Welcome to
Western Civilization
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Why are the discoveries of Jarmo, Jericho and Catal Huyuk of interest to
historians?
Jarmo, circa 7000 BCE
Ancient Jericho
What makes “a way of life” a civilization?
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Writing system
Organized economy
Specialization of labor
Social classes
Legal code
Advanced art
Central government
Several cities with monumental architecture
Religion – the central force in primary civilizations
Marshland and swamps…
The Assyrian capital at Nineveh
Shalamaneser I – boasted
of blinding 14,000 captives
One of the ancient monuments discovered in the ruins of ancient
Assyria has this inscription by King Asshurizirpal (reign began in 883
BC.) of a conquered city:
"Their men, young and old, I took as prisoners.
Of some I cut off the feet and hands; of others I
cut off the noses, ears, and lips; of the young
men's ears I made a heap; of the old men's
heads I built a minaret."
Ashurbanipal
King of Assyria
(669-631 BCE)
The Library at Nineveh, as envisioned in 1980's
Cuneiform tablet – “wedge-shaped” -writing on clay tablets with a reed stylus
Sir Henry Rawlinson, circa 1840's
The Behistun Rock
The Library at Nineveh, as envisioned in 1980's
Tablets of the Gilgamesh Epic
Mesopotamian Sumeria: the rise of civilization
The ancient Sumerians were very smart people:
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Cuneiform
Law codes
Literature
Schools
Numbering system
Kiln-dried bricks & pottery
Lunar calendar
Potter’s wheel
The wheel
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The wheelbarrow
Sailboats
Bronze tools and weapons
The plow
Frying pans
Razors
Cosmetic sets
Shepherd’s pipes
harps
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Mesopotamia: the rise of civilization