Patent Information
Indiana University
17 September, 2002
Ron Kaminecki
Dialog – A Thomson Company
[email protected]
Intent
• To learn about the patent process
• To be able to read a patent
• To understand why they are written the way
that they are written
• To be able to find patents
Types of Intellectual Property
•
•
•
•
Patents
Trademarks
Copyrights
Trade Secrets
Patents
• Keep others from making, using, selling,
importing your invention
• You must make an “enabling disclosure,”
including a “best mode” for practicing the
invention
• This protection, plus the best mode
information make patents a source of
competitive information
Patentability
• Novel
• Useful
• Non-Obvious
Is this patentable?
• I created a black powder that lowers fever
in humans
• The powder has no side effects
• But, it takes a week to make a batch
DIALOG(R)File 351:Derwent WPI
(c) 2002 Thomson Derwent. All rts. reserv.
008610382
WPI Acc No: 1991-114412/199116
XRAM Acc No: C91-049296
Antipyretic prodn - by continuously heating live mole in clayware buried in ash -and grinding dead mole
Patent Assignee: KIBA T (KIBA-I)
Number of Countries: 001 Number of Patents: 002
Patent Family:
Patent No
Kind
Date
Applicat No
Kind
Date
Week
JP 3056421
A
19910312 JP 89190307
A
19890721 199116 B
JP 94051630
B2 19940706 JP 89190307
A
19890721 199425
Abstract (Basic): JP 3056421 A
Prepn. comprises continuously heating a live mole (sic) in
clay ware buried in ash for a week and grinding the dead mole
into black powder.
USE/ADVANTAGE - The drug obtained works rapidly as an
antipyretic and causes no side reactions. The drug showed rapid
antipyretic effects in patients with fever of 38 to 40 deg.C.
associated with a common cold.
DIALOG(R)File 351:Derwent WPI
(c) 2002 Thomson Derwent. All rts. reserv.
008610382
WPI Acc No: 1991-114412/199116
XRAM Acc No: C91-049296
Antipyretic prodn - by continuously heating live mole in clayware buried in ash -and grinding dead mole
Patent Assignee: KIBA T (KIBA-I)
Number of Countries: 001 Number of Patents: 002
Patent Family:
Patent No
Kind
Date
Applicat No
Kind
Date
Week
JP 3056421
A
19910312 JP 89190307
A
19890721 199116 B
JP 94051630
B2 19940706 JP 89190307
A
19890721 199425
Abstract (Basic): JP 3056421 A
Prepn. comprises continuously heating a live mole (sic) in
clay ware buried in ash for a week and grinding the dead mole
into black powder.
USE/ADVANTAGE - The drug obtained works rapidly as an
antipyretic and causes no side reactions. The drug showed rapid
antipyretic effects in patients with fever of 38 to 40 deg.C.
associated with a common cold.
Types of patents
•
•
•
•
•
•
Product
Process
Improvement
Machine
Item of manufacture (e.g., rug)
New use
Kinds of patents
• Utility
– Chemical
– Electrical
– Mechanical
• Plant
• Design
Markush claims
• Typically in chemical cases
• Allows broad claiming of many species of
related compounds
Markush group
Markush claim
DETAILED DESCRIPTION - 2,3-benzodiazepine
derivatives of formula (I) and their acid addition
salts are new.
X=H, Cl or OCH3;
Y=H or halo;
Z=methyl or Cl;
R=1-4C alkyl or NR1R2; and
R1, R2 =H, 1-4C alkyl, 1-4C alkoxy or
3-6C cycloalkyl.
Is this patentable?
• You make a composition consisting of
cayenne pepper and other kitchen spices
• You put it into someone’s shoes
Patent information backgrounder
• Business information can be found in many
fields in a patent
• Can also take advantage of timing
differences to “predict” a patent publishing
elsewhere
US Patent – front page
US Patent – first column
Patentees that have cited Quaker
•
•
•
•
RANK No.
-------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
.
.
.
50
Items in File
------------496046
576
410
451
564
140
735
962
1119
60
14990
82
155
776
43
169
106
5749
315
244
258
43
Items Ranked
-----------539
103
65
46
32
28
25
21
21
19
17
16
16
15
15
15
14
14
14
14
13
10
%Items Ranked
------------23.3%
04.5%
02.8%
02.0%
01.4%
01.2%
01.1%
00.9%
00.9%
00.8%
00.7%
00.7%
00.7%
00.6%
00.6%
00.6%
00.6%
00.6%
00.6%
00.6%
00.6%
00.4%
Term
---UNASSIGNED
QUAKER OATS
NABISCO BRANDS
GENERAL MILLS
MATTEL, INC
LITTLE TIKES CO
INTERLEGO AG CH
NESTEC S A CH
UNION OIL CO
HESTAIR
SONY CORP JP
FISHER PRICE INC
INTERLEGO A.G.
NABISCO, INC.
TODAY S KIDS INC
TOMY CO LTD JP
COSCO INC
PROCTER & GAMBLE
TAKARA CO LTD JP
THE PILLSBURY CO
PILLSBURY CO THE
GERRY BABY PROD
Companies in litigation with
Quaker Oats
•
RANK No.
-------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Items
----20
4
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Term
---QUAKER OATS CO
FISHER-PRICE INC
FABWELL INC
GENERAL FOODS CORP
GENERAL MILLS INC
LUND INDUSTRIES
RUBBERMAID INCROPORATED
BEECHAM GROUP
BROOKFIELD ATHLETIC CO INC
BUSH BROS & CO
DEJAY CORP
HORTON CO
ISLAND MERCHANDISE CO LTD
KWIK-FIND INC
LILLIAN VERNON CORP
LITTLE PEOPLE SEATS INCORPORATED
MALT-O-MEAL CO
MATTEL INC
MIDDLEBY JOSEPH JR INC
SANDS TAYLOR & WOOD CO
SANKYO COMPANY
SPANG & CO
STOKELY-VAN CAMP INC
TAURUS INTERNATIONAL INCORPORATED
THE GATORADE COMPANY INC
TITAN TIRE CORPORATION
TITAN WHEEL INTERNATIONAL INCORPORATED
TODAYS KIDS INC
US patent – second column
US Patent - abstract
US Patent – field of invention
US Patent – Background of
invention
US Patent – background art
US Patent – Summary of the
Invention
US Patent – detailed description
of the invention
US Patent – first claim
US Patent – last claim
First handout of original patents
Consider every part of a patent as
a potential search term
Patents can have siblings/children
• Division
• Continuation
• Continuation in part
Original application
Original application
Division
Original application
Division
Continuation in part
Original application
Division
Continuation in part
Continuation
Original application
Division
Continuation in part
Continuation
Original application
Division
Continuation
Continuation in part
Continuation
Original application
Division
Continuation
Continuation in part
Division
Continuation
Original application
Division
Continuation
Continuation in part
Division
Continuation
CIP
Original application
Division
Continuation
Continuation in part
Division
Continuation
CIP
Original application
Division
Continuation
Continuation in part
Division
Continuation
CIP
Each application has its own application number, and if it
claims an earlier priority, it will have another number – the
priority number
A history of one of Jerome Lemelson’s patents
Main Patent
Division
Division
Division
Continuation
Continuation
Continuation
Continuation
Continuation
CIP
CIP
CIP
Priority
Publication
Number
Kind
Date
-------------- -- -------US 6169840
A
20010102
US 4984073
A
US 4338626
A
US 4148061
A
US 5249045
A
US 5119190
A
US 4660086
A
US 4511918
A
US 4118730
A
Abandoned
US 3081379
A
Abandoned
Application
Number
-------------US 938493
US 86906969
US 7913608
US 77778331
US 92826617
US 89426080
US 85723183
US 82394946
US 72254710
US 63267377
US 56626211
US 54477467
US 938493
US 92826617
US 89426080
US 86906969
US 85723183
US 82394946
US 7913608
US 77778331
US 72254710
US 63267377
US 56626211
US 54477467
Filing
Date
-------19930125
19860915
19790216
19770316
19920128
19891024
19850415
19820702
19720518
19630311
19561204
19541224
19930125
19920128
19891024
19860915
19850415
19820702
19790216
19770316
19720518
19630311
19561204
19541224
A history of one of Jerome Lemelson’s patents
Main Patent
Division
Division
Division
Continuation
Continuation
Continuation
Continuation
Continuation
CIP
CIP
CIP
Priority
Publication
Number
Kind
Date
-------------- -- -------US 6169840
A
20010102
US 4984073
A
US 4338626
A
US 4148061
A
US 5249045
A
US 5119190
A
US 4660086
A
US 4511918
A
US 4118730
A
Abandoned
US 3081379
A
Abandoned
Application
Number
-------------US 938493
US 86906969
US 7913608
US 77778331
US 92826617
US 89426080
US 85723183
US 82394946
US 72254710
US 63267377
US 56626211
US 54477467
US 938493
US 92826617
US 89426080
US 86906969
US 85723183
US 82394946
US 7913608
US 77778331
US 72254710
US 63267377
US 56626211
US 54477467
Filing
Date
-------19930125
19860915
19790216
19770316
19920128
19891024
19850415
19820702
19720518
19630311
19561204
19541224
19930125
19920128
19891024
19860915
19850415
19820702
19790216
19770316
19720518
19630311
19561204
19541224
Paris Convention date
• You must apply for a patent in every
country in which you wish to have a patent
within one year of the first filing
• Acknowledged by most countries
• This prevents an invention from being
patented somewhere in the world forever
International patent organizations
• Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
– Over 100 countries
– Most filings in English
• European Patent Office (EPO)
– Major European countries
– File in English, French, German
• Miscellaneous others (ARIPO, etc.)
International patent organizations
•
•
•
•
File in the US as the receiving office
Pay in American dollars
File in English
Date of filing is acknowledged by other
treaty states
• Pay in stages (file, search, examination)
• Delay prosecution for 20 or 30 months in
other countries
US patents vs. non-US patents
• Foreign patent applications published 18-36
months before US patents issue.
• After 29 November 2000, the US has published
some applications over a range of dates.
• US will still be a slow publishing country for
many applications
• Tracking foreign patents give insight to what will
be publishing in the US as all are part of the same
patent family.
A patent family
• Contains all patents/applications that are linked by
a common priority application number
• Includes divisionals, continuations, CIPs
• Includes members from other countries or treaties
• Are very useful when answering the most asked
question in patents: “Find an English equivalent of
this non-English patent.”
Second handout – online records
A patent family
•
Preparation of hand-held snack item having heat-sensitive material and
protective coating - comprises coating grain cake with heat-sensitive food
and further coating with syrup mixture to form final product
Patent Assignee: QUAKER OATS CO (QUAK ); WU R A (WURA-I)
Inventor: WU R A
Number of Countries: 027 Number of Patents: 007
Patent Family:
Patent No
Kind
Date
Applicat No
Kind
Date
Week
EP 861603
A2 19980902 EP 98301414
A
19980226 199839 B
CA 2227043
A
19980826 CA 2227043
A
19980115 199903
MX 9801466
A1 19990101 MX 981466
A
19980223 200051
CA 2227043
C
20010807 CA 2227043
A
19980115 200148
US 6303163
B1 20011016 US 97805484
A
19970226 200164
US 2000617445
A
20000717
US 20020015765 A1 20020207 US 97805484
A
19970226 200213
US 2000617445
A
20000717
US 2001928591
A
20010813
US 6375998
B1 20020423 US 97805484
A
19970226 200232
US 2000489186
A
20000120
Legal proceedings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reassignment
License
Reexamination
Reissue
Certificate of correction
Payment of maintenance fee
Reinstatement of patent after late payment of
maintenance fee
• Interference
Published US applications pre2001
?t s1/9/1
1/9/1
DIALOG(R)File
6:NTIS
Comp&distr
2000 NTIS, Intl Cpyrght All Right. All rts. reserv.
2187958
NTIS Accession Number: ADD019739/XAB
Nanoporous Membrane Immunosensor
(*Patent* *Application*)
Lee, G. U.
Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.
Corp. Source Codes: 001840000; 110050
Report No.: PAT-APPL-8-614 727
Filed 12 Jul 00
36p
Languages: English
Document Type: Patent
Journal Announcement: USGRDR0107
This
Government-owned
invention
available for U.S. licensing and,
possibly, for
foreign
licensing.
Copy of application available NTIS.
Product reproduced from digital image.
NTIS Prices: PC N03/MF A04
Published US applications pre2001
• NTIS publishes only those applications
based upon government research grants
• NTIS and USPTO are both under the
Department of Commerce
Searching patents
• Patents are not written to be found; they are
written to be defended in court
• If anything, they are written so that they are
not found easily
Searching patents
• Many searches start with a non-English
publication
• A patent drafter is his/her own
lexicographer
at least one trigger; said trigger pivotally connected to
said body; said trigger releasably connected to said
catheter...d) activating said launching means such that
said catheter is urgingly displaced axially along said
needle...
(Similar language found in thousands of patents)
Abstract: A transmitter for hydraulic control
controlled
by a controlling member including a hydraulic chamber
having a piston mounted thereto by means of a joint. The
hydraulic chamber defines a pressure chamber with variable
volume connected to a hydraulic line. A reservoir is
connected to the pressure chamber….
US Patent 6298968
Searching patents
• Titles are not the best thing to use to limit in
a search
Utility
M/ Method for coupling and release of
equipment
US Patent 6142237
submergible
Searching patents
• Prior art searches are always costconstrained, but….
• Litigation searches have unlimited budgets
• Always consider the most basic method first
• ….like buying the product and looking on
the label for a patent number
Searching patents
• Normal word order is often ignored; use an
operator that is not word order specific
• When word order changes, extra words are
often added
• The first claim is often used as the basis for
the abstract; because the first claim is broad,
consider using broad terms when searching
Searching patents
• For thorough searches of international
databases, consider using foreign languages;
English, French and German constitute over
90% of all PCT and EPO applications
• Over 80% of patents covered by Chemical
Abstracts are Japanese
• If push comes to shove, consider a manual
search (because attorneys really want them)
Searching patents
• A patent is a defensive tool, so think defensively:
– a fence is not needed if you can scare off intruders
before they trespass
– think like someone planning a static defense
•
•
•
•
•
•
hiding is more important than being seen
if seen, however, look strong
try to attract attention to a falsity (a trap)
devise a redoubt ahead of time
plan a secret escape route
keep in mind that people do leave key ingredients out of
recipes
Searching patents
• It is possible to search the patent offices on the
Internet
• Various patent databases are also available, with
unique features to make searching easier and
comprehensive
• Typically, additional indexing is added to subject
terms and also assignee names
• Use US class codes on US patent files,
international patent class codes (IPCs) on all else
Five basic patent searches
•
•
•
•
•
Application number
Patent number
Assignee name
Inventor name
Subject search
Sound easy, but.
• US application numbers recycle every few years
and applications are now published, sometimes in
less than 18 months after priority
• Japanese patent numbers follow the reign of
Emperor Hirohito until 1989 when Akihito took
his place. In 2000, Japan adopted the western year
• Assignee names take many forms and are even
misspelled often; use codes to maximize retrieval;
and, reassignees do not show up on the cover
Specific claim
I claim
General claim
I claim
Markush claim
What is claimed is:
1. A sandwich comprising:
two slices of bread, and
an edible container inserted between said two slices
of bread, said edible container housing a food therein and
structured to have a V-shaped configuration and contain an
outward bent circumferential end edge disposed along the
top and a plate bottom thereof for causing the edible
container to tightly adhere to the inner surfaces of two
slices of bread wherein the food is a food selected from
the group consisting of noodles, hot dog, cooked vegetable,
fresh salad, cooked or fresh mushroom, barbecue foods,
fruit jam, gel butter, and a mixture thereof, whereby the
food is contained in a sufficient quantity therein while at
the same time it is prevented from falling from the
sandwich. (Main Claim)
Patent search exercise
Remember the Halomet patent?
•
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (US)
Legal Status (No,Type,Date,Code,Text):
US 4592988
P
19840815 US AE
•
US 4592988
P
US 4592988
US 4592988
US 4592988
P
P
P
US 4592988
P
•
•
APPLICATION DATA (PATENT)
US 640813 A
19840815
19840815 US AS02
ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNOR'S
INTEREST
HALOMET, INC., SYRACUSE, NY A CORP OF NY ;
ALDRICH, ROBERT G. : 19840813; EARL, GEOFFREY H.
19840813; TRUNKO, DAVID W. : 19840813
19860603 US A
PATENT
19860826 US CC
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
19880621 US DI
ADVERSE DECISION IN
INTERFERENCE
19900814 US FP
EXPIRED DUE TO FAILURE TO PAY
MAINTENANCE FEE
900603
For more information
• “Patent it Yourself” by Michael Pressman,
second edition, Nolo Press - plus other Nolo
publications at www.nolo.com
• “The Extreme Searcher’s Guide to Web
Search Engines” by Ran Hock, second
edition, Cyberage Books
http://onstrat.com/Book.htm
• www.freepint.com/issues/100102.htm#tips
Ron Kaminecki
Dialog
312-469-1707
[email protected]
European Equivalent
European equivalent
European title
European abstract
European specification
Patent legal actions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reassignments
Litigation
Expiration
Extensions
Reexamination
Abandonment
etc.
Legal status (Inpadoc)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (US)
Legal Status (No,Type,Date,Code,Text):
US 4551388
P
830627 US AE
APPLICATION DATA (PATENT)
(APPL. DATA (PATENT))
US 508298 A
830627
US 4551388
P
850820 US AS02
ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNOR'S
INTEREST
ATLANTIC RICHFIELD COMPANY, LOS ANGELES,
CALIFORNIA, A CORP OF PA. ; SCHLADEMAN,
JAMES A. :
19850623
US 4551388
P
851105 US A
PATENT
US 4551388
P
890214 US DI
ADVERSE DECISION IN
INTERFERENCE
880922
US 4551388
P
890602 US AS17
RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY
PONY INDUSTRIES, INC., A CORP. OF DE ;
MANUFACTURERS HANOVER TRUST COMPANY :
19890310
US 4551388
P
940118 US FP
EXPIRED DUE TO FAILURE TO
PAY MAINTENANCE FEE
891107
US 4551388
P
940705 US DP
NOTIFICATION OF ACCEPTANCE
OF DELAYED PAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEE
In summary:
• Check a patent’s family for more
information
• Look at fields; inventor, assignee, cited art
• Read through the specification
• Know that it can be reassigned, reexamined,
extended, expired, etc.
• Watch the technical details
• Check with a company attorney!
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