The Morning After:
Exploring the Impact of New
Leadership in D.C.
David Shallenberger, Ken Reade,
John Deziel, and Kara Haas
November 5, 2008
NAFSA Region XI Conference
• Introduction to the
presenters and the
• Candidates’
stances on relevant
• View from
Government Affairs
• Discussion
The Key Issues of the US Populace
CBS News/New York Times Poll. Oct. 25-29, 2008.
Economy and jobs
Terrorism and national security
Health care
Gas prices and energy policy
The war in Iraq
Illegal immigration
Something else
The Candidates on Our
•Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
• Barack Obama
• John McCain
Foreign Affairs
• Barack Obama
• Foreign and domestic
• Empower citizens in
developing world to
follow their own paths
• Diplomacy,
bipartisanship and
John McCain
• Restoration of America’s
standing as world’s
leading example of
liberal democracy
• Moral credibility and
ideological consistency
• Strong tie with national
Foreign Affairs
And to all those watching
tonight from beyond our
shores, from parliaments
and palaces, to those
who are huddled around
radios in the forgotten
corners of the world, our
stories are singular, but
our destiny is shared, and
a new dawn of American
leadership is at hand
Foreign Affairs
To all those who have
wondered if America's
beacon still burns as
bright - tonight we proved
once more that the true
strength of our nation
comes not from our the
might of our arms or the
scale of our wealth, but
from the enduring power
of our ideals: democracy,
liberty, opportunity, and
unyielding hope.
Obama on Foreign Affairs
Overall Principles
• Interdependence
• Image and example
• Common humanity
Obama on Foreign Affairs
• Consultative Group
• Town hall meetings
Obama on Foreign Affairs
• Talk
• Dignity and respect
• Partnerships
• (Re)opening consulates
Obama on Foreign Affairs
• Eradicating poverty = enhancing security
• Double foreign aid
Obama on Foreign Affairs
Iraq and the Middle East
• End the war in Iraq responsibly
• Use range of instruments
• Deepen our knowledge
• Export opportunity
Obama on Foreign Affairs
Other regions
• Europe and Eurasia
• Asia
• Latin America
• Africa
McCain on Foreign Affairs
Overall Principles
• Larger and more capable military
• Rally around common causes (freedom, security, etc)
• Economic leadership
• Restore moral credibility
McCain on Foreign Affairs
Diplomacy and International Education
• Replace closed USIA
• All service academy cadets on study abroad
• Overseas service opportunities
McCain on Foreign Affairs
Iraq and the Middle East
• Need to succeed in Iraq
• Sanctions on Iran
• Support Israel
McCain on Foreign Affairs
• League of Democracies
• EU
• G-8
• Asia
• Latin America
• Africa
McCain on Foreign Affairs
• Increase 20%
• Army Advisory Corps
• Barack Obama
• John McCain
Obama on Immigration
Plan for Immigration
• “The time to fix our broken immigration system is
now… We need stronger enforcement on the
border and at the workplace… But for reform to
work, we also must respond to what pulls people
to America… Where we can reunite families, we
should. Where we can bring in more foreign-born
workers with the skills our economy needs, we
• — Barack Obama, Statement on U.S. Senate
Floor, May 23, 2007
Obama on Immigration
 Believes the immigration issue “has been
exploited by politicians to divide the nation rather
than find real solutions. This divisiveness has
allowed the illegal immigration problem to
 “… our broken immigration system can only be
fixed by putting politics aside and offering a
complete solution that secures our border,
enforces our laws and reaffirms our heritage as
a nation of immigrants.”
Obama’s main
points on immigration
Create Secure Borders
(Preserve the integrity of borders, support additional personnel, infrastructure and
technology on the border and ports of entry)
Improve Our Immigration System
(Fix dysfunctional immigration bureaucracy, increase the number of legal immigrants
to keep families together, meet the demand for jobs that employers cannot fill)
Remove Incentives to Enter Illegally
(Remove incentives to enter the country illegally by cracking down on employers who
hire undocumented immigrants)
Bring People Out of the Shadows
(Support a system that allows undocumented immigrants who are in good standing to
pay a fine, learn English, and go to the back of the line for the opportunity to become
Work with Mexico
(Do more to promote economic development in Mexico to decrease illegal immigration)
Obama Votes of note
• 1 of 50 co-sponsors to the Simon Study
abroad bill (S.991)
• 1 of 26 co-sponsors of the “Dream Act”
• Sponsor of the Citizenship Promotion Act
of 2007 (S.795)
Flashback: Comprehensive
Immigration Reform 2006-2007
• McCain was a major proponent--and 1 of only 6 cosponsors--of the initial C.I.R. bill in February, 2006 (S.
2611). (Corresponding House Bill was H.4437)
• The co-sponsors of S. 2611 are: Senators Kennedy (DMA), Brownback (R-KS), Hegel (R-NE), Martinez (R-FL)
& Graham (R-SC)
• S.2611 stalled in April 2006 (i.e. November 2006 midterm elections) and was effectively shelved entirely in
June 2007 as a result of Senate filibuster (i.e. 2008
presidential elections)
McCain’s main points on
• I. Securing Our Borders First
• II. Comprehensive Immigration Initiatives
for a Secure Nation
I. Securing Our Borders First
• Securing the border through physical and virtual barriers; adequate
funding is provided for resources on the ground; training facilities, support
staff and the deployment of technologies.
• Dedicating funding to US Attorney’s offices in border states.
• Implementing sound policies for contracting Department of Homeland
Security software and infrastructure.
• Deploy Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and other aircraft where needed and
appropriate in the border region.
II. Comprehensive Immigration
Initiatives for a Secure Nation
• Prosecutes “Bad-Actor” Employers.
• Implements a secure, accurate, and reliable
electronic employment verification system to
ensure that individuals are screened for work
eligibility in a real-time fashion. Aggressively
prosecute employers that continue to hire illegal
Comprehensive Immigration
Initiatives for a Secure Nation
Meets America’s Labor Needs. Implement temporary worker programs that will
reflect the labor needs of the United States in both the high-tech and low skilled
sectors while protecting the employment opportunities for US workers:
Highly Skilled workers:
1) Ensure high skilled workers trained and educated in the United States have the opportunity
to stay and work in the United States upon graduation.
2) Reform caps for H-1B visa program to rise and fall in response to market
conditions. Reduce bureaucracy and waiting times for workers to arrive in the United
3) Increase available green card numbers to reflect employer and employee demand.
4) Extend the ability for H-1B visa holders to renew their H-1B status while waiting for
their green card number to become available.
5) Ensure available and qualified American workers are given adequate and fair opportunities
to apply for available positions.
Comprehensive Immigration
Initiatives for a Secure Nation
Low-skilled non-agricultural workers:
Implement a usable, market based system for low-skilled workers to enter the United States in an
orderly fashion.
Ensure that the cap rises and falls with market demand to meet the changing needs of the economy.
Provide for adequate worker protection to guard against employer abuses of temporary workers.
Protect American workers by designing a program that allows willing and eligible United States
workers adequate opportunity to apply for available positions.
Ensure that workers return to their home countries after their temporary period in the United States.
Allow for appropriate visa renewals to assure that both the employer and employee have stability in
the workforce.
Offer a limited number of green cards to reflect the small number of workers that may wish to remain
in the United States permanently.
Reform the H-2A visa program to provide a non-bureaucratic, adaptable, useable program that is
reflective of market needs and protects both the immigrant and US workers.
Comprehensive Immigration
Initiatives (continued)
Address the Undocumented. Address the fact that we have a large number undocumented
individuals living in the United States and working in our economy:
1. All undocumented individuals will be required to enroll in a program to resolve their status. Use
background checks to identify criminal aliens for prosecution and deportation.
2. Assure that the remaining undocumented immigrants learn English, pay back taxes and fines, and pass
a citizenship course as part of a path to legal status.
3. Guarantee that no person in the U.S. illegally receives a green card before those that have been legally
waiting outside the country.
4. Provide a system that is fair, humane, realistic, and ensures the rights of the individual and families will
be protected.
5. Ensure that families are reunited.
6. Address in an expedited manner the status of individuals brought here illegally as minors through no will
or intention of their own. (McCain was 1 of 26 co-sponsors-- along with Obama-- of the Dream Act)
7. Eliminate the Family Backlog. Commit to clearing out the backlog of individuals that are waiting legally
outside of the country, some for up to 20 years, for their green card number to become available.
Considerations of Comprehensive
Immigration Reform in an Obama
Historical loyalty to labor unions and “blue
collar” workers/working class issues
Rhetoric of protecting American workers and
jobs… foreign workers can be seen as a
Hesitancy in some free trade issues,
particularly NAFTA
A progressive Obama administration could
work in a more non-partisan manner on the
Consideration of the root causes of
migration/illegal immigration and better
diplomatic relations with other countries,
including Mexico and Latin America
A Democratic majority in the House, Senate
and control of the Executive branch
(Obama) could force new legislation through
Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid has
listed C.I.R. as a top priority in future
Congressional sessions
Considerations of Comprehensive
Immigration Reform in a McCain
• Conservative/”nativest”
approach to threats of illegal
immigration; greater emphasis
on punishment and deportation
• Very vocal and influential rightwing element of the G.O.P.
has already shown its ability to
scuttle and oppose C.I.R. in
most forms
“Big Business” and industry are
traditionally Republican supporters and
generally view immigrants as costeffective labor supply
McCain has substantial record as
being a leader in Congress on the
specific issue of C.I.R. and has likely
learned a lot from previous experience
and failure of S.2611
Provisions of McCain’s previous C.I.R.
bill (S. 2611) would most likely form
the foundation of future legislation on
the issue
V.P. Palin can see Russia from her
International Education
• Barack Obama
• John McCain
Next President Should Make International
Education Central to Meeting National Needs
The United States Still Needs an International Education Policy. The
purpose of establishing a U.S. International Education Policy is to get to a
point where we have a clear policy articulated by the highest level of
government -- and by this, NAFSA means the president -- that brings
together government, higher education, and the private sector in a
concerted effort to ensure that we reap the maximum benefits from this
national asset.
One thing is clear… a U.S. International Education Policy should be a
central part of our next president’s solution to re-establishing America’s
rightful place as a respected leader of the world and to restoring hope for a
more prosperous, secure future.
United States
International Education Policy History
November 10, 1999, a speech was given by NAFSA Executive Director & CEO
Marlene Johnson explaining the origins and purposes of a national international
education policy presented at the Council on International Educational Exchange
Such a policy needs to identify goals for:
International student recruitment
Study abroad
Foreign-language learning
Exchanges of citizens and scholars
Mobilization and coordination of international-education efforts and resources at various
President Clinton Issues Executive Memorandum
on International Education
President Clinton gave NAFSA's strategic objective of pursuing a U.S. international
education policy a big boost when he signed an April 19, 2000 memorandum to the
heads of executive departments and agencies calling for an international education
policy. The executive memorandum reflects the substance, as well as the details,
outlined in the NAFSA/Alliance international education policy statement issued
earlier this year. NAFSA views this presidential action as the first step in putting the
international education policy into practice.
Quickly following up with President Clinton: NAFSA's Policy Statement entitled
"Toward an International Education Policy for the United States", co-written with the
Alliance for International Educational and Cultural Exchange, is a condensed and
updated version of the NAFSA/Alliance February 22, 2000 policy statement.
Senate Concurrent Resolution 7
107th Congress
On February 1, 2001, Senators John Kerry (D-Mass.) and Richard G. Lugar (R-Ind.)
introduced the resolution in the U.S. Senate "expressing the sense of Congress that
the United States should establish an international education policy to enhance
national security and significantly further United States foreign policy and global
The co-sponsors of the resolution are Senators Christopher J. Dodd (D-Conn.), Bob
Graham (D-Fla.), Jesse Helms (R-N.C.), Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Tex.), Daniel K.
Inouye (D-Hawaii), Patrick J. Leahy (D-Vt.), Carl Levin (D-Mich.), Richard G. Lugar
(R-Ind.), Zell Miller (D-Ga.), Harry M. Reid (D-Nev.), and Paul D. Wellstone (DMinn.)
House Concurrent Resolution 201
107th Congress
On July 26, 2001, Representatives Jim Kolbe (R-Ariz.) and James L. Oberstar (DMinn.) introduced a concurrent resolution (H.Con.Res.201) in the U.S. House of
Representatives calling for a national international education policy to significantly
"further United States foreign policy and economic competitiveness, and promote
mutual understanding and cooperation among nations.”
The full Senate unanimously approved a similar resolution (S.Con.Res 7), introduced
by Sens. John Kerry (D-Mass.) and Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), on April 6, 2001.
The bipartisan resolution (S.Con.Res 7), was cosponsored by Representatives
David Dreier (R-Calif.), Benjamin A. Gilman (R-N.Y.), Maurice D. Hinchey (D-N.Y.),
James A. Leach (R-Iowa), James P. McGovern (D-Mass.), Ralph Regula (R-Ohio),
and Fred Upton (R-Mich.), highlights the importance of international education to
"meet national security, foreign policy, economic, and other global challenges facing
the United States."
NAFSA Updates International Education
Policy Statement
In May 2003, NAFSA updates it’s Policy Statement entitled “Toward an International
Education Policy for the United States”, co-written with the Alliance for International
Educational and Cultural Exchange. This paper is an update of the December 2000
version of the NAFSA/Alliance statement.
An international education policy should:
– Promote international, foreign-language, and area studies.
– Create a comprehensive strategy to restore America’s status as a magnet for
international students and scholars.
– Create a comprehensive strategy to establish study abroad as an integral
component of undergraduate education.
– Strengthen citizen- and community-based exchange programs.
Further Momentum…
United States should establish an International
Education Policy
On March 16, 2005, U.S. Representative Jim Kolbe (R-Ariz.) and Rep. Jim Oberstar
(D-Minn.) introduced a bipartisan resolution, H.Con.Res.100, calling on Congress
that the United States should establish an international education policy to foster
mutual understanding among nations, promote a world free of terrorism, further
United States foreign policy and national security, enhance United States leadership
in the world, and for other purposes. This resolution received several cosponsors,
but was not passed by the end of the 109th Congress.
While NAFSA continues to advocate for a national policy on international education,
individual NAFSA members across the country are building momentum for this effort
by working to get their state to pass a state-level international education resolution
modeled after H. Con.Res. 100.
Survey of American Public: International Education
is Key to Preparing Next Generation
On January 11, 2006, Survey Published… “Survey of American Public: International
Education is Key to Preparing Next Generation Americans in overwhelming numbers
believe that international education is a key to preparing their children for success in
the global age. They believe that foreign language skills will make their children
more competitive in the job market, and they feel it is important for the next
generation to have the opportunity to study abroad and to interact with students from
other countries while in college.”
Special Note: These are the findings of a new national survey commissioned by
NAFSA: Association of International Educators, which polled more than 1,000 adults
representing a broad cross-section of the American public during the first week of
December 2005.
Enhancing US Leadership, Security and
Competiveness Through International Education
December 18, 2006, A Bipartisan Legislative Agenda for the 110th Congress. There
was hope… “The 110th Congress will have an opportunity to address a pressing
national need to enhance U.S. international leadership, competitiveness, and
security by strengthening international education and exchange programs. Foreign
policy leaders in both the administration and Congress concur on the importance of
these programs, and they have strong bipartisan support.” But, alas, long story
short, no US International Education Policy materialized in 2007…
Fall/Winter, 2007, NAFSA: Association of International Educators Executive Director
and CEO Marlene Johnson sent a letter to the 2008 presidential candidates, urging
them to consider how they, if elected, would marshal the vital resource of
international education to serve the nation’s needs…
National Lieutenant Governors Association’s
Resolution in support of establishing a national
International Education Policy
On July 25, 2008, during their annual meeting, the National Lieutenant Governors
Association passed a resolution in support of establishing a national international
education policy.
The resolution was cosponsored by Lt. Governors Brian Dubie of Vermont and
Barbara Lawton of Wisconsin. Additional co-sponsors include Lt. Governor
Catherine Baker Knoll (Pennsylvania), Lt. Governor Pat Quinn (Illinois), Lt. Governor
Gary Herbert (Utah), Lt. Governor Timothy P. Villagomez (Commonwealth of the
Northern Mariana Islands), Lt. Governor Mark Parkinson (Kansas), Lt. Governor
John Bohlinger (Montana), Lt. Governor Jack Dalrymple (North Dakota), and Lt.
Governor Brian Krolicki (Nevada).
U.S. International Education Policy Resolution
Serves as Model for States
While NAFSA continues to advocate for a national policy on international education,
individual NAFSA members across the country are building momentum for this effort
by working to get their state to pass a state-level international education resolution
modeled after H. Con.Res. 100 (reference, U.S. Representative Jim Kolbe (R-Ariz.)
and Rep. Jim Oberstar (D-Minn).
The resolution called for a policy that would help to:
Promote mutual understanding among nations by invigorating and promoting citizen,
professional, and scholarly exchanges
Ensure that visa and employment policies promote access to such exchanges, consistent
with homeland security
Increase participation by U.S. students in study and internships abroad, and expanding the
locations, languages, and subjects offered by those programs
Improve the U.S. capacity to produce citizens with international expertise
Encourage foreign language learning at a early age
Promote partnerships among government, business, educational institutions and
organizations to ensure adequate resources for implementing such a policy
International Education at the State Level
Below is a list of current state-level initiatives that benefit international education at the
postsecondary level, such as legislation, proclamations, consortiums, and commissions.
* State has resolution passed in one chamber of the state legislature
Florida* (Apr. 2008)
Pennsylvania (Apr. 2008)
Missouri* (Apr. 2008)
Georgia* (March 2008)
Wisconsin (March 2008)
Illinois (March 2008)
West Virginia (March 2008)
New Mexico* (February 2008)
Massachusetts (February 2008)
Minnesota (May 2007)
Oklahoma (May 2007)
Vermont (May 2007)
Montana (Apr. 2007)
Indiana (Apr. 2007)
Hawaii (Apr. 2007)
Arkansas (Mar. 2007)
Nevada (May 2005)
Mississippi (Feb. 2005)
Texas (May 2004, Apr. 2005)
Louisiana (Apr. 2003)
California (Sep. 2002)
Kentucky (Apr. 2002)
U.S. International Education Policy Resolution
Serves as Model for States
OBAMA and…our future…
International Education Policy
President Obama!
Kara Haas
Assistant Director for Federal
Relations at Yale University
Discussion and Q&A
• Questions:
– What does this mean to you in your role as an IE
– What questions does it raise for you?

The Morning After: Exploring the Impact of New …