WELCOME Social Project Work TopicWeavers,Iron Smelters and Factory Owners! This chapter tells the story of the crafts and industries of india during ‘BritisH’ rule By focusing on two industries namely textiles ,iron and steel. both these were crucial for the industrial revolution in the modern world . tHe industrialisation of ‘Britain’ Had a close connection with the conquest and colonisation of india. . In the eighteenth century the company was buying goods in ‘india’ and exporting tHem to ‘england’ and ‘europe’ making profit through this sale With the growth of industrial production. manufactured goods from ‘Britain’ Began flooding in ‘india’ . Let us first look at textile production Around 1750 before the BRITISHconqueredBENGAL. INDIA was by far the worlds large prducer of cotton textile. Memories of this flourishing of INDIAN weavers is preserved in many words still current in english and other languages. It is interesting to trace the origiin. Indian textiles in European markets By the early 19th century, worried by the popularity of INDIAN textiles, wool and silk makers in ENGLAND began protesting against the import of INDIAN cotton textiles.In 1720,the BRITISH govt enacted a legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles (chintz) in ENGLAND. Interestingly, this act was known as the ‘CALICO’ act. At this time textile industries had just begun to develop in ENGLAND. Unable to compete with INDIAn textiles.English producers a secure market within the country preventing the entry of INDIAN textiles. Competetion with INDIAN textiles also led to a search for (technological) innovation in ENGLAND. In 1764, the ‘SPINNING JENNY’ was invented by JOHN KAYE which increased the productivity of the traditional spindles. Cloth could now be woven in immense quantities and cheaply too. Who were weavers?????? Weavers often belonged to the communities that were specialised in weaving. The ‘TANTI’ weavers of BENGAL. The ‘JULAHAS’ or ‘MOMIN” weavers of NORTH INDIA,’SALE’ and ‘KAIKOLLAR’ and ‘DEVANGS’ of SOUTH INDIA are some of the communities famous for weaving. The first stage of production was ‘SPINNING’ --- a work done mostly by women. The ‘CHARKA’ and the ‘TAKLI’ were household spinning instruments. The thread was spun on the ‘CHARKA’ and rolled on the ‘TAKLI’. In most communities weaving was a task done by men. For coloured textiles the thread was dyed by the dyer known as ‘RANGREZ’. For printed cloth the weavers needed the help of specialist block printers known as ‘CHHIPIGARS’. Handloom weaving and the occupations associated with it provided livelihood for millions of INDIANS. The decline of INDIAN textiles The development of cotton industries in BRITAIN affected textile producers in several ways—INDIAN textiles now had to compete with BRITISH textiles in the EUROPEAN and AMERICAN markets. Exporting textiles to ENGLAND also became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on INDIAN textiles imported into BRITAIN. Thousands of weavers in INDIA were now thrown out of employment. By 1830’s BRITISh cotton cloth flooded INDIAN markets. In fact,by the 1880’s 2/3 of all cotton clothes worn by INDIANS were made in BRITAIN.The affected specialist weavers and spinners. Thousands of ‘WOMEN’ who lived by ‘SPINNING COTTON’. Cotton mills come up The first cotton mill in INDIA was set up as ‘SPINNING MILL’ in BOMBAY in 1854. From early 19 th century BOMBAy had grown as an important port for the export of raw cotton material from INDIA to ENGLAND and CHINA. When the cotton textile mills came up they could get supplies of raw material with ‘EASE’. By 1900 over 84 mills grew in BOMBAY. The first mill in AHEMEDABAD was set up in 1861. INDIANS found it ‘DIFFICULT’ to compete with the cheap textiles produced in BRITAIN. tHe “sWord” of tippu sultan and “WootZ” steel Tippu Sultan who ruled MYSORE till 1799 fought 4 wars and died fighting with his ‘SWORD’ in his hand. The ‘SWORD had an incredibly hard and sharp edge that could easily rip through the opponent’s armour. The quality of the ‘SWORD’ came from a special type of high carbon steel named (WOOTZ) which wa sproduced al over SOUTH INDIA. Wootz steel when made water pattern crystals embedded in iron. Abandoned furnaces in villages Production of ‘WOOTZ’ steel required a highly specialised technique of refining iron. But iron smelting in INDIA was extremely common till 19 th century. BIHAR and CENTRAL INDIA in particular had smelters in every ‘DISTRICT’. The smelting was done by men while women worked the ‘BELLOWS’, pumping air that kept the charcoal burning. By late 19th century the craft smelting was in decline. The iron smelters had to pay a very high tax to the forest dept for every furnace they used. This reduced their income. By late 19 th century iron and steel was being imported from BRITAIN. Ironsmiths in INDIA began using the imprted iron to manufacture utensils and implements. Iron and steel factories come up in India Rajhara hills had one of the finest ores in the world. ‘tisCo’ Was set up at an oppurtunate time INDIA was importing steel that was manufactured in BRITAIN. Steel produced in BRITAIN now had to meet the demands of war in EUROPE. So imports of steel into INDIA declined ‘dramatiCally’. The Weavers were formed in November 1948 by Ronnie Gilbert, Lee Hays, Fred Hellerman and Pete Seeger. In 1940 and 1941, Hays and Seeger had co-founded a previous group, the Almanac Singers, which disbanded during the war. The new group took its name from a play by Gerhart Hauptmann, Die Weber (The Weavers: a Drama of the Forties 1892), a powerful play depicting the rising of the Silesian weavers in 1844, containing the lines, "I'll stand it no more, come what may". After a period of being unable to find much paid work, they landed a steady and successful engagement at the Village Vanguard jazz club. This led to their discovery by arrangerbandleader Gordon Jenkins and their signing with Decca Records. The group had a big hit in 1950 with Leadbelly's "Goodnight, Irene", backed with the 1941 Israeli song "Tzena, Tzena, Tzena", which in turn became a best seller. The recording stayed at number one on the charts for an unbelievable 13 weeks. In keeping with the audience expectations of the time, these and other early Weavers releases had violins and orchestration added behind the group's own string-band instruments. Because of the deepening Red Scare of the early 1950s, their manager, Pete Cameron, advised them not to sing their most explicitly political songs and to avoid performing at progressive venues and events. Because of this some folk song fans criticized them for watering down their beliefs and commercializing their singing style. But the Weavers felt it was worth it to get their songs before the public. History of Indian Textiles Man since an ancient time has always invested in textiles to protect his body from the weather and wild animals. As time went by, the idea of wearing clothes also changed. From protecting the body, it also became a way of decorating the body. Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan was born on (November 1750, Devanahalli – 4 May 1799, Seringapatam), also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the son of Hyder Ali, at that time an officer in the Mysorean army, and his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-unnissa. He was given a number of honorific titles, and was referred to as Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Shahab, Tipu Saheb, Bahadur Khan Tipu Sultan or Fatih Ali Khan Tipu Sultan Bahadur. During Tipu's childhood, his father rose to take power in Mysore, and Tipu took over rule of the kingdom upon his father's death. In addition to his role as ruler, he was a scholar, soldier, and poet. He was a devout Muslim but the majority of his subjects were Hindus. At the request of the French, he built a church, the first in Mysore. He was proficient in many languages. In alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, and in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, both Tipu Sultan and Hyder Ali used their French trained army against the Marathas, Sira, Malabar, Coorg, Bednur, Carnatic, and Travancore. He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War, and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died the previous year. 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