Chapter 24 Industrialization & Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order Characterizing the New Expansion 1450-1750 Motivated by spice trade (profit motive) Expansion was gradual European enclaves existed along coasts Indirect rule (subjugated local rulers) Little to no influence on local culture 1750-1914 Motivated by competition (empire motive) Expansion is rapid Europeans move inward to rule whole countries Direct rule Heavily influenced the “inferior” local cultures (taught European languages, customs Shift to Land Empires in Asia 18th century European presence in Asia is characterized by: • Trade companies who wanted trade rights, not territory • Profit motives, not territorial acquisitions • Leeway on how to interact with natives • Slow communication with directors/rulers What is Imperialism? Traditional definition: one country’s dominance over the political, economic and social lives of others Here it refers to efforts of capitalistic states in the west to seize markets, raw materials, investment opportunities outside the west. Thus, at the start of this period it’s a purely economic motivation. So is it purely economic? No—economic wealth coincides with: National glory! Political status Balance of power politics Change in motives= change in tactics Before: dealt w/independent states Where are the exceptions to this rule (independent states)? A place on the verge of collapse, like……. INDIA A place where the economic interest was intense, like…. LATIN AMERICA & EAST INDIES A place lacking in central authority, like… NORTH AMERICA & PHILIPPINES Find ‘em! Name the colonized countries in 1900. The World in 1900 How Do You Justify Colonial Rule? Pseudoscience (Social Darwinism) Might Makes Right Moral Justification In the long run…. Cultural Questions for your group Is the human condition universal, or are we so shaped by our geography and history that we are destined to be distinct? Is it possible that cultures in Africa & Asia are so different that they could never be persuaded to transform along western lines? How do these issues apply to 2012? Java: The European Prototype Java (island in Indonesia) Dutch begin as vassals to the sultans of Mataram—later they support rivals in the sultan’s overthrow The price for their support= direct administration of spice islands Becomes the model for Europeans— use military superiority to create alliances, gain influence, and later, total control. British Rule in India Similar to Dutch approach in Java First Phase: British East India Co. meddles in local disputes, gains allies, uses Indian sepoys to gain truest of Indian princes Second Phase: British move from being pawns of Indian princes to being their most serious rivals. British Rule in India (con’t) Turning point: Battle at Plassey (Robert Clive) Differences from the Dutch: • British Raj gain control b/c of global battles with the French; not inland raids • British owe victories as much to Hindu financial backing and key Indian defections as to superior technology/fighting skills Consolidation of British Rule Third Phase: Final advance into warweakened India • Mughal empire falling apart; regional rulers struggle on their own • British expansion centers from three cities: Madras, Bombay & Calcutta • These cities become presidencies, where the bulk of British territory lies • Regional rulers who are allies to the British rule princely states Why India Loses Same old problems: • Regionalism means a lack of national identity (makes it hard to unite and drive out the British) • Old hatreds between rulers (especially Hindu vs. Muslim) run deeper than hatred of British • Ordinary Indians preferred better pay and better technology under British rule The Growth of the British Empire in India, From the 1750s to 1858 Early Colonial Society in India and Java (until 19th c.) Native social systems were left largely undisturbed (Europeans placed themselves on top of preexisting social structure) Adaptation (clothing, housing) was necessary for the new tropical climate Lack of European women leads to mixed marriages with Asian women Social Reform (early 19th c.) 18th c.=Nabobs symbolic of rampant corruption of trade companies • Parliament (Lord Cornwallis) reforms India • Utilitarians & Evangelicals promote Western values as key to reform • Westerners focus on elimination of cultural practices like sati 19th c.=Laws passed (sati outlawed) • Indian reformers (Ram Mohun Roy) bolster support for Western reforms • British policies are a watershed moment for world history—they signify the new balance of power and a new way of looking at the world. Industrial Rivalries & the Partition of the World Early 19th c. = Britain dominates (due to superior naval power) Late 19th c. = Belgium, France, and the heavily industrialized Germany and USA challenge British control Political = intense rivalry; territory = power Economic = colonies seen as security for economic downturns Social = colonies seen as “safety valves” for potential social unrest Colonial Wars and Imperialism Scientific discovery/technology leapfrogs Europeans over others • Advanced weaponry, communication, transportation and metallurgy Tech. advantage makes it impossible for native populations to resist—wars are lopsided despite fierce native resistance Patterns of Dominance Two types of colonies prevail in 19th c. Tropical Dependencies (Africa, Asia & South Pacific) • Small numbers of Europeans ruling over large native pop. Settlement Colonies (N. America & Australia) • Mass migrations of European settlers who made colony their home. Create White Dominions as native populations were dispersed/decimated. Colonial Regimes/ Social Hierarchies Java is model for India; India model for Africa & Asia • Europeans exploit divisions • European settle mainly in large cities/towns and administer gov’t through thousands of native subordinates Major Differences • Higher education NOT promoted in Africa • Language skills left to Christian missionaries Social Relations Between Colonizer and Colonized White racial supremacy becomes the norm • European scholars use science to “prove” racial and moral superiority of the West Increasing tension seen as intermixing between cultures is looked down upon • Europeans live separate from natives • Laws restrict mixed marriages Analyze the Cartoon Analyze the Cartoon Methods of Economic Extraction Some things don’t change (Western rulers helped by native subordinates) Drive to increase production but lower costs Colonies become increasingly dependent • • • • Sources for cash crops Remain underdeveloped Rely on colonial power for manufactured goods Punished for not meeting quotas (ex.— Belgium’s Congo known as the “heart of darkness”) Settler Colonies Variety of patterns of control established Settler colonies vary widely • Early settled areas impacted by epidemic disease • Older areas see more culture transmitted • Some places resist; other do not South Africa Dutch presence (Boers) enslaves native people (Khoikhoi) 1850s= Dutch Republics established • Transvaal & Orange Free State 1790s= British fight for control • Great Trek (move inland creates clashed with Bantu peoples) • Boer War (1899-1902) after diamonds and gold are discovered The Partition of Africa between c. 1870 and 1914 Pacific Tragedies Areas claimed by Europe, Japan or US Similar experience to Native Americans • No immunity to diseases (isolation) • Vulnerable to outside influences, which often led to social disintegration New Zealand & Hawaii New Zealand 1790s, first Europeans Alcoholism, prostitution spread Maoris adopt firearms 1850s = time of change • British farmers, herders arrive • Maoris pushed into interior • Adopt European culture Hawaii James Cook opens Hawaii to the West Prince Kamehameha convinced that Westernization/military aid, would help him unify his kingdom Disease devastates population Huge influx of Asian workers /American settlers Push for annexation Real imperialism comes later, when in 1893, last ruler deposed 1898, annexed by United States Global Connections Understand the importance and implications of this chapter • Industrialization and advances in science and technology catapult the West ahead of the rest of the world • Thus creates an important new mindset among the West—that it is their God-given right to colonize • Colonization itself moves from an indirect form to a direct form, changing/destroying native culture and supplanting the “superior” western cultural models • The West will dominate the next two centuries of history for much of Asia and Africa the ramifications of this are still being felt today.