Social Project Work
Smelters and
Factory Owners!
This chapter tells the story of the crafts
and industries of india during ‘BritisH’ rule By
focusing on two industries namely textiles
,iron and steel.
both these were crucial for the industrial
revolution in the modern world .
tHe industrialisation of ‘Britain’ Had a
close connection with the conquest and
colonisation of india.
. In the eighteenth century the
company was buying goods in
‘india’ and exporting tHem to
‘england’ and ‘europe’ making
profit through this sale With the
growth of industrial production.
manufactured goods from
‘Britain’ Began flooding in ‘india’ .
Let us first look at textile production
Around 1750 before the
INDIA was by far the worlds large prducer of
cotton textile.
Memories of this flourishing of INDIAN
weavers is preserved in many words still current in
english and other languages. It is interesting to
trace the origiin.
Indian textiles in
European markets
By the early 19th century, worried by the
popularity of INDIAN textiles, wool and
silk makers in ENGLAND began
protesting against the import of INDIAN
cotton textiles.In 1720,the BRITISH govt
enacted a legislation banning the use of
printed cotton textiles (chintz) in
Interestingly, this act was known as the
‘CALICO’ act.
At this time textile industries had
just begun to develop in ENGLAND.
Unable to compete with INDIAn
textiles.English producers a secure
market within the country preventing
the entry of INDIAN textiles.
Competetion with INDIAN textiles
also led to a search for (technological)
innovation in ENGLAND.
In 1764, the ‘SPINNING JENNY’
was invented by JOHN KAYE which
increased the productivity of the
traditional spindles.
Cloth could now be woven in
immense quantities and cheaply too.
Who were
Weavers often belonged to the communities that
were specialised in weaving.
The ‘TANTI’ weavers of BENGAL. The
‘JULAHAS’ or ‘MOMIN” weavers of NORTH
‘DEVANGS’ of SOUTH INDIA are some of the
communities famous for weaving.
The first stage of production was ‘SPINNING’ --- a work done mostly by women.
The ‘CHARKA’ and the ‘TAKLI’ were
household spinning instruments.
The thread was spun on the ‘CHARKA’ and
rolled on the ‘TAKLI’.
In most communities weaving was a task done
by men. For coloured textiles the thread was dyed
by the dyer known as ‘RANGREZ’.
 For printed cloth the weavers needed the help
of specialist block printers known as
Handloom weaving and the occupations
associated with it provided livelihood for millions
The decline of INDIAN
The development of cotton industries in
BRITAIN affected textile producers in several
ways—INDIAN textiles now had to compete
with BRITISH textiles in the EUROPEAN
and AMERICAN markets.
 Exporting textiles to ENGLAND also
became increasingly difficult since very high
duties were imposed on INDIAN textiles
imported into BRITAIN.
Thousands of weavers in INDIA were now
thrown out of employment.
By 1830’s BRITISh cotton cloth flooded
INDIAN markets. In fact,by the 1880’s 2/3 of all
cotton clothes worn by INDIANS were made in
BRITAIN.The affected specialist weavers and
spinners. Thousands of ‘WOMEN’ who lived by
Cotton mills come up
The first cotton mill in INDIA was set up as ‘SPINNING
MILL’ in BOMBAY in 1854.
From early 19 th century BOMBAy had grown as an
important port for the export of raw cotton material from
 When the cotton textile mills came up they could get
supplies of raw material with ‘EASE’.
By 1900 over 84 mills grew in BOMBAY. The first mill in
AHEMEDABAD was set up in 1861.
 INDIANS found it ‘DIFFICULT’ to compete with the
cheap textiles produced in BRITAIN.
tHe “sWord” of tippu sultan and
“WootZ” steel
Tippu Sultan who ruled MYSORE till
1799 fought 4 wars and died fighting with
his ‘SWORD’ in his hand.
 The ‘SWORD had an incredibly hard
and sharp edge that could easily rip
through the opponent’s armour.
The quality of the ‘SWORD’ came
from a special type of high carbon steel
named (WOOTZ) which wa sproduced
al over SOUTH INDIA. Wootz steel
when made water pattern crystals
embedded in iron.
Abandoned furnaces in villages
Production of ‘WOOTZ’ steel
required a highly specialised technique
of refining iron.
But iron smelting in INDIA was
extremely common till 19 th century.
particular had smelters in every
The smelting was done by men while
women worked the ‘BELLOWS’,
pumping air that kept the charcoal
By late 19th century the craft smelting was
in decline.
The iron smelters had to pay a very high
tax to the forest dept for every furnace they
used. This reduced their income.
 By late 19 th century iron and steel was
being imported from BRITAIN.
Ironsmiths in INDIA began using the
imprted iron to manufacture utensils and
Iron and steel factories come
up in India
Rajhara hills had one of the finest ores in
the world.
‘tisCo’ Was set up at an oppurtunate time
INDIA was importing steel that was
manufactured in BRITAIN. Steel produced in
BRITAIN now had to meet the demands of war in
So imports of steel into INDIA declined
The Weavers were formed in November 1948 by Ronnie Gilbert,
Lee Hays, Fred Hellerman and Pete Seeger. In 1940 and 1941, Hays
and Seeger had co-founded a previous group, the Almanac Singers,
which disbanded during the war. The new group took its name from
a play by Gerhart Hauptmann, Die Weber (The Weavers: a Drama
of the Forties 1892), a powerful play depicting the rising of the
Silesian weavers in 1844, containing the lines, "I'll stand it no more,
come what may". After a period of being unable to find much paid
work, they landed a steady and successful engagement at the Village
Vanguard jazz club. This led to their discovery by arrangerbandleader Gordon Jenkins and their signing with Decca Records.
The group had a big hit in 1950 with Leadbelly's "Goodnight, Irene",
backed with the 1941 Israeli song "Tzena, Tzena, Tzena", which in
turn became a best seller.
The recording stayed at number one on the charts for an
unbelievable 13 weeks.
In keeping with the audience expectations of the time, these and
other early
Weavers releases had violins and orchestration added behind the
group's own string-band instruments. Because of the deepening Red
Scare of the early 1950s, their manager, Pete Cameron, advised them
not to sing their most explicitly political songs and to avoid performing
at progressive venues and events.
Because of this some folk song fans criticized them for watering
down their beliefs and commercializing their singing style.
 But the Weavers felt it was worth it to get their songs before the
History of Indian Textiles
Man since an ancient time has always invested in textiles
to protect his body from the weather and wild animals.
 As time went by, the idea of wearing clothes also
From protecting the body, it also became a way of
decorating the body.
Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan was born on (November 1750, Devanahalli –
4 May 1799, Seringapatam), also known as the Tiger of
Mysore, was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
He was the son of Hyder Ali, at that time an officer in the
Mysorean army, and his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-unnissa. He was given a number of honorific titles, and was
referred to as Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Shahab, Tipu Saheb,
Bahadur Khan Tipu Sultan or Fatih Ali Khan Tipu Sultan
During Tipu's childhood, his father rose to take power in
Mysore, and Tipu took over rule of the kingdom upon his
father's death.
In addition to his role as ruler, he was a scholar,
soldier, and poet. He was a devout Muslim but
the majority of his subjects were Hindus. At the
request of the French, he built a church, the first
in Mysore. He was proficient in many
languages.[1] In alliance with the French in their
struggle with the British, and in Mysore's
struggles with other surrounding powers, both
Tipu Sultan and Hyder Ali used their French
trained army against the Marathas, Sira,
Malabar, Coorg, Bednur, Carnatic, and
Travancore. He won important victories against
the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War,
and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore
with them after his father died the previous year.
By- Vy$#n@v!, $w@t#!, #@r!n!,
$umukh!, @nou$hk@.

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