Chapter 24
Industrialization &
Imperialism: The
Making of the
European Global
Order
Characterizing the New Expansion





1450-1750
Motivated by spice
trade (profit motive)
Expansion was
gradual
European enclaves
existed along coasts
Indirect rule
(subjugated local
rulers)
Little to no influence
on local culture





1750-1914
Motivated by
competition (empire
motive)
Expansion is rapid
Europeans move
inward to rule whole
countries
Direct rule
Heavily influenced the
“inferior” local cultures
(taught European
languages, customs
Shift to Land Empires in Asia

18th century European presence in
Asia is characterized by:
• Trade companies who wanted trade
rights, not territory
• Profit motives, not territorial
acquisitions
• Leeway on how to interact with natives
• Slow communication with
directors/rulers
What is Imperialism?
Traditional definition: one country’s
dominance over the political,
economic and social lives of others
 Here it refers to efforts of capitalistic
states in the west to seize markets,
raw materials, investment
opportunities outside the west.
 Thus, at the start of this period it’s a
purely economic motivation.

So is it purely economic?
No—economic wealth coincides with:
 National glory!
 Political status
 Balance of power politics

Change in motives= change in tactics
 Before: dealt w/independent states

Where are the exceptions to this
rule (independent states)?
A place on the verge of collapse,
like…….
 INDIA
 A place where the economic interest
was intense, like….
 LATIN AMERICA & EAST INDIES
 A place lacking in central authority,
like…
 NORTH AMERICA & PHILIPPINES

Find ‘em! Name the colonized
countries in 1900.
The World in 1900
How Do You Justify Colonial Rule?
Pseudoscience
(Social Darwinism)
 Might Makes Right
 Moral Justification
 In the long run….

Cultural
Questions for your group
Is the human condition universal, or
are we so shaped by our geography
and history that we are destined to
be distinct?
 Is it possible that cultures in Africa &
Asia are so different that they could
never be persuaded to transform
along western lines?
 How do these issues apply to 2012?

Java: The European Prototype
Java (island in Indonesia)
 Dutch begin as vassals to the sultans
of Mataram—later they support rivals
in the sultan’s overthrow
 The price for their support= direct
administration of spice islands
 Becomes the model for Europeans—
use military superiority to create
alliances, gain influence, and later,
total control.

British Rule in India
Similar to Dutch approach in Java
 First Phase: British East India Co.
meddles in local disputes, gains
allies, uses Indian sepoys to gain
truest of Indian princes
 Second Phase: British move from
being pawns of Indian princes to
being their most serious rivals.

British Rule in India (con’t)
Turning point: Battle at Plassey
(Robert Clive)
 Differences from the Dutch:

• British Raj gain control b/c of global
battles with the French; not inland raids
• British owe victories as much to Hindu
financial backing and key Indian
defections as to superior
technology/fighting skills
Consolidation of British Rule

Third Phase: Final advance into warweakened India
• Mughal empire falling apart; regional
rulers struggle on their own
• British expansion centers from three
cities: Madras, Bombay & Calcutta
• These cities become presidencies, where
the bulk of British territory lies
• Regional rulers who are allies to the
British rule princely states
Why India Loses

Same old problems:
• Regionalism means a lack of national
identity (makes it hard to unite and
drive out the British)
• Old hatreds between rulers (especially
Hindu vs. Muslim) run deeper than
hatred of British
• Ordinary Indians preferred better pay
and better technology under British rule
The Growth of the British Empire in India,
From the 1750s to 1858
Early Colonial Society in India and
Java (until 19th c.)
Native social systems were left
largely undisturbed (Europeans
placed themselves on top of preexisting social structure)
 Adaptation (clothing, housing) was
necessary for the new tropical
climate
 Lack of European women leads to
mixed marriages with Asian women

Social Reform (early 19th c.)

18th c.=Nabobs symbolic of rampant
corruption of trade companies
• Parliament (Lord Cornwallis) reforms India
• Utilitarians & Evangelicals promote Western
values as key to reform
• Westerners focus on elimination of cultural
practices like sati

19th c.=Laws passed (sati outlawed)
• Indian reformers (Ram Mohun Roy) bolster
support for Western reforms
• British policies are a watershed moment
for world history—they signify the new
balance of power and a new way of
looking at the world.
Industrial Rivalries & the Partition
of the World





Early 19th c. = Britain dominates (due to
superior naval power)
Late 19th c. = Belgium, France, and the
heavily industrialized Germany and USA
challenge British control
Political = intense rivalry; territory =
power
Economic = colonies seen as security for
economic downturns
Social = colonies seen as “safety valves”
for potential social unrest
Colonial Wars and Imperialism

Scientific discovery/technology
leapfrogs Europeans over others
• Advanced weaponry, communication,
transportation and metallurgy

Tech. advantage makes it impossible
for native populations to resist—wars
are lopsided despite fierce native
resistance
Patterns of Dominance


Two types of colonies prevail in 19th c.
Tropical Dependencies (Africa, Asia &
South Pacific)
• Small numbers of Europeans ruling over large
native pop.

Settlement Colonies (N. America &
Australia)
• Mass migrations of European settlers who
made colony their home. Create White
Dominions as native populations were
dispersed/decimated.
Colonial Regimes/ Social
Hierarchies

Java is model for India; India model for
Africa & Asia
• Europeans exploit divisions
• European settle mainly in large cities/towns
and administer gov’t through thousands of
native subordinates

Major Differences
• Higher education NOT promoted in Africa
• Language skills left to Christian missionaries
Social Relations Between
Colonizer and Colonized

White racial
supremacy becomes
the norm
• European scholars use
science to “prove” racial
and moral superiority of
the West

Increasing tension
seen as intermixing
between cultures is
looked down upon
• Europeans live separate
from natives
• Laws restrict mixed
marriages
Analyze the Cartoon
Analyze the Cartoon
Methods of Economic Extraction



Some things don’t change (Western rulers
helped by native subordinates)
Drive to increase production but lower
costs
Colonies become increasingly dependent
•
•
•
•
Sources for cash crops
Remain underdeveloped
Rely on colonial power for manufactured goods
Punished for not meeting quotas (ex.—
Belgium’s Congo known as the “heart of
darkness”)
Settler Colonies
Variety of patterns of control
established
 Settler colonies vary widely

• Early settled areas impacted by
epidemic disease
• Older areas see more culture
transmitted
• Some places resist; other do not
South Africa
Dutch presence (Boers) enslaves
native people (Khoikhoi)
 1850s= Dutch Republics established

• Transvaal & Orange Free State

1790s= British fight for control
• Great Trek (move inland creates clashed
with Bantu peoples)
• Boer War (1899-1902) after diamonds
and gold are discovered
The
Partition of
Africa
between c.
1870 and
1914
Pacific Tragedies
Areas claimed by Europe, Japan or
US
 Similar experience to Native
Americans

• No immunity to diseases (isolation)
• Vulnerable to outside influences, which
often led to social disintegration
New Zealand & Hawaii
New Zealand
 1790s, first Europeans

Alcoholism, prostitution
spread
 Maoris adopt firearms
 1850s = time of change
• British farmers, herders arrive
• Maoris pushed into interior
• Adopt European culture
Hawaii
 James Cook opens Hawaii to
the West
 Prince Kamehameha
convinced that
Westernization/military aid,
would help him unify his
kingdom
 Disease devastates population
 Huge influx of Asian workers
/American settlers
 Push for annexation
 Real imperialism comes later,
when in 1893, last ruler
deposed
 1898, annexed by United
States
Global Connections

Understand the importance and
implications of this chapter
• Industrialization and advances in science and
technology catapult the West ahead of the rest
of the world
• Thus creates an important new mindset among
the West—that it is their God-given right to
colonize
• Colonization itself moves from an indirect form
to a direct form, changing/destroying native
culture and supplanting the “superior” western
cultural models
• The West will dominate the next two centuries
of history for much of Asia and Africa the
ramifications of this are still being felt today.
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Chapter 24