Copyright © 2012, by Jay Seller, Ph.D. 1895 Birth of Cinematography In 1894 Thomas Edison and William Dickson invented the Kinetoscope and Vitascope 1895 Birth of Cinematography The Lumiere Brothers were the earliest filmmakers. 1895 they created their own device combining camera with printer and projector, called the Cinematographe. 1895 Birth of Cinematography Robert W. Paul invented a film projector Theatrograph, first public showing in 1895 1895 Birth of Cinematography Films under a minute long and usually presented a single scene, authentic or staged, of everyday life, a public event, a sporting event or slapstick. Silent Era 1895-1927 Paris stage magician Georges Méliès did films of fantasy and the bizarre, including A Trip to the Moon (1902). Silent Era 1895-1927 Edwin S. Porter, pushed forward the sophistication of film editing in works like the first movie Western, The Great Train Robbery (1903). Silent Era 1895-1927 Boom in nickelodeons, the first permanent movie theaters 10,000 in the U.S. alone by 1908. (Cook, 1990) Silent Era 1895-1927 Standard length of a film remained one reel, or about ten to fifteen minutes, partly based on producers' assumptions about the attention spans of their still largely working class audiences. Silent Era 1895-1927 Leading the trend for longer movies, in America was director D.W. Griffith with his historical epics The Birth of a Nation (1915 - 190 minutes) and Intolerance (1916 – 197 minutes). Birth of a Nation (1915) Credited with securing the future of feature length films (films over 40 minutes) as well as solidifying the language of cinema. Silent Era 1895-1927 1920s, U.S. produced an average of 800 feature films annually, or 82% of the global total. (Eyman, 1997) Talking Pictures 1927 1927, Warner Brothers Studios released The Jazz Singer,. Golden Age of Hollywood 1927-1940’s American cinema reached its peak of efficiently manufactured glamour and global appeal during this period. Golden Age of Hollywood Top actors of the era are now thought of as the classic movie stars, such as Clark Gable, Katharine Hepburn, Humphrey Bogart and the number one box office draw of the '30s, child performer Shirley Temple. Golden Era of Radio 1930’s • Affordable for every household • Brought the world to your living room Golden Era of Film 1940’s Started in 1939 with The Wizard of Oz and Gone With the Wind. Golden Era of TV 1950’s Television introduced to the American public at the 1939 NY World’s Fair Filmmaking Process Filmmaking is a collaborative effort, bringing an assortment of talented people together. Titanic (1997) Three Stages of Production Pre-Production Production Post Production Batman: Dark Knight, (2008) Pre-Production Everything that takes place before filming begins Script, budget, locations, set construction, casting, etc. AFI Pre-Production Video The Avengers, (2012) Production Shooting of the script, the filming process. The Hunger Games, (2012) Post Production Editing and Marketing of a film Includes; advertising, printing, and distribution of a movie. Twilight: Breaking Dawn, (2012) Theatre Style Progression Vaudeville, 1880-1920 Burlesque, 1840-1930 Follies, 1907-1931 Hollywood Systems Studio System • Complete control • Studio contract players & staff Independent System • Individual control • Independent contract workers Censorship in Hollywood • Production Code Administration – 1934 to 1967, also known as the Hays Office (Will H. Hays, MPAA Pres. 1922-1945) • Motion Picture Association of America, 1967 to today.