汉译英理论与实践教程
练习参考答案
程永生 著
说

明
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目录
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第一章
第二章
第三章
第四章
汉语词语英译
现代汉语句子英译
现代汉语段落英译
汉语四大古典小说名著选段英译
第一章
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汉语词语英译
第一节 汉语词语与词语翻译机制
第二节 汉语成语与熟语英译
第三节 汉语人名地名英译
第四节 汉语职官体系名称与职官名称英译
第五节 汉语中带数字的词语英译
第六节 汉语天文、历法与节气方面的词语英译
第七节 现代汉语时新词语英译
第一章 汉语词语英译
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第一节 汉语词语与词语翻译机制
第二节 汉语成语与熟语英译
第三节 汉语人名地名英译
第四节 汉语职官体系名称与职官名称英译
第五节 汉语中带数字的词语英译
第六节 汉语天文、历法与节气方面的词语英译
第七节 现代汉语时新词语英译
第一节 汉语词语与词语
翻译机制
Answers
to Questions 1—5
Answer to Question 1

The Chinese lexical items mainly consist of words
and phrases, including idioms, set phrases, proverbs,
allegorical sayings and so on. Chinese lexical items
can be divided in terms of parts of speech, function
and so on. In terms of parts of speech, Chinese lexical
items, especially words, can be divided into nouns,
verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions,
conjunctions, interjections, etc. In terms of function,
Chinese lexical items can fall into ordinary words,
proper words, technical terms, and so on, as well as
sayings, including idioms, set phrases, proverbs,
allegorical sayings, etc.
Answer to Question 2

Actually any unit of a Chinese text can serve as
the bearer of Chinese culture and constitutes part
of the Chinese culture, but Chinese lexical items,
in a sense, embody the Chinese culture more
typically than others, at least seemingly more
typically. For example, for years, we have
introduced English sentence patterns into the
Chinese language so that when we say “如果你不
来,我们就不给你留位子了”,we cannot say
for sure that it is a typical Chinese sentence free
from any English influence,
Answer to Question 2
(continued)

for the English translation would be, to some
extent, structurally a Chinese equivalent: If you do
not come, we will not keep the seat for you. Such
sentential similarities can be easily located in both
languages. However, when it comes to a Chinese
personal name, a Chinese place name, a name for
a Chinese utensil, a name for a Chinese
architecture, a Chinese idiom, a Chinese set phrase,
a Chinese proverb,
Answer to Question 2
(continued)

a Chinese allegorical saying and so on, such
similarities can hardly readily be found, and
all these items cannot be fully understood
without referring to the Chinese culture. For
example, when we say 四合院,it will
conjures up a picture different from an
English flat. In terms of value, in de
Saussre”s sense, the Chinese 叔叔is not
worth as much as the English uncle.
Answer to Question 3
For translation of lexical items from Chinese
into English, there are such mechanisms as sound
translation, meaning translation, sound-meaning
translation and so on. Occasionally, people add
notes to the translation of Chinese lexical items or
stretch the translation to a prolonged length to
include the cultural or social meaning of a
particular Chinese lexical item. However, no
matter by what mechanism, we cannot always, if
we can on some occasions, revive the meaning of
the original completely.
Answer to Question 3
(continued)
The reason perhaps is that behind the lexical
items of a language, there stand the textual grid of
that language and cultural grid or the social grid
relevant to the language, in Bassenett’s terms. In
de Saussure’s term, the value of a word is
determined by the value of relevant words in the
same semantic field. In translation of Chinese
lexical items into English, we cannot translate the
textual, cultural or social grid or even the semantic
field relevant to the lexical items,
Answer to Question 3
(continued)
though we can by other means introduce some ideas of
the grid or the semantic field. As for which of the
mechanisms to choose, it much depends on the inclination
of the translator, though on the translation situation as well.
Take the translation of the personal names of A Dream of
Red Mansions for example. Some use pinyin while others
turn to meaning translation and still others turn to a
combination of pinyin and meaning translation. And the
pinyin users can be divided into those who use the pinyin
that can be witnessed in putonghua and those who use the
code system of Webster.
Answer to Question 3
(continued)

Note that in the above discussion, we
used sound translation instead of
transliteration, as often used by some
Chinese translation theoreticians, because
we believe that transliteration literally
means letter for letter translation and it is
often, if not always, employed by Western
theoretician accordingly.
Answer to Question 4
For university students, translation mainly means
rendering the original into the target by choosing
proper lexical items and proper sentence patterns.
Generally speaking, they are not expected to
transplant the seed as we do in translation of a Chinese
poem into English or the other way round, nor are
they expected to do anything more sophisticated than
to translate a passage of prose, real or fictional. It is in
this sense that we say that translation of lexical items
from Chinese into English is a demanding task for
university students. For others, however, the statement
may not apply.
Answer to Question 4
(continued)

Another account for the statement may
lie in the fact that lexical items are
extremely closely related to the differences
of the two cultures that take the two
languages as their code systems, as was
discussed in the above answer.
Answer to Question 5
We firmly believe that it is the inherent defect
of translation. Take translation of the three names
of 贾宝玉、林黛玉、薛宝钗for example. Due to
the fact that Chinese and English are totally
different languages that transliteration cannot
apply in this case, the normal practice for
translation of the three names is by pinyin.
However, in the form of Chinese character, Jia
Baoyu may be considered as a cross cousin of Lin
Daiyu on the one hand and a cross cousin of Xue
Baochai on the other.
Answer to Question 5
(continued)
Also, the Chinese character 黛 tells the
Chinese reader that Lin Daiyu may
probably be a female and the Chinese
character 钗also tells the Chinese reader
that Xue Baochai may probably be another
female. And Baoyu is honorific reference of
a stone, usually used to name males.
Answer to Question 5
(continued)
In the Chinese culture of the time, cross
cousins of defferent sexes can fall in love with one
another and get married. Hence the three names so
expressed in Chinese characters may probably
suggest that the three persons so named may
involve in a triangular love, which usually ends in
tragedy. However, when spelt out by pinyin, such
implied meanings will completely be lost,
especially to readers of another language, for they
are generally speaking strangers to the Chinese
culture.
Answer to Question 5
(continued)

Nowadays translation is often discussed
in relation to creative treason, we would
like to push the idea a little further by
saying that translation by nature is a
business of creative treason, for more often
than not, we as translators have to betray
both the author and the original text, at least
as far as the formal structure is concerned.
第二节 汉语熟语英译
1
2
3
4
5
成语
典故
俗语
谚语
歇后语
1 汉语成语英译
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安 居 乐 业 live in peace and work in
contentment; live and work satisfactorily
奔走相告 rush about to tell the news to each
other; running around to spread the news
不务正业 not engaged in the right business; not
engaged in one’s own business
叱咤风云 command wind and cloud; extremely
powerful or influential
大相径庭 so different as a footpath is different
from a courtyard; so world apart as to defy
reason; totally different
2 汉语典故英译
杯弓蛇影 so suspicious as to take a reflected
bow in the drinking cup as a snake; extremely
suspicious
 Note: Legend has it that once a person was invited
to dine in another’s home. A bow was hung on the
wall and the guest took the reflection of the bow in
his drinking cup as a snake. Back home, he
thought that he had imbibed the venom and fell ill.
The allusion now applies to groundless suspicion.
汉语典故英译(续)
沧海横流 homeless or vagrant
 Note: Tradition has it that to avoid wars,
Wang Ni went to Jiangxia. He then felt that
wandering about with his son in a cart, he
was a homeless vagrant.

汉语典故英译(续)
长风破浪 to break a ten thousand li wave
by riding on a long wind; ambitious
 Note: Tradition has it that when Zong Que
was young, his uncle asked him about his
ambitions. He replied that he would like to
ride on a long wind to break a wave of ten
thousand li. The allusion now applies to the
description of great ambitions.

汉语典故英译(续)
沉鱼落雁 (of a lady) so beautiful that on seeing
her, the fish feels inferior in beauty as to dive
into deep water and the crane feels inferior in
beauty as to fly high into the sky; stunningly
beautiful
 Note: Once Zhuangzi said in a book that Mao
Qiang and Li Ji were so beautiful as to make fish
and birds feel ashamed of their own inferiority in
beauty by either diving into deep water or
alighting high into the sky. The allusion now
applies to the description of the stunning beauty.

汉语典故英译(续)

董 宣 强 项 the neck-unbending Dong Xuan;
stubborn as Dong Xuan; unyielding;
unbending

Note: As recorded in history, Dong Xuan was appointed Magistrate of
Luoyang. On his post, once a servant of a princess killed an innocent.
Dong Xuan, an official of justice who was handling the case, could not
go into the princess’s mansion to arrest the criminal but had to wait for
the man to come out. Once the man went out with the princess, Dong
Xuan caught him and killed him on the street. In this way, he offended
the princess, who reported the incident to the emperor. Then the
emperor asked Dong Xuan to make apology to the princess. Believing
that he did nothong wrong, Dong Xuan refused to yield to the imperial
power. Then the emperor ordered the guards to press him onto the
ground but Dong Xuan managed not to bend his neck. Now the
allusion is used to describe an upright person or official.
3 汉语俗语英译
按倒葫芦起来瓢 while the gourd is pressed down, the
gourd ladle floats up; while one problem is resolved,
another comes up
把 吃 奶 的 劲 都 使 出 来 了 use up all the strength
including the strength he used to suck milk from his
mother’s breasts; exhaust all the strength
百闻不如一见 one hundred hearing is not as good as a
single seeing; better to see than to hear; seeing is
believing
搬起石头砸自己的脚 lift a rock only to drop it on one’s
own toes; make trouble for others but it turns out that
only the maker is troubled
汉语俗语英译(续)
病急乱投医 pressed by illness, one might go to
any doctor blindly; in difficulty, one might turn
to anyone whose ability to help he isn’t sure
 病来如山倒,病去如抽丝 when ill, the sick
person would break down like a mountain
collapsing; in the recovering, he may have to be
patient in expecting the restoration to his
former health; illness comes suddenly but
recovery progresses very slowly

4 汉语谚语英译
年怕中秋,月怕十五 a year is afraid of
the Mid-Autumn Festival, a month is
afraid of the fifteenth day; a year will end
soon when it reaches the Mid-Autumn
Festival, a month will end soon when it
reaches the fifteenth day; a year in
autumn will soon come to an end and a
month in the middle will end soon
汉语谚语英译(续)
一年之计在于春,一日之计在于寅 the
whole year depends on a good start in
spring and the day depends on a good
start in the hour of yin; a good beginning
is half the success
 Note: Yin, the Chinese hour from 3 to 5 a.m.
in the international system, the earliest hour
on the ancient Chinese clock.

汉语谚语英译(续)
春前有雨花开早,秋后无雨叶落迟 with rains
before the Beginning of Spring, flowers will be
in blossom earlier; without rains after the
Beginning of Autumn, leaves will fall later; it’s
better to have rains before the Beginning of
Spring but not after the Beginning of Autumn
 春天不忙,秋天无粮 without being busy
laboring in spring, don’t expect to harvest in
autumn; toiling in spring means a bumper
harvest in autumn

汉语谚语英译(续)
麦要好种,稻要好秧 wheat depends on good
seeds, rice depends on good seedlings; good
seeds, good harvest in wheat; good seedlings,
good harvest in rice; success necessitates a good
beginning
 十年树木,百年树人 it takes ten years for a
tree to grow up but it takes a hundred years for
a man to mature; it takes a longer time to
cultivate a man than to grow a tree; cultivation
of a man takes a lot of time; it is very difficult
to cultivate a man

5 汉语歇后语英译
5 猴子爬竹竿——上窜下跳
 a monkey climbing up a bamboo post—
—by jumping up and down;like a
monkey climbing up a bamboo post, they
run around to stir up troubles
汉语歇后语英译(续)
董卓进京——不怀好意
 Dong Zhuo moving his armed forces into the
capital——an ill-intentioned act; like Dong
Zhuo moving his armed forces into the capital,
it is an ill-intentioned act
 Note: By end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Dong
Zhuo was called by He Jin to lead his armed
forces to the capital and help him to eliminate all
the eunuchs. However, Dong Zhuo’s intention was
to take over the imperial power.

汉语歇后语英译(续)
刘备摔阿斗——收买人心
 Liu Bei throwing Adou onto the ground——to
buy people’s hearts or to buy popular support;
like Liu Bei throwing Adou onto the ground, it
is an act to win popular support


Note: Liu Bei, king of Shu, was once utterly defeated by Cao
Cao, duke of Wei, and had his wife killed. However, his general
Zhao Yun went to his son Adou’s rescue and carried the baby
back. Zhao Yun did this at the risk of his own life. When Adou
was delivered to Liu Bei, he threw the baby onto the ground,
saying that the rescue of the baby endangered Zhao Yun’s life, a
life with more worth than Adou’s. This act of his is usually
regarded as an act of deceiving the populace into supporting
汉语歇后语英译(续)
王八照相——龟(鬼)头龟(鬼)脑
 a wangba, another name for tortoise, has its
picture taken——a picture of the tortoise from
head to foot, that is, the picture of a thief; like a
tortoise having its picture taken, it looks a thief
from head to foot
 Note: The Chinese characters gui, meaning devil,
and gui, meaning a tortoise, are homophones.

汉语歇后语英译(续)
皇甫讷扮伍子婿——蒙混过关
 Huangfu Ne was dressed up as Wu Zixu——to
get by under false pretences; like Huangfu Ne
dressed up as Wu Zixu, the purpose is to get by
under pretences


Note: Xu Yun, styled Zixu, was wanted by the king of Chu.
For this reason, the general was running away to another
state but could not manage to get by the Zhaoguan Pass.
Then his friends Donggao Gong thought out a way for him
by asking Huangfu Ne to be dressed as Wu Zixu and to be
caught by the soldiers at the pass so that Wu Zixu could get
through the pass by taking the advantage of the chaotic
situation Huangfu Ne’s protection gave rise to.
第三节 汉语人名地名英译
练习1——5
练习 1.1

The story can be traced back to the two brothers,
Duke Ning and Duke Rong, with Duke Ning being
the elder and Duke Rong being the younger. Duke
Ning had four sons born. Upon Duke Ning’s death,
his son Jia Daihua succeeded him on the official
position. Jia Daihua had two sons, Jia Fu, the elder,
and Jia Jing, the younger. Jia Fu died at the age of
around 8 or 9 and Jia Jing succeeded his father on
the official post. … It was lucky for Jia Jing to have
a son early, named Jia Zhen, … and Jia Zhen has
got a son called Jia Rong, just 16 years old now.
练习 1.2

Upon the death of Duke Rong, Jia Daishan, the elder son,
succeeded him on the official post and married Miss Shi, a
daughter of Marsquis Shi in Jinling. They had two sons,
with Jia She being the elder and Jia Zheng being the
younger. Jia Daishan died years ago while Lady Jia, the
Granny, is still enjoying her health. … Lady Wang, Jia
Zheng’s wife first gave birth to a son, named Jia Zhu. … She
then gave birth to a daughter, unexpectedly on the Chinese
New Year’s Day. She then gave birth to another son, who
more surprisingly had brought in the mouth to the world
upin his birth a colorful glittering jade with some
inscriptions on. And so, they named the son Baoyu, meaning
the precious jade.
练习 1.3

In the process of earth making, the Southeast
China was setting in, with this a place called
Gusu was made. The City of Gusu had a gate
called Gate Chang, a place famous for talents
and beauties, most romantic though. Outside
Gate Chang, there was a place called the Ten
Mile Street, with Renqing Passageway located
in. In that passageway, there was an ancient
temple called the Gourd Temple.
练习 2
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Song Jiang, the Fidelity
Lu Junyi, the Kylin
Wu Yong, the Wise
Gongsun Sheng, the Dragon in Clouds
Guan Sheng, the Broad Knife
Lin Chong, the Leopard Head
Qin Ming, the Thunderbolt Fire
Huyan Zhuo, the Two Whips
Hua Rong, the Present Day Li Guang
练习 2 (continued)
Chai Jin, the Whirlwind
Li Ying, the Sky-Shooting Vulture
Zhu Tong, the Beautiful Beard
Lu Zhishen, the Monk
Wu Song, the Buddhist Monk
Dong Ping, the Two-Spear General
Zhang Qing, the Excellent Arrow-Shooter
Yang Zhi, the Green-Faced Beast
Xu Ning, the Gold Spear
练习 2 (continued)
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Suo Chao, the Pioneer
Zai Zong, the Flying Traveler
Liu Tang, the Red-Haired Devil
Li Kui, the Black Whirlwind
Shi Jin, the Nine Dragon
Mu Hong, the Unobstructable
Lei Heng, the Winged Tiger
Li Jun, the River Dragon
Ruan Xiao’er, the Master Scoundrel
Zhang Heng, the Boatman
练习 2 (continued)
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Ruan Xiaowu, the Short-Lived Second Brother
Zhang Shun, the White Body in Waves
Ruan Xiaoqi, the Living King of Hell
Yang Xiong, the Sick Guan Suo
Shi Xiu, the Exerting Third Brother
Xie Zhen, the Double-Headed Snake
Xie Bao, the Double-Tailed Gesco
Yan Qing, the Vagrant
练习 3
Shen Gang, the Heaven Lifting God from Fuzhou
 Pan Wende, the Chess Playing God from Shezhou
 Ying Ming, the Escaping God from Muzhou
 Xu Tong, the Six-Ding God from Mingzhou
 Zhang Jinren, the Thunderbolt God from Yuezhou
 Shen Ze, the Giant Deity from Hangzhou
 Zhao Yi, the Morning Star from Huzhou
练习 3 (continued)
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Gao Keli, the Master God from Xuanzhou
Fan Chou, the Guest Suspending God from Changzhou
Zhuo Wanli, the Yellow Streamer God from Runzhou
He Tong, the Leopard-Tailed God from Jiangzhou
Shen Bian, the Bad-Luck Bringing God from Suzhou
练习 4.1
The story goes to Zhang Jiao, who led a
rebellious army to invade Youzhou. The
governor and concurrently the
commander of the local forces was Liu
Yan, a native of Jingling of Jiangxia and
a descendent of King Gong of the
Kingdom Lu of the Han Dynasty.
练习 4.2
Running out of the city, Cao Cao
hurried desperately to Qiaojun by way of
Zhongmou County, where he was
captured by the garrison forces and
brought to the magistrate.
练习 4.3
The story goes to Gongsun Zan,
governor of Beiping and commander of
the local forces, who led an army of 15
thousands to join the allied forces by way
of Pingyuan County of Dezhou. On the
way, he saw from the distance through
the mulberry woods a yellow flag
progressing followed by a new
cavalrymen.
练习 5.1
Thanks to Pan Gu’s creation and through the reigns
of the Three Wise Kings and Five August Emperors,
the world is then divided into four continents: the
Dongsheng Continent in the east, the Niuhe Continent
in the west, the Zhanbu Continent in the south and the
Julu Continent in the north. The present story is about
the events the Dongsheng Continent witnessed. Outside
China, there is a land called Aolai Country by the sea,
in which there is a famous mount known as the Flower
and Fruit Mount. The mount, from which 10 continents
and 3 islands were descended, was created when the
primeval atmosphere of nature was divided into the
clear part and the confusing part.
练习 5.1
After looking for some time, the Stone
Monkey jumped over the bridge and
looked right and left, seeing a stone tablet
right in front of him, on which there was
a line of carved characters written in the
standard form, which read: “The Flower
and Fruit Mount, a place of fortune; the
Water-Falling Cave, a cave of heaven.”
练习 5.3

Outside the City of Chang’an, by the
river of Jinghe, there lived two worthies.
One was called Zhang Shao, a fisherman;
the other was known as Li Ding, a
woodman
第四节 汉语职官体系名称与职
官名称英译
中共中央机构名称英译
 2 全国政协机构名称英译
1

1 中共中央机构名称英译
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
(CCCPC)
Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the
Communist Party of China
Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of
China
Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the
Communist Party of China (Political Bureau of CCCPC)
Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of CCCPC
Secretariat of the Central Committee of the
Communist Party of China (Secretariat of
CCCPC)
1 中共中央机构名称英译(续)
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Organization Department of CCCPC;
Publicity Department of CCCPC;
United Front Work Department of CCCPC;
International Liaison Department of CCCPC;
General Office of CCCPC
State Organs Work Committee of CCCPC;
Work Committee for Offices Directly Under CCCPC;
Committee of Political and Legislative Affairs of CCCPC;
Committee for Comprehensive Improvement of Social Security
of CCCPC
1 中共中央机构名称英译(续)

Party School of CCCPC;
 Headquarters of People’s Daily;
 Party History Research Center of CCCPC;
Party Literature Research Center of CCCPC;
Compilation and Translation Bureau of

CCCPC
1 中共中央机构名称英译(续)


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


Policy Research Office of CCCPC;
Taiwan Affairs Office of CCCPC;
International Communication Office of CCCPC;
Foreign Affairs Office of CCCPC;
Secret Protection Committee of CPC;
Guards Bureau of CPC
2 全国政协机构名称英译
National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political
Consultative Conference
Standing Committee of the National Committee of the
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference
General Office of CPPCC
Special Committees
全国政协机构名称英译(续)
Committee for Handling Proposals
Committee for Economic Affairs
Committee for Population, Resources and Environment
Committee for Education, Science, Culture, Health and
Sports
Committee for Social and Legal Affairs
Committee for Ethnic and Religious Affairs
Committee for Cultural and Historical Data
Committee for Liaison with Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and
Overseas Chinese
Committee of Foreign Affairs
第五节 汉语带数字的词语英译
练习1—3
练习 1
一枕黄粱 a Gold Millet Dream, a dream in
which the dreamer dreamt that he became a
high official and enjoyed all the official life
pleasure but awoke to the reality that he
slept by the tree on a millet pillar; a
daydream; daydreaming
练习 1 (续)
两肋插刀 tucking knives under both arms; risking
one’s life in helping one’s friend out of difficulty;
helping one’s friend at the risk of one’s own life
 三 媒 六 证 ( of a marriage) with three matchmakers and six witnesses on spot; a marriage with
more than enough match-makers as witness; a
marriage conducted in a more than proper
procedure

练习 1 (续)


四分五裂 splitting into four or fives; falling into
pieces
五行八作 five professions and eight trades; all
trades and professions
练习 2
Plan 863, a plan developed in response to the proposal put
forward by four famous Chinese scientists on March 3,
1986 to develop high technology in China
Project 361, a construction goal for a city, consisting of
construction of 3 industrial bases, 6 backbone industries
and an economic development zone
Plan 861, an economic development plan for a province,
consisting of construction of 8 industrial bases, 6 backbone
industries and by the end of 2010, the average income of a
person reaching 1000 US dollars
练习 2 (续)
The 12345 Outline of the Work of the Year, a
working plan for the year of 2004 of the Political
Consultative Conference of a municipality, namely,
one construction, that is, the construction of the
office working mechanisms, conducting two
hearing conferences, organizing inspections in
three aspects, preparing 4 key proposals and
collecting people’s opinions and suggestions in
five areas
练习 3
At a conference held in a locality, all the leaders
present each made an important speech. Now let
us quote some of their speeches as follows:
Leader A: “I would like to address on four
issues. First of all, we should come to the
realization of four important issues, focus our
attention on awareness of four aspects and renew
concepts in four areas. Second, we should grasp
four focused points, reinforce four combinations
and strive for four breakthroughs. Thirdly, we
should perfect four mechanisms, construct four
highlighted spots and attain four goals.
练习 3 (续)


Leader B: “I would like to stress three musts. First,
we must check carefully at three points in the process
and be strict in terms of three disciplines. Second, we
must select three points to lay our stress on and build
three platforms. Thirdly, we must eliminate three
outdated customs and renew three mechanisms.”
Leader C: “I would like to add three advices. First,
it is necessary to grasp three key issues and grasp
them again, again and again for three times. Second, it
is necessary to carry out three necessities and reach
three new altitudes. Thirdly, it is necessary to
strengthen three approaches and intensify three
dynamics.”
练习 3 (续)

Leader D: “I would like to reiterate two
ideas. First, efforts should be devoted to
resist two entices and overcome two fears.
Second, in implementation of the spirits of
this conference, two implementations
should be done to the full. …”
第六节 汉语天文、历法和节气
方面的词语英译
练习1—5
练习 1
Andromeda, Aquila,
Capricornus, Columba,
Delphinus, Draco, Gemini,
Leo, Taurus, Ursa Major
练习 2
Venus,
Jupiter, Mercury,
Mars, Saturn, Earth, Uranus,
Neptune, Pluto
练习 3
 Spring
Festival; Lantern Festival; Pure
Brightness; Dragon Boat Festival;
Mid-Autumn Festival; Double Ninth
Festival; Father’s Day; Mother’s Day;
International Labor Day (May Day);
International Women’s Day; Teachers’
Day
练习 4
Dubhe, Merak, Phecda, Megrez,
Alioth, Mizar, Alkaid
练习 5
清明断雪,谷雨断霜 It may not stop snowing
until Pure Brightness, it may not stop frosting until
Grain Rain. Pure Brightness sees no snowing
while Grain Rain sees no frosting.
清明要晴,立夏要下 On Pure Brightness, it’s
better to be bright; on Beginning of Summer, it’s
better to rain. It’s better for Pure Brightness to be
bright and for Beginning of Summer to be raining.
It’s better bright for Pure Bright, and raining for
Summer Beginning
练习 5 (续)
正月二十晴,果木树上挂油瓶;正月二十阴,
阴阴暗暗到清明 The Chinese January 20th being
a bright day promises a bumper fruit harvest while
it being a cloudy day promises consecutive cloudy
days until Pure Brightness. January 20th bright,
fruit hanging from trees all right; January 20th
cloudy, cloudy all the way till Pure Bright.
 云掩中秋月,雨落上元灯 When the moon is
behind clouds on Mid-Autumn Festival, it will
rain on Lantern Festival. The moon behind clouds
on Mid-Autumn promises rain on Festival Lantern

练习 5 (续)
立 夏 要 下 , 小 满 要 满 It’s better to rain on
Beginning of Summer and have pools filled with
rainwater on Rain Full. It’s better to have Summer
Beginning with raining and to have Rain Full with
pools full.
 立秋十八晨,河里无有洗澡人 18 days after
Beginning of Autumn, there will be no outdoor
swimmer. 18 days after Autumn Beginning, the
river sees no one swimming.

练习 5 (续)
冬至十八天,一天长一线 Within 18 days after
Winter Solstice, the spinner produces more yarn
each day. After Winter Solstice, the day becomes
longer as the spinning woman states.
 春焐秋冻 Do not take off your winter clothing in
a hurry in Spring and do not put on more clothes
immediately after Autumn. More clothes in spring
but less in autumn.

练习 5 (续)
立春三天,百草发芽 Three days after Beginning
of Spring, grass will be budding; grass begins to
bud shortly after Beginning of Spring. Three days
after spring begins, all grass starts budding ever
since.
 吃了端午粽,才把棉衣送 Cotton-padded coats
are necessary until we are eating zongzi, a
pyramid-shaped dumpling, on Dragon Boat
Festival. You cannot put your cotton-padded coats
away until the Dragon Boat Day

第七节 现代汉语时新词语英译
练习1—5
练习 1
1)an examination and approval system for the right to
export; the examination and approval system for exporting
rights
2)a registration and recording system for the right to
export; the registration and recording system for exporting
rights
3)the system for publicizing the results of random
inspections for the quality of accounting information; the
publication system for accounting information quality
random inspections
4)the professional qualification certificate system
5)the system of accountability
练习 2




1)policies concerned with supporting the old industrial basis of
Northeast China to become juvenile; policies for supporting the
old industrial basis of Northeast China for juvenility
2)policies concerned with supporting Midland China to
develop to prominence; policies for supporting Midland China
for development to prominence
3)policies concerned with the three Fs (farming, farming areas,
farmers)
4)policies concerned with readjustment and control of
investment structures
5)policies concerned with the development of the nine-year
compulsory education; the nine-year compulsory education
development policies
练习 3
1)extrabudgetary funds
2)the central and local budgets
3)financial deficits; budgetary deficits
4)transfer payments; transferred payments
5)development of economy and opening
up new revenue resources; development of
economy by opening up new revenue
resources
练习 4
1)commercialize scientific and technological
results and push them to the market; gear scientific
and technological achievements to market and
production; commercialization and
industrialization of scientific and technological
achievements
2)corporate identity; business identity; enterprise
identity
3)corporate image; business image; enterprise
image; develop/establish/improve/ project/
promote the corporate/business/enterprise image
练习 4 (续)

4)leading enterprises that play the role of a
powerhouse over a large area; leading enterprises
that empower other enterprises over a large area
 5)continue to deepen SOE reform to enable
SOEs to become main players in the market
competition; continue to deepen the reform of
state-owned enterprises to enable them to compete
as independent entities in the market economy
练习 5
1) The five principles actually boil down to three
points, namely: development, equality and mutual
benefit, with development serving as the propeller,
equality as the premise, and mutual benefit as the
objective. Actually the five principles can be
expressed in terms of development, equality and
mutual benefits, with development as the driving
force, equality as the premise and mutual benefits
as the obejective.
练习 5 (续)
2) We should adhere to the principle of
exercising the state power scientifically,
democratically and legally, making continuous
efforts to perfect the working methods for the
Party to exercise the leadership and the state
power. We should abide by the principle of
exercising the state power scientifically,
democratically and legally, continuously
perfecting the approaches for the Party to exercise
its leadership and the state power.
练习 5 (续)
3 ) a program for foreign cultural exchanges
realized in terms of government and nongovernment-sponsored activities, import and
export of cultural programs, and multiple channels,
levels, dimensions and forms

A foreign cultural exchange pattern should be
formed by with importance attached to both
government and non-government programs, and to
both cultural importing and exporting, by
involving various channels, at various levels and
in various dimensions and forms.

练习 5 (续)

4) Focus should be laid on maintenance of
a high degree of self-discipline, selfexamination,
self-caution
and
selfmotivation, and importance should always
be attached to study, political awareness and
integrity. It is necessary to maintain selfdiscipline, self-reflection, self-caution and
self-motivation by always attaching
importance to study, politics and integrity.
练习 5 (续)

5) meet the general requirements of building
armed forces as qualified politically and
competent militarily, fine in style of work, strict in
discipline and adequate in logistic support
 The general requirements consist of building our
armed forces as qualified politically, competent
militarily, refined in the style of work, strict in
discipline and adequate in logistic support.
第二章
现代汉语句子英译
第一节
 第二节
 第三节
 第四节

现代汉语句子概述
现代汉语句子英译:时态选择
现代汉语句子英译:翻译程序
现代汉语句子英译:可行性翻译
第一节 现代汉语句子概述
练习1—2
练习
1
上周末,我们开车外出度假,|| 希望
主从
避开城市的喧嚣和污染。| 可是,汽车中
转折
途抛锚,|| 只好乘出租车回家。

因果
Translation



(1) Last weekend, we drove out for leisure, wishing to
avoid urban noises and pollution. But on the way, the
car broke down and we had to take a taxi back home.
(2) Wishing to avoid urban noises and pollution, we
drove out for leisure last weekend but to break down
the car on the way and to take a taxi back home.
(3) We drove out for leisure last weekend to avoid
urban noises and pollution but to have the car break
down on the way and to return by taking a taxi.
练习





2
对于妇女的社会地位问题,我们的许多看
法都来自封建时代,|| 与今天的社会格格不入;
对照
| 然而用过去的观点看现在的问题的还大有人。
转折
在。
Translation



(1) When it comes to women’s social status, many
ideas come from feudal ideology and are in
contradiction with our socialist system. However,
there do exist many people who look at the present
with the viewpoint popular in feudal society.
(2) In discussing women’s social status, many people
turn to feudalism for ideas, which are right in
contradiction with socialist ideology. However, quite a
few people look at things that way.
(3) Many people look at women’s social status from
their feudal stance, which is contradictory to socialist
ideology, a practice which is, however, popular with
quite a few people.
第二节 现代汉语句子英译:时
态选择
练习1—2
练习 1

数字式录制是一种将声音或图像转
换成数字的录制技术,它的广泛应用不
但开辟了无胶卷照相的新纪元,也为教
学现代化提供了契机。


本句具有说明性质,宜选用现在时
态系统,以一般现在时为规范,必要时
参照规范选用其他时态。
Translation

(1) The digital recording is a recording technology
that converts sound or image into digits. The wide
application of the technology has not only opened
a new epoch of film-free photography but also
provided a good opportunity for the development
of modern classroom teaching.
 (2) By converting sound or image into digitals, the
digital recording technology has developed not
only a new epoch of digital photography but also
provided opportunity for the modernization of
classroom teaching.
练习 2

某个国家现在生产的大米超出了国
内的需求,因此正在努力开辟国际市场。
问题是,他们生产的大米的化肥、农药
的残存量远远超出国际标准。


本句具有说明性质,宜选用现在时
态系统,以一般现在时为规范,必要时
参照规范选用其他时态。
Translation



(1) The processed rice that country produces exceeds the
domestic demand and the country is making efforts to open
international markets. The problem is that the residues of
chemical fertilizers and pesticides the rice contains are far
above the export standards.
(2) With processed rice exceeding domestic demand, that
country is seeking international markets but is troubled by
the chemical fertilizer and pesticide residues that are far
above international standards.
(3) In opening international markets for the surplus of the
rice, the country is troubled with the above-international
standard chemical fertilizer and pesticide residues that the
rice contains.
第三节 现代汉语句子英译:翻
译程序
练习1—2
练习 1





分析:在一定程度上他撤出这个工程使问题变
得简单了。| 然而这项工程中有一项关键技术
转折
又非他莫属,|| 他一退出,||| 问题反而更复杂
因果
因果
了。
练习 1 (续)
意 义 层 次 翻 译 : 1 ) to certain degree, his
withdrawal from the project simplified the matter;
2) however, there is a key technique in the project
that cannot be handled by others except him; 3) in
this sense, his withdrawal, on the contrary,
complicated the matter
 合并:To certain degree, his withdrawal from the
project simplified the matter. However, there is a
key technological problem with the project which
could not be solved without him. In this sense, his
withdrawal from the project complicated the
problem contrary to our expectation.

练习 1 (续)
化简:
 (1) To some extent, the problem finds a solution with his
withdrawal from the project. However, the key technological
problem with the project could not be solved without him. In
this sense, his withdrawal, on the contrary, complicated the
matter.
 (2) On one hand, his withdrawal from the project simplified the
problem to some extent. On the other, it complicated the matter
since no one else could solve the key technological problem
involved in the project.
 (3) His withdrawal from the project simplified on one hand and
complicated the problem on the other for his unique capacity of
solving the key technological problem with the project.

练习 2






分析:路上出了车祸,||| 交通堵塞了。|| 半个
因果
递进
小时过去了,||| 仍不见好转。| 我们询问警察,
主从
因果
|| 他们总是说,||| 过一会就会恢复正常。
主从
主从
练习 2 (续)
意义层次翻译:1) there was a road accident on
the way; 2) the traffic was blocked; 3) half an hour
had past; 4) there was no evidence of any change
for the better; 5) we asked the policemen; 6) they
always answered that the normal traffic would be
restored soon
 合并:The traffic was blocked by a road accident
on the way and half an hour past without any
evidence of change for the better. We asked the
policemen, who always answered that the traffic
would be restored to normal soon.

练习 2 (续)
化简:
 (1) The traffic accident blocked the way and half
an hour did not witness any change for the better.
We asked the policemen, who kept saying that the
traffic would be restored to normal immediately.
 (2) Half an hour passed but the highway remained
blocked by the accident. In answer to our question,
the policemen repeatedly promised restoration in
immediate future.

第四节 现代汉语句子英译:可
行性翻译
练习1—2
练习 1

( 1 ) On weekdays, our whole family is fully
engaged. Father makes preparation for his classes
or writing monographs or research papers; retired,
mother is mainly engaged in housework, preparing
delicious food and maintaining a comfortable
living environment for us. I am preparing for the
ph. D entrance examination. As soon as weekend
comes, we will, however, drive to the nearby
country for an excursion.
练习 1 (续)

(2) Weekdays always witness our family engaged
in various work: Father is preparing his classes or
writing monographs or research papers; retired
already, Mother is engaged mainly in housework
by cooking dishes and maintaining a comfortable
living environment for us and I am preparing
myself for the ph. D entrance examination.
Weekends will, however, see the family driving to
the nearby country for some fresh air.
练习 2

( 1 ) Doctors often take pride in curing
seemly incurable diseases. However, it is
often the case that they are so fully engaged
in their work as to neglect their own health.
 (2) Being proud of success in curing
seemingly incurable diseases, doctors are
often so busy as to neglect their own health.
练习 2 (续)

(3) As a subjective feeling, pains caused by
illness may be readily eased by placebos, of
whose easing effects researches will bear
significant fruit very soon.
第三章
现代汉语段落英译
第一节 现代汉语段落英译:统一与连贯
 第二节 现代汉语段落英译:文体问题
 第三节 现代汉语段落英译:可行性翻译
 第四节 现代汉语段落英译:意义层次的
调整与重组

第一节 现代汉语段落英译:统
一与连贯
练习1—2
练习 1

根据中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会提出的关于深化
行政管理体制改革的任务,按照完善社会主义市场机制和
推进政治体制改革的要求以及政企分开,精简、统一、效
能和依法行政的原则,为进一步转变政府职能,调整和完
善政府机构设置,理顺政府部门职能分工,提高政府管理
水平,形成行为规范、运转协调、公正透明、廉洁高效的
行政管理体制。按照党中央的部署,经过认真调查研究,
集思广益,反复论证,在通盘考虑的基础上,形成了关于
深化行政管理体制和机构改革的意见。这个意见先后经国
务院党组会议、中央政治局常委会会议、中央政治局会议
讨论和修改。现将国务院根据党的十六届二中全会审议通
过的《关于深化行政管理体制和机构改革的意见》形成的
《国务院机构改革方案》依法提请第十届全国人民代表大
会第一次会议审议。
Translation 1

In accordance with the task concerned with deepening
reform of the administrative management system, a task set
at the Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party
of China; in accordance with requirements for
improvement of the socialist market system and pushing
forward reform of political system; in accordance with
principles for separation of government from business,
exercising government administration in spirits of
simplification, unification, effectiveness and law abiding;
to further change functions of government, readjust and
improve government configuration, better functional
division of departments under the State Council,
Translation 1 (continued)

enhance administration efficiency of government, an
administrative management system should be formed that
performs its functions in accordance with norms, operates
in coordination, works transparently in spirit of justice,
work effectively and is free from corruption. According to
the plan developed by the Party Central Committee,
through earnest investigations and researches, by collecting
public opinions, by proving feasibility repeatedly, and by
taking comprehensive considerations, a proposal was
developed concerned with deepening reform of the
administrative system and internal configuration of the
government.
Translation 1 (continued)

The proposal was discussed and revised at the conference of the
leading group of the Party of the State Council, at the
conference of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of
the Party Central Committee, and at the conference of the
Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee. Now let me
present The Plan Concerned with Reform of Internal
Configuration of the State Council to the First Plenary Session
of the Tenth National People’s Congress for review. The plan
was developed by the State Council based on The Proposal
Concerned with Deepening Reform of the Administrative System
and the Internal Configuration of the State Council that was
reviewed and approved by the Second Plenary Session of the
Central Committee of the Sixteenth National Congress of the
Communist Party of China.
Translation 2

At the Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist
Party of China, the task was set for deepening reform of
the government administrative system. The reform requires
that improvements should be achieved in the construction
of the socialist market system and progress made in the
reform of the political system. In addition, following
principles were advocated. Government should be
separated from business, and conduct its administrative
work by simplifying working procedures, coordinating
departments concerned, working effectively and efficiently,
and performing functions in accordance with the law. In
implementation of the task, requirements and principles,
Translation 2 (continued)

the State Council developed The Proposal for Deepening
Reform of the Administrative System and the Internal
Configuration. The reform aims at transformation of
government functions, readjustment and improvement of
the internal configuration, betterment of division of
functions among departments in order to develop an
administrative management system with which the
government can fulfill its duties by abiding by the norms,
operate coordinately, do justice by maintaining
transparency, work efficiently and be free of corruption. In
accordance with the arrangement made by the Party
Central Committee, we conducted investigations and
researches, collected and absorbed public opinions and
proved the reform feasibility.
Translation 2 (continued)

Then with comprehensive consideration taken, the proposal for
deepening reform of the administrative system and of the
internal configuration of the State Council was developed. It
was then submitted for discussion and revision at the
conferences of the Leading Group of the Party of the State
Council, of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and
the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee. Then the
State Council submitted The Proposal for Deepening Reform of
the Administrative System and the Internal Configuration to the
Second Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the
Sixteenth Party Congress for review and approval. Based on the
approved proposal, the State Council developed The Plan for
Reform of the Internal Configuration of the State Council. Now
allow me to submit the plan to the First Plenary Session of the
Tenth National People’s Congress for review and approval.
Translation 3

In implementation of the task set at the 16th National
Congress of the Party, a task of deepening the reform of
the administrative system, the State Council developed a
proposal, aiming at forming an administrative system in
which the central government can fulfill its duties by
abiding by the norms, operate coordinately, do justice by
maintaining transparency, work effectively and efficiently,
and be free from corruption. With the proposal reviewed
and approved by the authorities concerned, the State
Council prepared The Plan for Reform of the Internal
Configuration of the State Council, which I am now
presenting to deputies of the First Session of the Tenth
National People’s Congress for their review and approval.
练习 2
我受第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会的委托,
向大会报告本届常委会五年来的主要工作,请予审
议。报告已经印发给各位代表,这里我着重讲报告
的要点。

九届全国人大常委会任期的五年,是我国改革开
放和社会主义现代化建设波澜壮阔的五年。五年来,
全国人大常委会根据国家工作的大局,认真履行宪
法和法律赋予的职责,各方面的工作取得了新的进
展,为加强社会主义民主法制建设,推进依法治国、
建设社会主义法治国家的进程,保障和促进中国特
色社会主义事业的进行,做出了新的贡献。

Translation 1


Entrusted by the Standing Committee of the
Ninth National People’s Congress, I am making
the report concerned with the major work the
Standing Committee has completed in the past
five years. I earnestly invite the deputies for their
review of the report. Since copies of the complete
version of the report have been distributed to
deputies, I am now only presenting the outline of
the complete version of the report.
Translation 1 (continued)

The five-year term for the Ninth National People’s Congress
is the five years in which China has witnessed vigorous
upsurges in its social reform and socialist modernization
construction. In the past five years, in line with the general
situation of our country, the Standing Committee of the National
People’s Congress has earnestly performed the duties entrusted
to us by the Constitution and relevant laws, with new progress
made in various kinds of work. New contributions have been
made to strengthening the construction of socialist democracy
and legal systems, to promoting the progress in management of
the country by law and construction of our country into a
socialist country with effective legal systems, to guaranteeing
and promoting the advance of the great cause of construction of
socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Translation 2

Entrusted by the Standing Committee of
the Ninth National People’s Congress, I am
making the report by highlighting the major
work accomplished during the past term. I
am earnestly inviting the deputies present
for their review and approval. With copies
of the complete version distributed to
deputies already, I will here orally outline
the report only.
Translation 2 (continued)

During our last five-year term, China has witnessed
vigorous upsurges in social reform and socialist
construction for modernization. Aiming at making
contributions to the general situation of our country, the
Standing Committee has, in those five years, performed
our duties earnestly in the spirit of the Constitution and
relevant laws, with new achievements made in all varieties
of work. New contributions have been made to
strengthening construction of socialist democracy and legal
systems, to promoting progress in management of the
country by law and construction of China into a socialist
country with legal systems, and to guaranteeing and
promoting the great cause of construction of socialism with
Chinese characteristics.
Translation 3

Entrusted by the Standing Committee of the
Ninth National People’s Congress, I am now
reporting the major work accomplished by the
Congress during the last term by outlining
contents of the complete version of the report,
whose copies have been distributed to the deputies
already. However, I would earnestly invite their
review and approval of the report from the
deputies present.
Translation 3 (continued)

Around the general development tasks of our
country, the Standing Committee has made great
contributions to the construction of our socialist
democracy and legal systems, aiming at promoting
progress in maintaining the country in accordance
with the law and building our country into one
with socialist legal systems in order to guarantee
and promote the construction of socialism with
Chinese characteristics.
第二节 现代汉语段落英译:文
体问题
练习1-2
练习 1

英国科学家李约瑟在他的巨著《中国科学
技术史》中写道:中国人“在许多重要方面有
一些科学技术发明,和拥有古代西方世界全部
文化财富的阿拉伯人并驾齐驱,并在公元三世
纪之间保持一个西方所望尘莫及的科学知识水
平”。的确,从秦汉到宋元的千余年间,中国
的科学技术曾长期处于世界的领先地位,在人
类文明发展的过程中作出了巨大贡献。但在十
三世纪以后,中国的科学技术就停留在经验阶
段,科学技术的理论没有进一步发展,其根本
原因是与中国社会的伦理型结构、中国科技的
实用性特点和科学研究的整体性观念密切相关。
Translation 1

Joseph Lee, a British scientist, writes in his
monumental work A History of Chinese Science
and Technology, that the Chinese people “have
made a number of scientific and technological
discoveries in many important aspects,
comparable with the Arabs who possessed all
cultural fortunes of the ancient Western World.
And up to the third century A.C. they were so
advanced in science and technology that the West
could not catch up with them.”
Translation 1 (continued)

In deed, during more than 1000 years from Qin
and Han dynasties to Song and Yuan dynasties,
China had always led the world in science and
technology and made great contributions to the
development of civilizations of human race.
However, from the thirteenth century on, China
remained in the empirical stage and did not further
develop its science and technology theoretically.
The essential reason lies in its social ethical
structure, the practical features of the science and
technology and the integrated concepts for
scientific research.
Translation 2

In his monumental work A History of Chinese
Science and Technology, the British scientist
Joseph Lee writes that the Chinese people “have
made some scientific and technological inventions
in many important aspects, as advanced as those
made by the Arabs who possessed all the cultural
fortunes of the ancient Western World. During the
third century A. C., China remained so advanced
in scientific and technological knowledge that the
West was no match for the country.”
Translation 2 (continued)

In deed, during the more than 1000 years from Qin
and Han Dynasties to Song and Yuan Dynasties,
China had once led the world in science and
technology, making enormous contributions in the
course of human civilization. However, after the
thirteenth century, China remained on the
empirical stage, without any further development
in scientific and technological theories. The
explanation lies essentially in the ethics-based
social structure, the practical nature of Chinese
science and technology, and the backward
integrated concepts for scientific and technological
Translation 3

As pointed out by Joseph Lee, a British
scientist, for thousand of years from Qin Dynasty
to Yuan Dynasty, China had once led the world in
scientific and technological inventions, making
great contributions to the civilization of human
race. The problem lies in that the inventions
remained empirical before developed into
advanced theories. The explanation of the
phenomenon mainly lies in the ethics-based social
structure, practical nature of Chinese science and
technology, and the backward integrated concepts
for scientific and technological researches.
练习 2

各个民族在历史发展过程中,由于自然条
件和社会环境不同,形成各自不同的行为方式
和生活方式,这就是人们常说的风俗习惯。所
以古语说:“百里不同风,千里不共俗”。从
文化考察和文化研究的角度去看,一个民族的
风俗习惯能最充分地体现着各民族的心理、志
趣、信仰和历史发展,因而也是这个民族最有
意义的文化特征。世界上一些著名的文化学家,
几乎都是通过风俗习惯的考察来研究一个民族
的文化的。
练习 2(续)

如美国学者罗伯特.路威于1929年写的
《文明与野蛮》,用了绝大部分篇幅来
谈风俗习惯,以此来比较不同民族的文
化特质;另一位美国学者约瑟夫.布雷多
克写的《婚床》,则是从婚姻的方式来
比较不同民族的文化。因此,文化学家
和人类学家,总是从观察、了解和比较
不同民族的风俗习惯入手,去研究认识
这个民族的文化。
Translation 1

In the course of development, various
nationalities have formed different behavior
modes and ways of life due to different natural
conditions and social environments. This is
custom as is often called by people. Therefore, the
old Chinese saying put it: “People one hundred
miles away do not share the same way of life and
people one thousand miles away do not share the
same custom.” From the viewpoint of culture
examination and research, the custom of a
nationality fully embodies its psychology, interest,
belief and historic development.
Translation 1 (continued)

Therefore, custom serves as the most significant
cultural character. Famous culturists throughout the
world all make investigations to the culture of a race
by examining the custom of that race. For example,
the American scholar Robert Louvre devotes a large
part of his book Civilization and Barbarism to the
discussion of custom in order to compare the cultural
qualities of different races. Another American scholar
Joseph Bladock compares the different cultures of
different races by comparing their wedding modes in
his book of The Wedding Bed. Therefore, culturists
and anthropologists all study the culture of a race by
making investigations into its custom.
Translation 2

In the course of evolution, different
nationalities have developed different behavior
modes and ways of life due to their different
natural conditions and social environments. The
mode of behavior and way of life is custom as is
often called. As the old Chinese saying has it:
“People within one hundred square miles do not
share their way of life, people within one thousand
square miles do not share their custom.”
Translation 2 (continued)

When it comes to culture examination and
investigation, the custom of a race typically serves
as the embodiment of the psychology, interest,
belief and evolution of that race. In addition, it
also serves as the embodiment of the most
significant cultural features of the nationality.
Therefore, without exception, almost all the
world-famous culturists approach the culture of a
race by making investigations into its custom.
Translation 2 (continued)

For example, the American scholar Robert Louvre
devotes a large part of his book Civilization and
Barbarism (1929) to the discussion of customs and by
comparing the different customs he makes
investigations into different cultural traits. In his book
entitled The Wedding Bed, another American scholar
Joseph Bladock makes investigations into the cultures
by comparing weddings of different races. Therefore,
a conclusion can be drawn that culturists and
anthropologists all make their investigations to the
culture of a race always by observing, investigating
and comparing different customs of different races.
Translation 3

People’s behavior mode together with their
way of life is usually known as custom. Different
races have different customs because natural
conditions and social environments contribute to
the differences of mode of behavior and way of
life. It is for this reason that almost all the worldfamous culturists approach the culture of a race by
making investigations into its custom. For
example, the American scholar Robert Louvre
devotes
Translation 3 (continued)

a large part of his book Civilization and
Barbarism to the discussion of customs while
another American scholar Joseph Bladock presents
in his book The Wedding Bed makes investigations
into cultures by comparing wedding modes of
different races. Like culturists, anthropologists
also make investigations into human culture by
observing, investigating and comparing different
customs of the races in question.
第三节 现代汉语段落英译:可
行性翻译
练习1—2
练习 1

在欧美游学十载的黄万盛,却对孔
孟先贤推崇备至。以孔子为例,他生活
在“礼崩乐坏”的时代,有很强的社会
关怀,字里行间充满着忧虑。孔子、孟
子等人创造了具有永久魅力的思想遗产,
可惜的是,“这种亲切入世而又从容深
邃的理论风度,在鸦片战争以后的中国
思想界逐渐消失,再难寻见了。”
Translation 1

Huang Wansheng, an overseas student who stayed
in Europe and America for ten years, holds such
ancient sages as Confucius and Mencius in high
esteem. Take Confucius for example. He lived when
the ethic code system of the time was collapsing and
showed great concern for the social development as
manifest in the worries between the lines of his works.
Confucius, Mencius and their contemporaries left us
creative ideological legacies, which are ever
fascinating. Unfortunately, such theories as
stylistically cordial and profound disappeared in the
Chinese ideological circle after the Opium War and
cannot be found now.
Translation 2

Engaged in overseas studies in Europe and
America for 10 years, Huang Wansheng still holds in
esteem such ancient Chinese sages as Confucius and
Mencius. Living in the time with ethic code system
collapsing, Confucius showed great concern for the
society as manifest in the worries between lines of his
works. The ideological legacies as created by
Confucius, Mencius and others are ever charming, but
unfortunately, such theories, cordial in style and
profound in content, vanished in Chinese ideological
circles, with the disappearance of the Opium War,
unable to be retrieved now.
Translation 3

As an overseas student with a 10-year stay in
Europe and America, Huang Wansheng shows
great respect to such ancient Chinese sages as
Confucius and Mencius, based on the fact that
Confucius was greatly concerned about the society
as manifest between the lines of his works when
the ethic code system was collapsing. To Huang’s
regret, the ideological legacies as created by
Confucius, Mencius and others, cordial in style
and profound in ideology, vanished with the
completion of the Opium War, irretrievable now in
Chinese ideological circles.
练习 2

跨国公司突破了国家的边界,在全
球范围内自由运作;当国家的传统功能
被全球化瓦解后,文化认同、种族认同
成为第一本质,以文化认同为核心的生
命共同体将取代国家成为社会的基本单
位,一种严格意义上的文化“国家”呼
之欲出。
Translation 1

Having broken through boundaries of
countries, transnational corporations are operating
freely worldwide. As globalization is eroding the
traditional function of countries, cultural and
ethnic identity will become the most essential.
Life commonwealth, which takes cultural identity
as the core, will replace country as the basic unit
and a cultural “country” in its strict sense is in the
making.
Translation 2

Crossing the national boundaries,
transnational corporations are doing their
business without restrictions all over the
world. With cultural and ethnic identity
becoming essential, the life commonwealth,
with cultural identity as its core, will
replace the country and become the basic
unit of society, and the world is pregnant
with a cultural “country” in its strict sense.
Translation 3

Transnational corporations are doing
business worldwide free from such
restriction as country boundaries.
Consequently, cultural and ethnic identity
becomes the most essential, enabling the
life commonwealth to replace the country as
a basic unit of society and a cultural country
in its strict sense to be born, which takes
cultural identity as its core.
第四节 现代汉语段落英译:意
义层次的调整与重组
练习1—2
练习 1

这是一张历史照片(见图一),过
去关于毛主席解放战争时仍坚持在陕北
的介绍资料中经常看到。照片的说明表
明,这是1947年12月毛主席在陕北米脂
县杨家沟与一些在那里的同志合的影。
在照片中,毛主席身旁有两个小孩,其
中右边穿浅色棉罩衣的那个,许多人都
说像是我。对于这种说法,多年来我一
直是坚决否认的。
Translation 1

This is a historic photo (See Photo 1), as can
be frequently seen in the past in the data
concerned with Chairman Mao remaining in
Shanbei during the Liberation War period. The
caption under the photo indicates that the photo
was taken in December, 1947 of Chairman Mao
and other comrades there in Yangjiagou, Mizhi
County, Shanbei District. In the photo, there are
two children by either side of Chairman Mao, of
whom the one on the right in light overcoat was
me, as many believed. Such saying I have always
been refusing to confirm without hesitation.
Translation 2

As shown in Photo 1, this is a photo as can be
frequently seen among those in the data about
Chairman remaining in Shanbei during the
Liberation War. The caption tells that the photo of
Chairman Mao with others was taken in
Yangjiagou, Mizhi County, Shanbei District in
December, 1947. There are in the photo two
children on both sides of the chairman, of the two,
the one on the right in a light overcoat was
identified by many as me. Such identification I
have always denied.
Translation 3

Photo 1 is not different from others frequently
seen about Chairman remaining in Shanbei during
the Liberation War. As told by the caption, the
photo was taken of Chairman with others in
Yangjiagou, Mizhi County, Shanbei Liberated
Area in December of 1947. Of the two children on
both sides of the chairman, the one the right in
light overcoat was identified by many as me and
the identification I have always denied.
练习 2

今年六月底,毛主席的秘书叶子龙的女儿
叶利亚为出一个出版物,想利用这张照片,她
要我和我爱人曾晓前帮助辨认一下照片上的人
物。她再一次对我说那个小孩真是像我,我也
像过去一样对此进行了坚决否认,然后我们根
据过去照片上的说明对未指明的人进行辨认,
照片上有曾三(我爱人曾晓前的父亲)、李质
忠(一直在主席身边做机要工作)、马明方
(时任中共中央西北局副书记兼中共晋南工委
书记)、蔡畅、陆定一、李颉伯、王明等人。
Translation 1

By end of June, this year, Ye Liya, daughter of
Ye Zilong who once served as Chairman Mao’s
secretary, was preparing a publication and would
like to use the photo. Therefore, she would like me
and my wife Zeng Xiaoqian to identify the
personage on the photo. She reiterated that that
child looked like me and I refused to confirm as I
had done before. Then we began to identify those
whose identities the caption has not made clear of.
In the picture, there are Zeng San (father of my
wife Zeng Xiaoqian),
Translation 1 (continued)

Li Zhizhong (who had been a confidential
worker for Chairman Mao), Ma Mingfang
(who was then deputy secretary of
Northwest China of CPC and concurrently
secretary of the Party Working Committee
of Jinnan), Cai Chang, Lu Dingyi, Li Jiebo,
Wang Ming and others.
Translation 2

By the end of June this year, Ye Liya, daughter of Ye
Zilong who once served as Chairman Mao’s secretary,
asked me and my wife to help her identify the figures in
the photo, for she wanted to include the photo in a
publication. She said again the child in the photo was me
and I said no without hesitation as I had done in the past.
Then through identification of those whose identities the
caption did not make clear of, including Zeng San, my
wife Zeng Xiaoqian’s father, Li Zhizhong, who once
worked for Chairman Mao as a confidential worker, Ma
Mingfang, the then secretary of Northwest District of CPC
and concurrently secretary of the Working Committee of
the Party of Jinnan, Cai Chang, Lu Dingyi, Li Jiebo, Wang
Ming and others.
Translation 3

By end of last June, Ye Liya, daughter of Ye Zilong,
once secretary to Chairman Mao, would like to include the
photo in a publication and asked my wife and me to do her
a favor by identifying those in the photo whom the caption
had not identified. She said once more the child looked like
me and I denied it without hesitation as I had done before.
In addition to Cai Chang, Lu Dingyi and Wang Ming,
whom the caption had identified, those identified by us
include Zeng San, my wife Zeng Xiaoqian’s father, Li
Zhizhong, a confidential worker for Chairman Mao, Ma
Mingfang, then deputy secretary of Northwest China and
secretary of Jinnan Working Committee, and Li Jiebo.
第四章 汉语四大古典小说名
著选段英译
第一节 《红楼梦》选段英译
 第二节 《三国演义》选段英译
 第三节 《西游记》选段英译
 第四节 《水浒传》选段英译

第一节 《红楼梦》选段英译
练习1—2
练习 1

却说秦氏听宝玉梦中唤他的乳名,心中纳
闷,又不好细问。彼时宝玉迷迷惑惑,若有所
失,遂起身解怀整衣,袭人过来给他系裤带时,
刚伸手至大腿处,只觉冰冷粘湿的一片,吓的
慌忙退回手来,问:“是怎么了?”宝玉红了
脸,把他的手一捻,袭人本是个聪明女子,年
纪又比宝玉大两岁,近来也渐省人事,今见宝
玉如此光景,心中便觉察了一半,不觉把个粉
脸羞的飞红,遂不好再问。
Translation 1

Chin Ko-ching was amazed to hear Pao-yu call
her childhood name in his dream, but she could
hardly question him. As for Pao-yu, he felt as
bemused as if he had lost his wits. Attendants
promptly brought him a longan decoction and
after sipping a couple of mouthfuls he got up to
adjust his clothes.

As Hsi-jen reached out to fasten his trousers for
him, she touched his thigh and found it cold and
sticky. She drew back in alarm and asked what
was the matter. Flushing crimson, Pao-yu simply
squeezed her hand.
Translation 1 (continued)

Now Hsi-jen was an intelligent girl, and being
a couple of years older than Pao-yu she already
knew the facts of life. She guessed from the state
he was in what must have happened and blushing
herself helped him to tidy his clothes without any
further questions.
 (Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
Translation 2

Qin-shi was surprised to hear Bao-yu call out
her childhood name in his sleep, but did not like to
pursue the matter. As she stood wondering, Baoyu, who was still bemused after his dream and not
yet in full possession of his faculties, got out of
bed and began to stretch himself and to adjust his
clothes, assisted by Aroma. As she was doing up
his trousers, her hand, chancing to stray over his
thigh, came into contact with something cold and
sticky which caused her to draw it back in alarm
and ask him if he was all right. Instead of
answering, he merely reddened and gave the hand
Translation 2 (continued)

Aroma had always been an intelligent girl. She
was, in any case, a year or two older than Bao-yu
and had recently begun to have some
understanding of the facts of life. Observing the
condition that Bao-yu was in, she therefore had
more than an inkling of what had happened.
Abandoning her question, she busied herself with
his clothes, her cheeks suffused by a crimson
blush of embarrassment.

(Translated by David Hawkes)
Translation 3

On hearing Baoyu calling her milk name, Qin
Keqing felt puzzled but was embarrassed to track
it down. Dizzy and bewildered, Baoyu felt
something had lost. He got up to put his dress
right when Xiren came over to help him fasten his
trousers. Having reached his thighs, she felt a
patch of wet sticky thing on his underwear.
Having drawn her hands in hurry, she asked:
“What’s the matter?” Blushed, Baoyu pressed her
hand with fingers naughtily.
Translation 3 (continued)

Being quick and bright, and two years elder
than Baoyu, Xiren recently came to know
something about that. On seeing Baoyu in
such a state, she guessed it must have been
that which had happened to Baoyu. Face
reddened all over, she gave up any further
questioning.
练习 2

话说周瑞家的送走了刘姥姥去后,
便上来回王夫人话,谁知王夫人不在上
房,问丫鬟们,方知往薛姨妈那边说话
儿去了。周瑞家的听说便出东角门,过
东院,往梨香院来。
Translation 1

After seeing off Granny Liu, Mrs. Chou
went to report to Lady Wang. On being told
by her maids that their mistress had gone to
chat with Aunt Hsueh, she made her way
through the east side gate and the east
courtyard to Pear Fragrance Court.
 (Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys
Yang)
Translation 2
When Zhou Rui’s wife had finished seeing off
Grannie Liu, she went to Lady Wang’s place to
report. Lady Wang, however, was not in her
apartment. The maids said that she had gone off to
visit Aunt Xue. Zhou Rui’s wife accordingly went
out by the gate in the east corner of the compound,
crossed the eastern courtyard, and made her way
to Pear Tree Court.

(Translated by David Hawkes)

Translation 3

Having seen off Granny Liu, Mrs. Zhou
went to Lady Wang, reporting Granny Liu’s
departure, to find that Lady Wang was not
in. Asked, the maids informed her that she
had gone to Aunt Xue for a chat. Then Mrs.
Zhou went through the east corner gate,
crossed the east yard and went to Lixiang
Yard.
第二节 《三国演义》选段英译
练习1—2
练习 1

却说陈宫欲下手杀曹操,忽转念曰:
“我为国家跟他到此,杀之不义,不若
弃而他往。”插剑上马,不等天明,自
投东郡去了。
Translation 1

His arms raised to strike, Chen Gong reflected,
“I followed Cao Cao for the good of the Emperor.
But killing him only adds another wrong. Better
simply to leave.” Having come to that decision, he
put away his sword and, without waiting for
daybreak, rode toward Dongjun, his family’s home
district.

(Translated by Moss Roberts)
Translation 2

Having raised his sword at Cao Cao, but
on second thought, Chen Gong believed:
“For the sake of the empire, I followed him
here. Killing him would be an unfriendly
act. Better to spare him and leave for
another place.” Then he put the sword away
and left for Dongjun when it was not
daybreak yet.
练习 2

却说张飞拍马赶到关下,关上矢石
如雨,不得进而回。八路诸侯,同请玄
德、关、张贺功,使人去袁绍帐中报捷。
袁绍移檄孙坚,令其进兵。
Translation 1

Zhang Fei raced ahead to the pass, but
volleys of stones and arrows forced him
back. The eight lords hailed the victory of
the three brothers and reported it to the warruler. Yuan Shao called Sun Jian to renew
the attack.

(Translated by Moss Roberts)
Translation 2

When Zhang Fei spurred his horse to the
pass, volleys of stones and arrows forced
him back. The eight lords hailed the victory
of the three brothers and sent to report it to
Yuan Shao, command in general of the
allied forces. Yuan Shao then sent his
summon to Sun Jian, ordering him to attack
again.
第三节 《西游记》选段英译
练习1—2
练习 1

且不说天神围绕,大圣安歇。话表
南海普陀落伽山大慈大悲救苦救难灵感
观世音菩萨,自王母娘娘请赴蟠桃大会,
与大徒弟惠岸行者,同登宝阁瑶池,见
那里荒荒凉凉,席面残乱;虽有几位天
仙,俱不就座,都在那里乱纷纷讲论。
菩萨与众仙相见毕,众仙备言前事。
Translation 1


We shall leave for the moment the Heavenly Generals
making their encirclement and the soundly sleeping Great
Sage. The story goes on to tell how the Compassionate and
Merciful Miraculous Savior from Suffering, the
Bodhisattva Guanyin of Mount Potaraka in the Southern
Sea, having been invited by the Queen Mother to the Peach
Banquet, went to the precious pavilions at the Jade Pool
with her great disciple Huian the Novice. She found the
place deserted and the banquet ruined. The few immortals
present were not sitting at their places but talking with
great agitation. When greetings were over the immortals
gave the Bodhisattva an account of what had happened.
(Translated by W. J. F. Jenner)
Translation 2

Surrounded by immortals, Great Sage fell asleep. The
compassionate, merciful and miraculous savor,
Bodhisattva Guanyin of Mount Potaraka in Southern
Land went, at the invitation from the Queen, to the
Peach Banquet with her eldest disciple Hui’an, the
Novice. On reaching the jewel pavilion by the Jade Pool,
she saw, however, the tables were deserted and the
banquet ruined. A few immortals were there but none
was sitting at a table. They were all gossiping about
something. Bodhisattva extended her greetings to the
immortals there and was told of what had happened in
much detail.
练习 2

话表齐天大圣被众天兵押去斩妖台
下,刀砍斧剁,枪刺剑刳。莫想伤及其
身。南斗星奋令火部众神放火煨烧,亦
不能烧着。又着雷部众神,以雷屑钉打,
越发不能伤损一毫。
Translation 1

The story goes on to tell how the Great Sage Equaling
Heaven was escorted by the hosts of heavenly soldiers to
the Demon-beheading Platform and tied to the Demonsubduing Pillar. They hacked at him with sabers, sliced at
him with axes, lunged at him with spears and cut at him
with swords, but they were unable to inflict a single wound
on him. The Southern Dipper angrily ordered all the gods
of the Department of Fire to set him alight and burn him up,
but he would not ignite. He told the gods of the
Department of Thunder to nail splinters of thunder into
him, but however hard they tried they could not harm a
hair of his body.
 (Translated by W. J. F. Jenner)
Translation 2

When heavenly soldiers escorted Heavenly
Sage to the demon execution platform, they tried
to execute him with knives, axes, spears and
swords. However, no one was able to wound him a
little. Then greatly enraged, Southern Dipper
ordered immortals of fire to toast him in fresh
cinders but they failed to set light on him. Then he
ordered immortals of the thunder department to
attack him with thunder nails but they did no do
harm even to a single hair of the monkey.
第四节 《水浒传》选段英译

练习1—2
练习 1

话说鲁智深走过数个山坡,见一座
大松林,一条山路。随着那山路行去,
走不得半里,抬头看时,却见一所败落
寺院,被风吹得铃铎响。看那山门时,
上有一面旧朱红牌额,内有四个金字,
都昏了,写着“瓦罐之寺”。
Translation 1

After crossing a number of ridges, Sagacious
saw a path up the mountain through a large forest
of pines. He followed it for less than a li and
arrived at a run-down monastery. It was from here
that the tinkling of the bells came. Above an arch a
faded vermilion sign read in letters of gold:
“Waguan Monastery.”

(Translated by Sydney Shapiro
Translation 2

Having crossed a number of ridges, Lu
Zhishen reached a pine forest with a path
through. Following the path, he covered a
half li to find a monastery. It was run down
and the bells tinkled in the wind. Above the
arch, there was a vermilion sign with faded
gold inscriptions: “Waguan Monastery.”
练习 2

话说那酸枣门外三二十个泼皮破落
户中间,有两个为头的,一个叫做“过
街老鼠”张三,一个叫做“青草蛇”李
四。这两个为头的接将来,智深却好去
粪窖边,看见这伙人都不走动,只立在
窖边,齐道:“俺特来与和尚做庆。”
Translation 1

Among the twenty to thirty knaves who lived
outside Sour Date Gate, two were leaders. One
was Rat Crossing the Street Zhang the Third. The
other was Snake in the Grass Li the Fourth. These
two were in the lead as the gang advanced.
Sagacious naturally walked forward to meet them.
 The gang halted at the edge of the ordure pit and
chorused. “We’ve come to congratulate you on
your new post.”

(Translated by Sydney Shapiro)
Translation 2

Among 20 to 30 knaves living outside the Sour
Jujube Gate, two were their ringleaders. One was
Zhang San, nicknamed the Street Crossing Rat;
the other Li Si, nicknamed the Green Grass Snake.
They led the gang to welcome Zhishen and lured
him to the edge of the ordure pit. As Zhishen
sensed that the gang halted by the edge of the pit
and advanced no farther, they chorused: “We’ve
come to treat you to a feast in your honor.”
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