leadership, competitiveness, and security by strengthening international education and exchange programs. Foreign policy leaders in both the administration and Congress concur on the importance of these programs, and they have strong bipartisan support.” But, alas, long story short, no US International Education Policy materialized in 2007… • Fall/Winter, 2007, NAFSA: Association of International Educators Executive Director and CEO Marlene Johnson sent a letter to the 2008 presidential candidates, urging them to consider how they, if elected, would marshal the vital resource of international education to serve the nation’s needs… National Lieutenant Governors Association’s Resolution in support of establishing a national International Education Policy • On July 25, 2008, during their annual meeting, the National Lieutenant Governors Association passed a resolution in support of establishing a national international education policy. • The resolution was cosponsored by Lt. Governors Brian Dubie of Vermont and Barbara Lawton of Wisconsin. Additional co-sponsors include Lt. Governor Catherine Baker Knoll (Pennsylvania), Lt. Governor Pat Quinn (Illinois), Lt. Governor Gary Herbert (Utah), Lt. Governor Timothy P. Villagomez (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), Lt. Governor Mark Parkinson (Kansas), Lt. Governor John Bohlinger (Montana), Lt. Governor Jack Dalrymple (North Dakota), and Lt. Governor Brian Krolicki (Nevada). U.S. International Education Policy Resolution Serves as Model for States • While NAFSA continues to advocate for a national policy on international education, individual NAFSA members across the country are building momentum for this effort by working to get their state to pass a state-level international education resolution modeled after H. Con.Res. 100 (reference, U.S. Representative Jim Kolbe (R-Ariz.) and Rep. Jim Oberstar (D-Minn). • The resolution called for a policy that would help to: – – – – – Promote mutual understanding among nations by invigorating and promoting citizen, professional, and scholarly exchanges Ensure that visa and employment policies promote access to such exchanges, consistent with homeland security Increase participation by U.S. students in study and internships abroad, and expanding the locations, languages, and subjects offered by those programs Improve the U.S. capacity to produce citizens with international expertise Encourage foreign language learning at a early age Promote partnerships among government, business, educational institutions and organizations to ensure adequate resources for implementing such a policy International Education at the State Level Below is a list of current state-level initiatives that benefit international education at the postsecondary level, such as legislation, proclamations, consortiums, and commissions. * State has resolution passed in one chamber of the state legislature • • • • • • • • • • • Florida* (Apr. 2008) Pennsylvania (Apr. 2008) Missouri* (Apr. 2008) Georgia* (March 2008) Wisconsin (March 2008) Illinois (March 2008) West Virginia (March 2008) New Mexico* (February 2008) Massachusetts (February 2008) Minnesota (May 2007) Oklahoma (May 2007) • • • • • • • • • • • Vermont (May 2007) Montana (Apr. 2007) Indiana (Apr. 2007) Hawaii (Apr. 2007) Arkansas (Mar. 2007) Nevada (May 2005) Mississippi (Feb. 2005) Texas (May 2004, Apr. 2005) Louisiana (Apr. 2003) California (Sep. 2002) Kentucky (Apr. 2002) U.S. International Education Policy Resolution Serves as Model for States http://www.nafsa.org/public_policy.sec/international_education_23 OBAMA and…our future… International Education Policy Congratulations President Obama! Kara Haas Assistant Director for Federal Relations at Yale University Discussion and Q&A • Questions: – What does this mean to you in your role as an IE professional? – What questions does it raise for you?