DUAL-LANGUAGE EDUCATION: HOW IT WORKS, WHY IT WORKS, & WHY WE CARE April Linton University of California, San Diego Dual-language education (a.k.a. dual immersion, two-way immersion, two-way bilingual immersion) Approximately 50% English learners (from same language background) and 50% English speakers Instruction in both languages, starting in kindergarten or first grade and lasting at least through fifth grade (optimally K-12) Bilingualism & biliteracy, high achievement, integration & multicultural understanding HIGH SES DISTRICT LOW SES DISTRICT parents school board/ district administration school board/ district administration schools schools parents How it works…three models 50:50 - 50% of instruction in the partner language 80:20 - 80% of instruction in partner language in early grades, moving to 50% by the 5th or 6th grade 90:10 – 90% of instruction in partner language in early grades, moving to 50% by the 5th or 6th grade How it works…results Dual-language education always shrinks and can close the achievement gap between native Spanish and English speakers. Barfield 1995, Christian et al. 2004, Collier & Thomas 2004, Lindholm-Leary 2001,Pérez 2004, Quintanar-Sarellana 2004… Dual-language educated children develop positive identities as learners, as well as positive ethnic/racial identities. Hawkins 2005, Reyes and Vallone 2007 How it works…results (Lindholm-Leary) By grade 3, all students proficient speakers of L1. Native English speakers spending only 10-20% of their school days in English are just as proficient in English as those receiving 50% of instruction in English, regardless of race or SES. Native Spanish speakers often do better than English speakers in L2. Native Spanish speakers in dual-language programs have higher English scores than their peers in earlyexit bilingual programs. How it works…results (Lindholm-Leary) By grade 3, native English speakers score at or above statewide norms in English reading, regardless of program type. Most native Spanish speakers score at or above statewide norms in Spanish reading. They score better that their peers in early-exit bilingual or English immersion instruction. Native English speakers in 90:10 programs do very well in Spanish reading Native Spanish speakers in 90:10 programs score a bit lower in English reading, but this levels out by grade 5 or 6. How it works…results (Howard and Sugarman) “Both native Spanish speakers and native English speakers demonstrate mean growth in language and literacy abilities in both English and Spanish” Native English speakers tend to be dominant in and prefer English, while native Spanish speakers demonstrate more balanced bilingualism. Less Spanish instruction in the primary grades, (e.g., 50:50) yields lower Spanish performance for everyone. Dual-language students “tend to perform at levels comparable to or higher than” their peers in other types of classrooms. Why it works… “Culture of Intellectualism” (Howard and Sugarman) Commitment to ongoing learning, high expectations, okay to make mistakes Collaboration and exchange of ideas and viewpoints, multiple approaches to problem solving Fostering of independence through the provision of choices and encouragement of self-monitoring Promotion of higher-order thinking (predicting, analyzing, interpreting…) Why it works… “Culture of Equity” (Howard and Sugarman) Strong sense of cultural and language identity Cross-cultural friendships Resilience in the face of prejudice and exclusion Cross-cultural mediation and conflict-resolution skills Awareness of privilege and power dynamics Why it works… “Culture of Leadership” (Howard and Sugarman) Taking initiative to seek knowledge Public presentations Responding to the needs of others Building consensus and sharing leadership Why education professionals care about dual-language education It is effective way for English learners to become proficient in English while pursuing an enriched curriculum. It can diminish (or erase) the achievement gap between low- and high-SES students in general, and Latino and non-Latino white students in particular. It enhances cognitive, linguistic, and cross-cultural skills. Why social scientists care about dual-language education Schools institutionalizing “remaking the mainstream” via a two-way model of immigrant incorporation – Alba and Nee 2003, Logan et al. 2002, López 1996, Yinger 1994 Institutional support for “selective acculturation” – Portes and Rumbaut 1996, 2001; Portes and Zhou 1993 “Replenishment” Global/transnational identities – nurtured or in formation – Castles 2000, Levitt 2001 – Jiménez 2005 Some Challenges From restrictive language policies, e.g., CA Prop. 227: Anti-bilingual political climate sometimes discourages Spanish-speaking parents from choosing dual-language education. Fewer Spanish-language materials General: Demographics – differential mobility rates between groups School-district support/ level of school autonomy In parent-driven programs, who is being served? Recommendations (district- and school-level) Start planning & parent outreach two years ahead Be strict about the balance between native English & Spanish speakers Provide transportation so schools can draw from a wider area Anticipate needs in the higher grades (materials, how to deal with transition to larger class sizes…) A few key resources Reyes, Sharon A. and Tatyana Kleyn. 2010. Teaching in Two Languages: A Guide for K-12 Bilingual Educators. Corwin Press. Howard, Elizabeth and Julie. 2007.Realizing the Vision of Two-Way Immersion. Center for Applied Linguistics. Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn. 2004.Dual-Language Education. Multilingual Matters. Soltero, Sonia W. 2004. Dual-Language: Teaching and Learning in Two Languages. Pearson Education, Inc.