Introduction to Public Relations Part One Public Relations…The Profession Chapter 2 The History of Public Relations Slide 1 of 55 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction to Public Relations History Why Study the Historical Roots of Public Relations? To excel in a profession like public relations, you must master its cultural roots. • • What are the dynamics in a culture (past and present) that make your discipline vital to successful involvement in that culture? What forces shaped your culture regarding how people think and behave relative to your profession? Slide 2 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Made in America • • • Public relations as a profession was initially an American phenomenon. By the end of the 20th century, the same forces were mandating a need for PR throughout the industrialized world. Leaders through the centuries have always sought to influence their publics. Let’s examine some early attempts. Slide 3 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History America—Dynamic Greenhouse for Public Power • Unique and simultaneous political-cultural forces created a new power for public opinion in young America: • • • • • • A democratic and republican government of, by and for the people Free markets Systems of checks and balances A rise in affluence and education for “commoners” An independent population voting with ballots and dollars Such forces caused public relations to be made in America. Slide 4 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Public Relations in the Revolutionary War • Before the American Revolutionary War (17741783) began, colonial leaders had no wish to pursue war with Britain. • • Slide 5 of 55 The revolution had to be a popular war if democratic ideas were to work. Yet, the leaders recognized a problem—only one-third of Americans favored independence. Introduction to Public Relations History Public Relations in the Revolutionary War • Two leaders of the revolution shrewdly appealed to public sentiment. • Samuel Adams - a true campaigner • George Washington - a maximizer of success Adams was before his time regarding influence… Slide 6 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Samuel Adams—the Campaigner A member of the Continental Congress, Samuel Adams initiated a sustained, public campaign to influence Americans to seek independence by: • • • • Using symbols that were easily identifiable and aroused emotions. Publicizing slogans that are still remembered such as “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” Publicizing events such as “The Boston Massacre” when the British fired into a group of colonists. Staging events such as the Boston Tea Party to influence public opinion. Slide 7 of 55 The Boston Tea Party—an act of AngloAmericans dressed as Native Americans. Introduction to Public Relations History A Broad Appeal to the People’s Idealism After the Revolutionary War, the Federalist Papers, a series of 85 newspaper essays about the Constitution and the new form of government, were published. The Federalist Papers appealed to Americans for a form of government to guard and enhance three values: • • • ideals of common justice the general welfare of the public the rights of individuals and private property The widespread distribution of the Federalist Papers led to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution (1787-88). Slide 8 of 55 Click image to view The Federalist Papers www.law.emory.edu Introduction to Public Relations History “Public Sentiment Is Everything” It was during the Civil War that President Lincoln learned the value of good public sentiment (or opinion). Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment, nothing can fail; without it, nothing can succeed. --Abraham Lincoln Photo from the University of Tennessee web site www.SunSITE.edu Slide Slide9 9ofof5555 The Industrial Revolution Began a New Era of Public Relations The Industrial Revolution (19th-20th centuries) was a landmark era for public relations. At the end of the 19th century, changes in social and economic conditions mandated new relations between industry and the public. The Industrial Revolution brought about a change in how products were made—from using hand tools at home to using machine and power tools in a factory. There were new and not always pleasant realities of American life: • • • The enforced rhythm of the factory The stress of urban life The vast distinction between bosses and workers. During this era, public relations began to develop as an independent profession. Three industrial forces… Slide 10 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Three Major Industrial Forces The modern public relations profession is an outgrowth of three American forces in the 19th20th centuries: • • • Broad recognition of the power of public opinion Competition among institutions for public support Development of media to quickly influence public opinion Slide 11 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Corporate America’s Response Business leaders recognized that new stresses on the populace threatened production. “Corporations gradually began to realize the importance of combating hostility and courting public favor.” —Marie Curtl The term public relations came into use at this time. The earliest appearance was probably in Dorman Eaton's 1882 address to the graduating class of the Yale Law School. Slide 12 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History American Industry Learned to Value Public Image Business leaders began to hire people adept at understanding how to influence the public. • • AT&T (1883): Theodore Vail hired Charles J. Smith to manage company conflict with the public. Westinghouse (1889): George Westinghouse, patriarch of his famous electrical company, hired E. H. Heinrichs to establish the first corporate public relations department. • Slide 13 of 55 The goal was to win the fight against Thomas Edison regarding how the nation would be wired (AC or DC). George Westinghouse used PR to bring us AC current. www.britannica.com Introduction to Public Relations History A Classic Press Agent Approach P. T. Barnum (d. 1891)—the master press agent: • The circus owner Barnum masterfully and, some say, inaccurately used publicity to make money. Slide 14 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History The First Publicity Bureau In 1900, George Michaelis established the first publicity bureau in Boston to serve businesses. • • He gathered factual information about his clients for distribution to newspapers. By 1906, his major clients were the nation's railroads that were seeking to head off adverse regulations being promoted by President Theodore Roosevelt. Slide 15 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History President Roosevelt vs. the Railroads • President Roosevelt, who saw the presidency as “a bully pulpit,'' proved to be more than a match for the Publicity Bureau. • The first president to make extensive use of press conferences and interviews, Roosevelt was said to rule the country from the newspapers' front pages. Slide Slide 16 16 of of 55 55 Introduction to Public Relations History The Father of Public Relations—Ivy Lee • Lee made the first move toward the modern practice of information sharing, such as reporting on employee benefits and safety. Some of his clients were: • • Pennsylvania Railroad (1906-1909) John D. Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel Strike (1914) Slide 17 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Moving Toward Openness and Honesty • • Ivy Lee (d. 1934) www.fredonia.edu/ Lee convinced the corporate clients of his publicity agency (est. 1904) to become more open and honest with the public. His Declaration of Principles became the forerunner to a PR Code of Ethics. • Slide 18 of 55 The public was no longer to be ignored…nor fooled, in the continuing manner of the press agent. —Eric Goldman Introduction to Public Relations History The Persuasive Communication Tradition • • • The Creel Committee in World War I can be credited with developing persuasive techniques to influence the American public to support the war and buy bonds. Edward Bernays and Carl Byoir were two of those PR practitioners coming out of this WWI tradition to launch public relations into the next decades. Elmer Davis and the Office of War Information in World War II continued this social science approach to influencing opinion with considerable experimental opinion research done to provide the theory for the PR programs. Slide 19 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Edward Bernays—Pioneer of PR Education Edward Bernays made significant contributions to equipping practitioners for effective service. He taught the first collegiate public relations course at New York University (1923) and wrote the first public relations textbook, Crystallizing Public Opinion . Bernays developed three tools to influence public consent: • • • market research social surveys public opinion polls Slide 20 of 55 Click image to read a biography of Bernays (center). Photo from the Museum of Public Relations (prmuseum.com). Introduction to Public Relations History Committee on Public Information President Woodrow Wilson turned public relations from a defensive tool to an offensive one when he set up the Committee on Public Information in 1917 to gain support for World War I. Led by newspaper man George Creel, the Committee on Public Information was a phenomenal success. On May 1, 1917, there were 350,000 holders of U.S. Bonds. Six months later, 10 million held bonds. Slide 21 of 55 The Censor Board of the Committee on Public Information; George Creel is seated on the far right. Photo from http://www.thehistorynet.com. Introduction to Public Relations History Relationship-building and Two-way Communication Tradition Now public relations opens a two-way door for influence. It became increasingly obvious to practitioners that organizations communicate with the public not only by words but also by their response to public opinion. This new awareness allowed practitioners to advise management as well as inform the public. Consequently, public relations professionals gained a place in the heart of business organizations—the decision-making and operational aspects. Ivy Lee was again in the vanguard… Slide 22 of 55 John D. Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel Strike • • Out of the 22 deaths in the Ludlow Massacre, 13 were women and children. Click this box to view photographs of the massacre circulated at the time. Slide 23 of 55 The Ludlow Massacre at the miners strike (1914) against Colorado Fuel and Iron Company shocked the nation. • • In desperation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the key stockholder, gave Ivy Lee the opportunity to become a consultant on the internal workings of his coal business. Lee strongly recommended to Rockefeller that he improve communications with miners and establish mechanisms to redress workers' grievances. Lee’s emphasis on counseling management to take positive action marked a major shift in public relations theory and practice. Introduction to Public Relations History Inward Focus on Employees Expands • In addition to its outward focus, public relations expanded its inward focus. This had several results. • • • Employees became recognized as a significant public. Ivy Lee persuaded his client American Tobacco Company to introduce profit-sharing for its employees. By 1925, more than half of all major manufacturing companies were publishing employee magazines. The practice moves upward… Slide 24 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History AT&T and Arthur Page Arthur Page accepted AT&T’s offer of PR vice president on the condition that he would have a voice in company policy. Page set out to win public confidence. This required a continuous and planned program of positive public relations. • • Click on the image to read a short biography of Arthur Page, a giant of a PR practitioner. Photo from prmuseum.com. Slide 25 of 55 • AT&T went directly to the public with a film program for schools and civic groups. AT&T paid fees for employees to join outside organizations as representatives. Finally, the company sought to have as many people as possible own its stock. Introduction to Public Relations History Events That Shaped PR in mid 20th Century • Two mid-20th century events significantly shaped the American culture. • • • The Great Depression World War II Those events also influenced the development of public relations as an agent of mutual influence. How did the Depression affect public relations? Slide 26 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History The Depression Brought Compassion • Workers looking for work in the Great Depression. Click the image to see what life was like in the 1930s. Photo © 2001 Britannica.com Inc Slide 27 of 55 Public relations people began to emphasize a new approach to their publics—one of seeking mutual influence through understanding (Stage 3). • • They sought to understand the desperate needs of their publics. They facilitated acts of compassion on the part of their clients. Introduction to Public Relations History The Prestige of the Populace Increased • The flow of capital and production evaporated after the market crash of 1929. • • The need for an informed public became more vital as government, business and labor competed for public support for the use of limited resources. Persuasion and publicity could be effective only when they were coupled with responsible performance. • The practitioner was called upon to help organizations pursue responsible performance to increase public respect. War gave PR a permanent place in government… Slide 28 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Military Adopted Public Relations in World War II (1939-1945) • The deteriorating military and political situation in Europe caused the military to increase its practice of public relations in the 1930s. • • Each branch of the service built its own public relations apparatus to promote its particular form of warfare. The Army's PR efforts employed 3,000 military and civilian personnel. How Hitler captured public relations… Slide 29 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Hitler’s Nazi Party Became Masters of Public Relations The greatest application of public relations techniques in the 1930s occurred in Germany. Click here to read The Nazi propaganda machine under Joseph Goebbels viciously used press agentry. The Nazis demonstrated both the dangers and the effectiveness of propaganda. Slide Slide 3030 of of 55 55 about the Americanborn Axis Sally. She made propaganda broadcasts for Radio Berlin in Hitler's Germany. Introduction to Public Relations History US Office of War Information Mobilized a Nation • • In June 1942, with America fully engaged in the war, the Office of War Information (OWI) was established under Elmer Davis. A massive public relations effort was mounted to rally the home front. Slide 31 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History OWI Developed a Broad PR Campaign • The goal of the Office of War Information was to implement massive mobilization strategies: • • • • • selling war bonds rationing food, clothing and gasoline planting victory gardens recruiting military personnel promoting factory productivity and efficiency Read these posters through the eyes of a soldier’s wife… Slide 32 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Images that Mobilized a Nation at War These posters were printed for the Office of War Information and retrieved from the National Archives and Records Administration web site at http://www.archives.gov. Slide Slide 3333 of of 55 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Influx of PR Practitioners after WWII Click on the picture to hear about PR after WWII. Slide 34 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History The Legacy of the OWI Remains Today • Several important communication agencies that are still active today trace their beginnings to OWI: • • United States Information Agency (USIA) The Voice of America radio network • • The first broadcast (1942) of the VOA was in German, intended to counter Nazi propaganda. By 1945 the VOA was broadcasting in 40 languages weekly. The Advertising Council In war the foundation was laid for sophistication of public relations in business. Slide 35 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Post World War II Era Saw Increased Sophistication • The post war era witnessed tremendous growth of public relations as a sophisticated profession. • • • • Practitioners such as Earl Newsom with Standard Oil (1945) were increasingly invited to participate in policy decision making. During this period, new emphasis was placed on public relations functions ( and on more sophisticated PR tools (e.g., audience analysis). Carl Byoir used public relations techniques to raise money nationally to help polio victims and to find a cure for the crippling disease. Harold Burson began his PR agency in 1946; merged with Bill Marstellar in 1953. Burson-Marstellar became the largest public relations agency in the world. It remains one of the top agencies today. A place in the university… Slide 36 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Development in Education and Ethics for Public Relations • Boston University established the first school of public relations (1947). • • Two years later, one hundred colleges and universities offered classes in the subject. In 1954, the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) developed the first code of ethics for the profession. • Slide 37 of 55 The society set up a grievance board for code enforcement in 1962 and a program of voluntary accreditation in 1964. Introduction to Public Relations History Moss Kendrix Changed Perceptions about African-Americans • • • Moss Kendrix (1917-1989) was a public relations pioneer in transforming racial stereotyping. Kendrix used advertising to influence how Americans viewed black citizens. American icons such as Carnation, the Ford Motor Company, and the Coca-Cola, employed Kendrix to create campaigns that targeted the black community. Click on the image to read about Kendrix’s amazing legacy. Photo from www.prmuseum.com. Slide 38 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Increased Role of Government in Organizational Life Business/government relations became increasingly important as the federal government entered a new era of regulation. Such regulations came in part because of several issues in the 1970s-80s: • • • • • civil rights and equal opportunity environmentalism consumerism urban problems nuclear power Slide 39 of 55 March 1965 civil rights march travels 54 miles in Alabama regarding voting rights. Photo taken from www.msnbc.com. Introduction to Public Relations History Review of Principles from the Second Millennium From the second millennium lesson, we realized that… 1. Historical leaders influenced their worlds through timely mixtures of passion and words. 2. Even powerful people cannot ignore the opinion of the public. 3. Democracy is dependent on a strong, opinionated public. 4. An intentional and sustained campaign to broadly influence the public can be very effective. 5. Publishing one’s successes affects indifferent public opinion. 6. A wide distribution of rational appeal to the public’s values influences their thinking and behavior. Slide 40 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Review of Principles from the Industrial Revolution The public relations profession was born in the industrial age through dynamic changes in American life. • • • Organizations must accept the need to deal with public opinion. In a media-strong democracy, the public can powerfully express its opinion. PR professionals help organizations avoid costly expressions of public discontent in an age of fierce competition for public support. Slide 41 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Review of Principles Since 1930 • • • The Depression-War era led public relations to value mutual influence and develop massive, sophisticated strategies to communicate with and influence the public. Public relations became a respected, sophisticated and expanded profession during the post-WWII era, largely through governmental and public influence. Currently public relations is evolving as a force for adaptation to public concerns on vital issues. Slide 42 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History In Summary… Since its inception, Public Relations has undergone several changes. These changes were usually brought about by changes in the environment in which people lived. Practitioners must be aware of the history of PR and anticipate changes in the present and future of Public Relations. Slide 43 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Slides not used in class Slide 44 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Today’s Learning Objectives are… • • • • • Understand that people cannot ignore public opinion Realize how a democracy is dependent on public opinion Discover how two major forces influenced the development of public relations in the United States during the 1930s. Trace how PR became a respected and sophisticated profession during the post-WWII era. Comprehend how public relations is currently changing at the start of the 21st century. Is public relations history important? Slide 45 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Great Communicators of the Pre-modern Era • Who would you say influenced the public the most by delivering a speech? • • • • • • Pope Urban II Abraham Lincoln Winston Churchill Martin Luther King Johnny Carson Many historians believe that Pope Urban did. Never heard of him, you say? How a speech united a continent… Slide 46 of 55 The Speech that Inflamed a Continent • Pope Urban declared the misdeeds of the Seljuks in a speech given in Claremont, France (A.D. 1095). • • In his speech, he challenged Europe to send an army to protect the holy places and Christian visitors in Palestine from the Seljuk Turks. Europe overwhelmingly responded to Urban’s challenge, and thus began the Crusades that lasted for two centuries From Pope Urban we learn: • • Click image to read Pope Urban’s speech. Slide 47 of 55 To influence people, we must identify sincerely with their common passions. We must clearly and publicly express our aspirations. The Timing of Luther’s List • Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation with a list of grievances. In 1517 he publicly posted a list of 95 grievances he held against the church leaders in Rome. Within a few years, half of Europe supported Luther’s ideas. • • A few decades earlier, Luther probably would have been burned at the stake for his protest (as was Jon Hus). But in 1517, much of Europe was brewing for radical change and Luther knew it. Slide 48 of Click to read a few of Luther's arguments in his 95 Theses. Introduction to Public Relations History The Role of Public Opinion • Throughout history, leaders have courted public sentiment to sustain their power. Even monarchies or dictators cannot afford to ignore public attitudes. They often take pains to assure that their subjects are supportive of their regime. • • Constitutional monarchies and democracies arose from a self-consciousness of the people. One change was indirectly influenced by an unpopular, political philosopher. That philosopher was Locke… Slide 49 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History The Influence of John Locke The concept of the natural right of people to oversee their rulers was developed by English philosopher John Locke (d. 1704) and later adopted by Thomas Jefferson. Locke taught radical ideas that were very unpopular with European rulers but became accepted in America, such as… • • Governments derive their power from the consent of their subjects. John Locke Democracy is a very advanced and more natural form of government. Democracies thrive on public opinion… Slide 50 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Three Stages of PR Development • • Development of these traditions were sequential, but all three still exist to some extent today. • • • Rhetorician Press Agent Journalistic/Publicity Tradition Today, though, public relations is moving… • • away from using any available means to achieve desired public opinion toward informing the public and providing information and counsel to management Slide 51 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History I. Rhetoricians The early aspects of public relations in trying to influence publics through what was said, not necessarily what was done. Illustrated men such as by: Caesar Pope Urban Samuel Adams Slide 52 of 55 “Propaganda of the Deed” • • In the quest to gain media and public attention, press agentry became increasingly outrageous, exploitive, manipulative, and even cruel. Paul Brousse (French sociologist in 1878) argued for: • • • The Propaganda of the Deed : the idea justified the need for actions to gain public attention to political ideas/grievances. For European anarchists in the late nineteenth century, propaganda of the deed meant bombing, murder, and assassination. Propaganda of the deed became known as terrorism after the 1960s. Slide 53 of 55 Smoke billowing over Tulsa,Oklahoma during 1921 race riots, Alvin C. Krupnick Co., photographer, Library of Congress The Rise of Non-violent Press Agentry The twentieth century witnessed the use of non-violent, staged events to draw attention to social/political issues. Mahatma Gandhi ingeniously used nonviolence to bring independence to India (1930-1947). Inspired by Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully applied non-violent events to change American attitudes and laws about civil rights for black Americans (1960s). The way Gandhi even dressed and traveled were meant to influence public opinion. To learn more about Gandhi, visit this site: www.nuvs.com/ashram Slide 54 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History Press Agentry and Hostility • • • The success of press agents in attracting attention and a public response often results in hostility from the press and the public. Such results are assured if the publicity is coupled with blatantly deceptive and manipulative tactics. Press agentry gave public relations a bad name that persists to this day. Public relations practitioners should use press agentry only with high ethics and great care. From manipulation to cooperation… Slide 55 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History III. Journalistic/Publicity Tradition • • By the early 1900s, businesses were forced to submit to three new dynamics: • • • numerous governmental regulations increasingly hostile criticism from the press rise of the American labor union movements Public relations moved from the stage of press agentry to an era of public cooperation through distribution of accurate information. Slide 56 of 55 Introduction to Public Relations History The End of Corporate America’s Era of Success • The Great Depression (1929-1939) witnessed thousands of bankruptcies and the vanishing of great wealth. • • Business was viewed as a failed institution, unable to sustain prosperity. Corporate public relations became less negative and more of a positive and continuous program to rebuild confidence. Slide 57 of 55 After the Wall Street crash of 1929, the Dow Jones did not recover its lost stock points until the mid-1950s.