Barriers to Career Development
INTERACTIVE TOOLKIT
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Identify Barriers Relevant to Your School
Location
Immigration Status
Parental Involvement
Minority Status
Socio-Economic Class
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
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Location
The location, and thus available resources, of a school and community may be a large barrier or
perceived barrier to career development for both parents and students. Location of the school and
community may also contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged based on race, ethnicity,
socio-economic class, or gender; perceiving limited opportunities for career experiences; and perceived
limited opportunities for social and economic support for career decisions or educational needs.
Although little can be done to change the location of the school, students and parents can be supported
to help over come these perceived barriers in a number of ways:
• Provide a list of local resources for career development, career experience, and educational support,
including mentoring programs.
• Include school-sponsored and community-supported resources.
• Encourage students to gain hands-on experience in their field of interest.
• Encourage and help students to see how related experiences can connect to their field of
interest, especially if no direct opportunities for experience are available locally.
(Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne,
& Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown, 2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Location
• Connect career development to curriculum content.
• Make these connections explicit to students, but be sure to express that the list of connections is
not exhaustive.
• When discussing career development, provide examples of successful career professionals who come
from a similar location.
• Include diversity of race, ethnicity, and gender, especially your students are likely to feel those
are potential barriers they will face.
• Encourage students to choose a career role model.
• Encourage students to identify their personal interests, skills, goals, perceived barriers, and expected
outcomes for career efforts.
• Work with students to develop plans to overcome their perceive barriers using their identified
skills and interests, available resources for increasing their skills and experiences, and examples
from their career role model.
(Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne,
& Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown, 2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Immigration Status
Language Barriers
Feeling Unwelcome in the School
Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System
Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Language Barriers
Parent Language Barriers
Student Language Barriers
R
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parent Language Barriers
Parents who have recently immigrated to the U.S. may have limited experience reading, writing, or
speaking English. These parents may want to be involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty
doing so –both from the immediate language barrier, and as a result of a perceived judgment against
them.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Provide translated materials, especially the pamphlets and flyers sent home with students.
• Provide the option of a translator for interactions with the faculty.
• Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong
here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
• Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths.
• Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents.
• Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Student Language Barriers
Because school systems provide English as a Second Language programs, Student Language Barriers are
not about misunderstanding spoken or written course work or school communications.
Instead, students may perceive that speaking English as their second language will become a barrier for
them as try to find jobs and establish careers.
To help students overcome this perceived barrier:
• Encourage students to think of, and present, their multilingual abilities as a skill or career asset.
• When discussing careers, provide examples which represent multilingual professionals, particularly
professionals who speak English as their second language.
• This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to
feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to.
(Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Feeling Unwelcome in the School
Language Barriers
Perceived Judgment
Limited Connection to the School
Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System
R
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Perceived Judgment
Parents’ Perceived Judgment
Students’ Perceived Judgment
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parents’ Perceived Judgment
Parents who have recently immigrated to the U.S. may have limited experience reading, writing, or
speaking English, and limited understanding and experience with the culture. These parents may want to
be involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty doing so because of a fear being judged
based on their ethnicity, culture, or immigration status.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong
here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
• Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths.
• Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents.
• Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures.
• Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their child’s schooling.
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a
parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Students’ Perceived Judgment
Students’ may perceived they are being judged by peers, school authorities, and potential employers.
This judgment may be based on their ethnicity, language abilities, ability to understand course materials,
gender role, socio-economic class, or a number of other factors.
To help students overcome this perceived barrier:
• Encourage students to identify barriers they think they will encounter.
• Discuss with the students why they believe they will encounter these barriers.
• Encourage students to identify their skills and interests.
• Discuss with students how these skills and interests may overcome, or provide alternate paths
around the barriers they have identified.
• When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of
backgrounds, experiences, and abilities.
• This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to
feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to.
(Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Limited Connection to the School
Parents Limited Connection to the School
Teacher Support for Parents Connection to the School
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parents
Limited Connection to the School
With language barriers, and perceived judgment, parents may have a difficult time connecting to the
school, and thus face increased barriers in becoming involved in their children’s education.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong
here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
• Encourage parents to attend parent-teacher association meetings, and meetings with teachers or
other staff.
• Offer child-care during meetings, so that parents with no other child-care options can come.
• Offer free or reduced-fare transportation to parent-teacher association meetings, so parents
with no other means of transport can come.
• Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their children’s schooling.
• Give parents feedback on the positive influence of their involvement.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parents
Limited Connection to the School
• Build bridges between the school and families.
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as
a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
• Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other
parents and staff, and browse resources.
• Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.
• Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of
the students at the end of the school year.
• Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning.
• Encourage parents and students to talk about both general and specific aspects of school.
• Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Teacher Support for Parents Connection
to the School
Teachers can play an instrumental role in supporting parents, and encouraging parents to connect to the
school and increase their involvement in their child’s education.
Because teachers have a wide variety of experience with parental involvement, they may need some
encouragement to invite parents to become more involved in their classrooms.
To help overcome this barrier:
• Establish a Teachers Involving Parents Program
• Encourage teachers to keep parents informed about students progress, rather than only contacting
parents when there is a problem
• Encourage teachers to establish student-led parent-teacher conferences
• Provide support for teacher-parent interactions.
• Serve as a facilitator for the interactions.
• Lead by example. Participate with frequent conversations with both parents and teachers, and
hold student-led counseling meetings.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School
System
Parents and students who recently immigrated to the U.S. may be unfamiliar with the U.S. School System,
and thus have a difficult time navigating it successfully.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Offer resources, in a variety of languages, which explain the U.S. School System in a concise manner.
• Offer times you are available to meet with parents (and a translator if necessary), and explain the U.S.
School system.
To help students overcome this barrier:
• Take time during time in English as a Second Language classes to explain the U.S. School System to
students.
• Emphasize important milestones and requirements in the school system.
• Offer time for students to come meet with you and discuss the U.S. School System, and develop a
strategy to navigate through the school system and meet their desired educational (and occupational)
goals successfully.
(Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Turney & Kao, 2009)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Cultural Differences in Educational Values
and Parental Involvement
Different cultures often have different educational values, career values, and perceptions of parental
involvement than typical of the culture in the U.S.; therefore parents and students with vast experience
in a different culture may have different educational priorities or means of showing parental involvement
than may be expected. This may or may not lead to parental involvement or career development
barriers.
To avoid potential barriers:
• Evaluate parental involvement from a variety of perspectives. Parental involvement does not just
mean participating in school-centered activities.
• Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments to encourage parental
involvement at home.
• Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of the
students at the end of the school year. This gives parents an indication of the level of support to offer
their child.
• Communicate to parents the importance in their children’s education, and career development.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Cultural Differences in Educational Values
and Parental Involvement
• Encourage students to identify their skills and interests.
• When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of
backgrounds, experiences, and abilities.
• This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to
feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parental Involvement
Unsure of Degree of Participation in Education
Lack of Support
Not Enough Communication with the School
Feeling Unwelcome in the School
Cultural Differences in Educational Values and Parental Involvement
Language Barriers
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Unsure of Degree of Participation in
Education
Parents play an important role in supporting and enhancing their child’s education; however, many
parents are unsure of how much they should participate in their child’s education and work and thus are
hesitant to do too much. Additionally, parents own educational experiences may leave them questioning
their capabilities for assisting their child and interacting with teachers, counselors, and other school staff.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Build bridges between the school and families.
• Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of
the students at the end of the school year.
• Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other
parents and staff, and browse resources.
• Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.
• Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning.
• Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Lack of Support
At times parents may feel unsupported in meeting their child’s educational and career development needs.
This lack of support can lead to parents being unsure of their abilities to assist their child, and may
eventually result in parents who have stopped trying all together.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their child’s schooling.
• Provide parents with specific feedback regarding the positive influence of their involvement.
• Build bridges between the school and families.
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a
parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
• Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other parents
and staff, and browse resources.
• Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning.
• Encourage teachers and staff to contact parents more frequently, not just when students are
having problems.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Not Enough Communication with the
School
Communication between parents, students, and the school are essential for building bridges between
schools and families; yet many parents feel they do not hear from the school enough. Parents are also
unsure of their ability to reach out and contact the school. When communication with the school falters,
parents may feel disconnected from their child’s education, and thus be more willing to be involved.
To help overcome this barrier:
• Create a welcoming school environment.
• Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we
belong here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
• Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents.
•Build bridges between the school and families.
• Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their children’s schooling.
• Give parents feedback on the positive influence of their involvement.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Not Enough Communication with the
School
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as
a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as
a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
• Encourage teachers and staff to contact parents more frequently, not just when students are
having problems.
• Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.
• Initiate a Teachers Involving Parents Program, to encourage and support teachers in seeking out
contact with parents.
• Provide support for teacher-parent interactions.
• Serve as a facilitator for the interactions.
• Lead by example. Participate with frequent conversations with both parents and teachers,
and hold student-led counseling meetings.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Feeling Unwelcome in the School
Language Barriers
Perceived Judgment
Limited Connection to the School
Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School System
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Perceived Judgment
Parents’ Perceived Judgment
Students’ Perceived Judgment
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Language Barriers
Parent Language Barriers
Student Language Barriers
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parent Language Barriers
Parents who have recently immigrated to the U.S. may have limited experience reading, writing, or
speaking English. These parents may want to be involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty
doing so –both from the immediate language barrier, and as a result of a perceived judgment against
them.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Provide translated materials, especially the pamphlets and flyers sent home with students.
• Provide the option of a translator for interactions with the faculty.
• Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong
here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
• Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths.
• Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents.
• Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Student Language Barriers
Because school systems provide English as a Second Language programs, Student Language Barriers are
not about misunderstanding spoken or written course work or school communications.
Instead, students may perceive that speaking English as their second language will become a barrier for
them as try to find jobs and establish careers.
To help students overcome this perceived barrier:
• Encourage students to think of, and present, their multilingual abilities as a skill or career asset.
• When discussing careers, provide examples which represent multilingual professionals, particularly
professionals who speak English as their second language.
• This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to
feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to.
(Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parents’ Perceived Judgment
Parents may perceived judgment for a variety of reasons, including immigration status, language barriers,
socio-economic class, race, ethnicity, and parenting style and support. These parents may want to be
involved in their student‘s school life, but have difficulty doing so because of a fear being judged.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong
here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
• Develop welcome strategies that clearly respect and build on families’ cultures and strengths.
• Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents.
• Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all cultures.
• Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their child’s schooling.
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a
parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Students’ Perceived Judgment
Students’ may perceived they are being judged by peers, school authorities, and potential employers.
This judgment may be based on their ethnicity, language abilities, ability to understand course materials,
gender role, socio-economic class, or a number of other factors.
To help students overcome this perceived barrier:
• Encourage students to identify barriers they think they will encounter.
• Discuss with the students why they believe they will encounter these barriers.
• Encourage students to identify their skills and interests.
• Discuss with students how these skills and interests may overcome, or provide alternate paths
around the barriers they have identified.
• When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of
backgrounds, experiences, and abilities.
• This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to
feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to.
(Clark, Carlson, Fisher, Cook, & D'Alonzo, 1991; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Limited Connection to the School
Parents Limited Connection to the School
Teacher Support for Parents Connection to the School
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parents
Limited Connection to the School
With language barriers and perceived judgment, parents may have a difficult time connecting to the
school, and thus face increased barriers in becoming involved in their children’s education.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Encourage parents to take ownership of their connection to the school. “This is our school; we belong
here.” (Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
• Encourage parents to attend parent-teacher association meetings, and meetings with teachers or
other staff.
• Offer child-care during meetings, so that parents with no other child-care options can come.
• Offer free or reduced-fare transportation to parent-teacher association meetings, so parents
with no other means of transport can come.
• Communicate to parents the importance of their involvement in their children’s schooling.
• Give parents feedback on the positive influence of their involvement.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parents
Limited Connection to the School
• Build bridges between the school and families.
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as
a parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
• Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other
parents and staff, and browse resources.
• Initiate student-led parent-teacher conferences.
• Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of
the students at the end of the school year.
• Provide workshops where parents can learn how to scaffold learning.
• Encourage parents and students to talk about both general and specific aspects of school.
• Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Teacher Support for Parents Connection
to the School
Teachers can play an instrumental role in supporting parents, and encouraging parents to connect to the
school and increase their involvement in their child’s education.
Because teachers have a wide variety of experience with parental involvement, they may need some
encouragement to invite parents to become more involved in their classrooms.
To help overcome this barrier:
• Establish a Teachers Involving Parents Program
• Encourage teachers to keep parents informed about students progress, rather than only contacting
parents when there is a problem
• Encourage teachers to establish student-led parent-teacher conferences
• Provide support for teacher-parent interactions.
• Serve as a facilitator for the interactions.
• Lead by example. Participate with frequent conversations with both parents and teachers, and
hold student-led counseling meetings.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Incomplete Understanding of U.S. School
System
Parents and students who recently immigrated to the U.S. may be unfamiliar with the U.S. School System,
and thus have a difficult time navigating it successfully.
To help parents overcome this barrier:
• Offer resources, in a variety of languages, which explain the U.S. School System in a concise manner.
• Offer times you are available to meet with parents (and a translator if necessary), and explain the U.S.
School system.
To help students overcome this barrier:
• Take time during time in English as a Second Language classes to explain the U.S. School System to
students.
• Emphasize important milestones and requirements in the school system.
• Offer time for students to come meet with you and discuss the U.S. School System, and develop a
strategy to navigate through the school system and meet their desired educational (and occupational)
goals successfully.
(Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Turney & Kao, 2009)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Cultural Differences in Educational Values
and Parental Involvement
Different cultures often have different educational values, career values, and perceptions of parental
involvement than typical of the culture in the U.S.; therefore parents and students with vast experience
in a different culture may have different educational priorities or means of showing parental involvement
than may be expected. This may or may not lead to parental involvement or career development
barriers.
To avoid potential barriers:
• Evaluate parental involvement from a variety of perspectives. Parental involvement does not just
mean participating in school-centered activities.
• Encourage teachers to assign interactive homework assignments to encourage parental
involvement at home.
• Provide materials to parents which clearly states the skills and abilities that will be expected of the
students at the end of the school year. This gives parents an indication of the level of support to offer
their child.
• Communicate to parents the importance in their children’s education, and career development.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Cultural Differences in Educational Values
and Parental Involvement
• Encourage students to identify their skills and interests.
• When discussing careers, provide examples which represent professionals from a variety of
backgrounds, experiences, and abilities.
• This will not only help the students think about the possibility of that career and help them to
feel included in that career, but it will also provide career role models the students can relate to.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Minority Status
Parent Minority Status Barriers
Student Minority Status Barriers
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Parent Minority Status Barriers
The minority status of parents may contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged based on race,
ethnicity, socio-economic class, or gender. These perceived judgments may lead to limited participation
and involvement in school activities, and decreased communication with the school. In turn, this may lead
to parents feeling unsupported and unable to help their child with their educational and career
development needs.
To help parents overcome these perceived barriers:
• Create a welcoming environment.
• Ensure staff respond in a positive manner to all parents.
• Use visual displays along hallways and the entryway to express acceptance of all school
constituents.
• Build bridges between the school and families.
• Encourage parents to join and participate in activities which bridge schools and families, such as a
parent-teacher association, parent-liaisons activities, and parent/peer support groups.
• Provide a parent resource area where parents can sit and wait for meetings, talk to other parents
and staff, and browse resources.
(Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
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Student Minority Status Barriers
The minority status of students attending a school may contribute to perceived barriers such as being
judged based on race, ethnicity, socio-economic class, or gender; perceiving limited opportunities for
career experiences; and perceived limited opportunities for social and economic support for career
decisions or educational needs.
To help students overcome these perceived barriers:
• When discussing career development, provide examples of successful career professionals share a
similar minority status.
• Encourage students to choose a career role model.
• Encourage students to identify their personal interests, skills, goals, perceived barriers, and expected
outcomes for career efforts.
• Work with students to develop plans to overcome their perceive barriers using their identified
skills and interests, available resources for increasing their skills and experiences, and examples
from their career role model.
(Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, & Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown,
2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
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Socio-Economic Class
Parent Socio-Economic Class Barriers
Student Socio-Economic Class Barriers
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Parent Socio-Economic Class Barriers
The socio-economic class of parents may contribute to perceived barriers such as being judged; perceiving
limited opportunities for career experiences for their children; perceived limited opportunities for social
and economic support for career decisions or educational needs; and limited available time and support
necessary for interactions with the school.
To help parents overcome these perceived barriers:
• Create a welcoming environment.
• Encourage parents to attend parent-teacher association meetings, and meetings with teachers or other
staff.
• Offer child-care during meetings, so that parents with no other child-care options can come.
• Offer free or reduced-fare transportation to parent-teacher association meetings, so parents with
no other means of transport can come.
• Provide a list of local resources for career development, career experience, and educational support,
including mentoring programs.
• Include school-sponsored and community-supported resources.
(Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Turney & Kao, 2009; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
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Student Socio-Economic Class Barriers
The socio-economic class of students attending a school may contribute to perceived barriers such as
being judged; perceiving limited opportunities for career experiences; and perceived limited opportunities
for social and economic support for career decisions or educational needs.
To help students overcome these perceived barriers:
• When discussing career development, provide examples of successful career professionals share a
similar socio-economic class.
• Encourage students to identify their personal interests, skills, goals, perceived barriers, and expected
outcomes for career efforts.
• Work with students to develop plans to overcome their perceive barriers using their identified
skills and interests, available resources for increasing their skills and experiences, and examples
from their career role model.
• Provide a list of local resources for career development, career experience, and educational support,
including mentoring programs.
• Include school-sponsored and community-supported resources.
(Ali, McWhirter, & Chronister, 2005; Flores & Ojeda, 2008; Giannantonio & Hurley-Hanson, 2006; Griffin & Galassi, 2010; Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2008; Helwig, 2008; Kier, Blanchard, Osborne,
& Albert, 2013; Lent & Brown, 2000; Mei, 2009; Melton, 2004; Turney & Kao, 2009; Watson & McMahon, 2005)
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Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active
participatory role in the students’ education.
Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference,
students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic
and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to
develop a plan on how to move forward.
Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of
self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education
and career development.
Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to
see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and
trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004)
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Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active
participatory role in the students’ education.
Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference,
students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic
and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to
develop a plan on how to move forward.
Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of
self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education
and career development.
Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to
see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and
trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004)
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www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active
participatory role in the students’ education.
Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference,
students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic
and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to
develop a plan on how to move forward.
Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of
self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education
and career development.
Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to
see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and
trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active
participatory role in the students’ education.
Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference,
students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic
and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to
develop a plan on how to move forward.
Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of
self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education
and career development.
Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to
see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and
trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active
participatory role in the students’ education.
Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference,
students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic
and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to
develop a plan on how to move forward.
Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of
self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education
and career development.
Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to
see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and
trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Student-Led Parent-Teacher Conferences
Student-led parent-teacher conferences are intended to give parents and students a more active
participatory role in the students’ education.
Over the school year, students collect and evaluate their work in a portfolio. During the conference,
students share and explain this work to their parents. Furthermore, students share any other academic
and behavioral progress they have undergone, and work together with their parents and teacher to
develop a plan on how to move forward.
Student-led conferences give students a feeling of control over their education, increase their feelings of
self-efficacy, and give them opportunities to reflect on their interests, skills, and goals for their education
and career development.
Student-led conferences give parents opportunity to be directly involved in their child’s education, and to
see the results of that involvement as time progress. Furthermore, these conferences allow the bond and
trust between students-teachers-and parents to grow, facilitating a deeper family-school connection.
(Amatea, Daniels, Bringman, & Vandiver, 2004)
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Interactive Homework Assignments
Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s
education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the
assignment.
Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited.
Examples of interactive homework assignments include:
•Have students read to their parents.
•Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time.
•Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any
mistakes.
•Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test.
When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to
complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and
key.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Interactive Homework Assignments
Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s
education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the
assignment.
Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited.
Examples of interactive homework assignments include:
•Have students read to their parents.
•Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time.
•Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any
mistakes.
•Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test.
When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to
complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and
key.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Interactive Homework Assignments
Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s
education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the
assignment.
Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited.
Examples of interactive homework assignments include:
•Have students read to their parents.
•Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time.
•Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any
mistakes.
•Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test.
When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to
complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and
key.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Interactive Homework Assignments
Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s
education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the
assignment.
Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited.
Examples of interactive homework assignments include:
•Have students read to their parents.
•Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time.
•Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any
mistakes.
•Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test.
When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to
complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and
key.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Interactive Homework Assignments
Interactive homework assignment are designed to encourage parents in becoming involved in their child’s
education at home by requiring some collaboration between the parent and child to complete the
assignment.
Interactive homework assignments maybe most successful if they are specific and time limited.
Examples of interactive homework assignments include:
•Have students read to their parents.
•Depending on class level, this may be read a complete book or read for a specific amount of time.
•Have parents administer a practice test to students, then work together with their child to correct any
mistakes.
•Have students put on a mock spelling bee for their parents to review for their spelling test.
When assigning interactive homework, make sure to provide parents with all resources necessary to
complete the assignment. This may mean providing parents with a homework key, or a practice test and
key.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, & Sandler, 2005; Walker & Hoover-Dempsey, 2006)
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800-542-5870
Teachers Involving Parents Program
The Teachers Involving Parents Program is a "school-based intervention to increase teacher invitations to
parent involvement and ultimately parents' involvement in their children's education.” (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker,
Jones, & Reed, 2002)
The program facilitates participants collective identification and development of effective, school-specific
strategies for inviting parents to participate in their child’s education and school-life.
Participating teachers:
• Reflect on best and worst experiences with parental involvement.
• Identify school and community specific barriers to parental involvement.
• Develop tools to dismantle these barriers, depending on if it was a problem that could be changed, or
one that would have to be coped with.
• Take parent’s perspectives into consideration.
• Identify current successful strategies for communicating with parents, and develop additional
strategies to improve communication with parents.
• Reflect on the Teacher Involving Parents Program as a whole, identifying major themes.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002)
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Teachers Involving Parents Program
The Teachers Involving Parents Program is a "school-based intervention to increase teacher invitations to
parent involvement and ultimately parents' involvement in their children's education.” (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker,
Jones, & Reed, 2002)
The program facilitates participants collective identification and development of effective, school-specific
strategies for inviting parents to participate in their child’s education and school-life.
Participating teachers:
• Reflect on best and worst experiences with parental involvement.
• Identify school and community specific barriers to parental involvement.
• Develop tools to dismantle these barriers, depending on if it was a problem that could be changed, or
one that would have to be coped with.
• Take parent’s perspectives into consideration.
• Identify current successful strategies for communicating with parents, and develop additional
strategies to improve communication with parents.
• Reflect on the Teacher Involving Parents Program as a whole, identifying major themes.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002)
R
www.vacareerview.org
Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
Teachers Involving Parents Program
The Teachers Involving Parents Program is a "school-based intervention to increase teacher invitations to
parent involvement and ultimately parents' involvement in their children's education.” (Hoover-Dempsey, Walker,
Jones, & Reed, 2002)
The program facilitates participants collective identification and development of effective, school-specific
strategies for inviting parents to participate in their child’s education and school-life.
Participating teachers:
• Reflect on best and worst experiences with parental involvement.
• Identify school and community specific barriers to parental involvement.
• Develop tools to dismantle these barriers, depending on if it was a problem that could be changed, or
one that would have to be coped with.
• Take parent’s perspectives into consideration.
• Identify current successful strategies for communicating with parents, and develop additional
strategies to improve communication with parents.
• Reflect on the Teacher Involving Parents Program as a whole, identifying major themes.
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones, & Reed, 2002)
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800-542-5870
References
Ali, S. R., McWhirter, E. H., & Chronister, K. M. (2005). Self-efficacy and vocational outcome expectations for
adolescents of lower socioeconomic status: A pilot study. Journal of Career Assessment, 13(1). doi:
10.11771069072704270273
Amatea, E. S., Daniels, H., Bringman, N., & Vandiver, F. M. (2004). Strengthening Counselor-Teacher Family
Connections: The Family-School Collaborative Consultation Project. Professional School Counseling, 8(1),
47-55.
Clark, G. M., Carlson, B. C., Fisher, S., Cook, I. D., & D'Alonzo, B. J. (1991). Career development for students
with disabilities in elementary schools: A position statement of the division on career development. Career
Development for Exceptional Individuals, 14, 109. doi: 10.1177/088572889101400201
Flores, L. Y., & Ojeda, L. (2008). The influence of gender, generation level, parents' education level, and
percieved barriers on the educational aspirations of Mexican American high school students. Career
Development Quarterly, 57(1).
Giannantonio, C. M., & Hurley-Hanson, A. E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career
development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4).
Griffin, D., & Galassi, J. P. (2010). Parent perceptions of barriers to academic success in a rural middle
school. Professional School Counseling, 14(1).
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
References
Hartung, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2008). Career adaptability in childhood. Career Development
Quarterly, 57(1).
Helwig, A. A. (2008). From childhood to adulthood: A 15-year longitudinal career development study.
Career Development Quarterly, 57(1).
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (2005). Current/Revised Model. 2014, from
http://www.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/family-school/model.html
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M., Jones, K. P., & Reed, R. P. (2002). Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An
in-service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 18(7), 1-25.
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M., & Sandler, H. M. (2005). Parents' motivations for involvement in their
children's education. In N. Patrikakou, R. P. Weilsberg, S. Redding & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), School-Family
Partnerships for Children's Success. New York: Teachers College Press.
Kier, M. W., Blanchard, M. R., Osborne, J. W., & Albert, J. L. (2013). The development of the STEM career
interest survey (STEM-CIS). Research in Science Education, 44, 461-481. doi: 10.1007/s11165-013-9389-3
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Virginia Career VIEW Virginia Tech
800-542-5870
References
Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2000). Contextual Supports and Barriers to Career Choice: A Social
Cognitive Analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 36-49. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.47.1.36
Mei, T. (2009). Intervention implications for school counselors from a SCCT perspective. 2014, from
http://ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sd/news_article/22524/_self/layout_details/false
Melton, B. (2004). Breaking Through Barriers.
Turney, K., & Kao, G. (2009). Barriers to school involvement: Are immigrant parents disadvantaged? The
Journal of Educational Research, 102(4).
Walker, J. M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2006). Why research on parental involvement is important to
classroom management. In C. M. Everston & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of Classroom Management:
Research, Practice and Contemporary Issues. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Watson, M., & McMahon, M. (2005). Children’s career development: A research review from a learning
perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(2), 119-132. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.011
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Career Barriers - Virginia Career VIEW