How did the Worlds Collide?
When and where the first trips to Latin America?
Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003
How did the Worlds Collide?
When and where the first trips to Latin America?
1492-1493
1493-1496
1502-1504
1498-1500
Spanish Empire in the Americas
When and where the first
viceroyalties and
cities were established?
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1148.html
Treaty of Tordesillas-1494
Why is it so
important?
http://www.harpercollege.edu/mhealy/geogres/maps/smgif/smtorde.gif
The Columbian Exchange
• “The Columbian
Exchange” is the sharing of
cultures that transformed
the lives of two continents.
• Its was a two-way process
with people, goods, and
ideas moving back and
forth.
• The three G’s
• What was exchanged?
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•
•
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Plants
Animals
Diseases
Demographic
Mineral Wealth
Trade Items
Technology
Language
Religion
Economy
Government
Urban Planning
Plants
Americas
Europe
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•
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Maize
Potato
Tomato
Tobacco
Beans
Cacao
Cotton
Sugar
Rice
Wheat
Coffee
Banana
Grapes
Origin of Plants and Livestock
Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003
Plants
So what?
• Asian and African plants were introduced such as bananas,
plantains, sugarcane, and rice.
• Crops were introduced to a new environment to which they
were better suited and to a location that could easily be
transported.
• The Portuguese made it a policy to introduce plants from
one part to another in their empire. Bananas to Brazil and
maize, manioc, and peanuts to Africa.
• These crops became important global commodities.
• Diffusion of plants throughout the world.
Diffusion of Plants
Diffusion of Plants
Animals
Americas
Europe
• Turkey
•
•
•
•
Cattle
Horse
Pigs
Sheep
Animals
• Introduction of Animals from
Europe had a big impact on
land use, economies and
lifestyles.
• L.A. had no large
domesticated animals
except for llamas.
• The imported animals became
the center of Latin America
livestock industry.
• Environmental impact.
Diseases
Americas
Europe
• New strains
of syphilis
•
•
•
•
Smallpox
Flu
Measles
Typhus
Diseases
“The greatest genocide in human history.”
• Central Mexico:
– Indigenous population decline from 25 million to less
than one million with a century. Mexico and Central
America experienced a population decline by as much as
90 percent.
• Caribbean:
– In the island of Hispaniola, population declined from one
million to 1492 to 46,000 by 1512.
• North America
– 90 percent of the Indian population were gone within a
century of the Puritan landing on Plymouth Rock.
Demographics of the Columbian
Exchange
1) Indian population decrease
2) African Diaspora
3) European Migration
4) Mixing of Populations (miscegenation)
Animals
Indian Population Decrease
• Diseases:
– In Europe, an outbreak of small pox would kill 30 percent of those
infected.
– However, in the Americas the small pox death rate was nearly 50
percent.
• War:
– The battle of Tenochtitlan lasted eight days where 240,000 natives
perished.
• Labor: 11-12 million African captured by West African Kingdoms
like Songhai, Asante, Dahomey and the Kongo
African Diaspora
• A decrease in Native American population prompted
labor import from Africa.
• They worked in:
–
–
–
–
mines,
agriculture,
port towns,
sugar mills.
• African slaves were imported to all parts of
America. They were traded for rum, guns and
molasses along West Africa trading ports
African Diaspora
Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003
European Migration
• A relatively small number of European males migrated to
Latin America and the Caribbean during the colonial period.
• To give an example, from Mexico and Central America in
1570 only about 60,000 or 2 percent of the total population
3,096,000, was classified as white.
• By 1650 that white population had doubled to 120,000,
roughly 6 percent of the depleted total of 1,880,000.
• At the close of the colonial era in 1825 about 1 million or 14
percent of the total population of just over 7 million was
white.
European Migration 1800’s
Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003
Miscegenation
• The intermixing of Indians, Africans, and Europeans created a multiracial society.
• Color became status symbol.
• Complex race structure.
– Peninsulars: Europeans born in the the Iberian Peninsula.
– Creoles: Children of European descent born in America.
– Mestizo: Offspring of European and Indian unions.
– Mulatto: Children of European and African unions.
– Zambos: Indians and Black.
– Coyotes: Mestizos and Indian…..
Religion
• Religious Proclamation:
English crown- ordered their agents to “conquer, occupy and possess” the lands of the “heathens and
infidels.”
Spanish crown- sought not only to grab the land but to convert any indigenous people to “embrace the
Catholic faith and be trained in good morals.” (by any means necessary)
Governors- Diego Velasquez, the Cuban governor instructed Hernan Cortez as he departed to Mexico in
1519,
“Bear in mind from the beginning that the first aim of your expedition is to serve God and spread the
Christian Faith. . . You must neglect no opportunity to spread the knowledge of the True Faith and the
Church of God among those people who dwell in darkness”
Diffusion of Religion
Source: Getis, Getis, and Fellman, 2005
Religion
Results:
• Baptism- within a month of Hernan Cortez arriving in
Mexico first baptisms took place.
• Consensual Unions/Marriages- newly baptized Indian
women were grabbed as concubines.
– Marriages were performed by priests.
• Destruction- The first bishop of Mexico, Juan de
Zumarraga, claimed to have destroyed more than five
hundred Indigenous temples and twenty thousands idols.
– In essence, the Spanish conquest of 1519-1521 destroyed the core
of Aztec religion—the cult of warfare and human sacrifice.
Religion
• Transformation- The result of two strong religions was
that old god went underground, and the Indians learned to
cloak their worship in a Christian disguise.
– Virgin of Guadalupe: the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to an
Aztec man named Juan Diego. Within six years 9 million Indians
had been baptized as Catholics in central Mexico.
– The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe
– Christians lyrics were written to Indian melodies and native dances
were incorporated into Catholic morality plays.
– The church accepted a process of mutual adaptation, in which
Indians embraced Christianity symbols and forms, while the
church turned a blind eye to the pagan content beneath the Catholic
surface.
Religion
• The Spanish missionaries early adopted the myth of Quetzalcoatl and
thought that he was actually St. Thomas the Apostle, who had come to
Mexico to help convert the Aztec Indians to Christianity and that the
spirit of St. Thomas was in Cortes.
• Jesuits encouraged adaptation of African deities, filled the church with
black figures, created Christian rituals in African languages, music,
and dances in order to reach the slaves.
http://www.crystalinks.com/aztecgods.html
Religion
The Church reached every aspect of colonial life.
• Administrative center- Functioned next to or
above the Spanish Civil Government.
• Financial center- while the crown collected its
royal fifth from the elite, the church collected
10 percent from everyone.
– Large landowner and had large labor force.
• Revolutionary figures- Father Miguel
Hidalgo, a Creole priest, organized an uprising
of Mestizos and Indians.
http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/images/virgin.jpg
• Religious symbols- Virgin of Guadalupe
COT
Continuities
Changes
Farming
Building infrastructure
Trade
Religious ideas still permeated (saints and
deities intertwined)
Mix of indigenous and Christianity (Voodoo,
Santeria)
Social hierarchies
Warfare
Mita system
Tribute system
Indigenous languages
Native survivors provided similar labor and
tracked the lay of the land many served as
interpreters
Great Dying (diseases)
European voluntary migration
African forced migration
Viceroyalties ( colonial governments)
Spanish language and religion (Roman
Catholicism)
Introduction of new foodstuffs ( pigs, sheep
,chickens, cows, wheat, grain)
Deforestation to leave room for grazing and
crops
Las castas racial based society (Peninsulares,
Creoles,Mestizoes, Mullatoes, Natiive, African)
Introduction of new skills and literacy
European style cities (ex. Lima)
Building of Missions and Universities
Horse would change culture of Americas
Stable food supplies
COT Americas 1450-1750
• From 1450-1750 European mercantilism and the exploitation of the land ( resources)
labor (indigenous and African) and capital ( markets) created a new racialized
society referred to as the las castas society (as evidenced by the encomienda system)
, facilitated by the demographic shift due to the labor scarcity brought about by the
great dying, however many native farming techniques and labor systems (mita)
would persist.
• 1450-1750 would see a vast decline in native populations due to lack of immunity to
“old world” diseases like small pox, however, the need to provide sustenance
through agriculture and trade would continue as would the inability for Europeans to
expand into the vast rainforests and high mountain ranges where indigenous
populations would maintain their culture and way of life free from interference from
foreign rule.
Religion
Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003
Religion
The importance of the Missions:
• The church sent an army of Franciscan, Dominican, and Jesuits
priests to the new territories.
• Missionaries sought to escape the moral decay of Europe and
save the lost souls of the Americas.
• Missions became the principal frontier for the Spanish
expansion.
• The first mission was founded in Venezuela in 1520.
• Tension arose between missions and landowners.
– In 1767, the colonial elite succeeded in expelling the Jesuits.
At that time 2,200 Jesuits were working in the colonies with
more than 700,000 living in the missions.
Religion
• Missions played a key role in colonizing the United
States.
– Franciscans founded 40 thriving missions in Florida and
the Southwest.
– Founders of key USA cities such as San Antonio, El
Paso, Santa Fe, Tucson, San Diego, Los Angeles,
Monterrey, and San Francisco.
• Acculturation Center- agricultural practices,
cultural, and religious.
Fig. 7.25
Religion
Source: Getis, Getis, and Fellman, 2005
Language
Source: Bergman and Renwick, 2003
Trade Items
Americas
• Minerals
Europe
• Manufactured goods
• Raw Materials
• Agricultural products
Mercantilism- using colonies as sources of raw materials and
Markets for finished products
North/Latin America Colonization
•
•
•
•
North American
Charters of Joint Stock Co
Mostly Protestant
Laws forbidding
intermarriage of race
• Family colonization
• Heavily private financing
• Both:
Christian/Ethnocentric/Co
mpetitive/Racist/Reformati
•
•
•
•
Latin American
Royal Patronage
Predominantly Catholic
Miscegenation(Castas
System)
• Mostly European Males
• Exploitative (Labor/Natural
resources)
Summary of the Legacy of Colonization
What you think is the legacy of colonization?
• Political-audiencia became centers of newly independent states in
Spanish America, so the colonial legal and administrative structure
influenced state formation.
• Architecture/Urban planning- The use of architecture and urban
planning as tools of European conquest is a recurrent theme in Latin
American history. King Philip II of Spain ordered town planners to
use a grid or checkerboard plan for the layout of new towns and cities
in his “Laws of the Indies” (1573).
The plan featured a plaza major, or central square, with the main
church, government buildings, and residences of the authorities
facing the square. In port cities straight streets connected the plaza
major to the warehouses and docks of the port and to the imposing
fortresses that protected them.
Summary of the Legacy of Colonization
• Social- a social class was created based on color,
class, and culture.
• Religion- a blending of religion occurred.
- The church became an important power.
• Language• Demographic-
Summary of the Legacy of Colonization
• Economic- colonial Latin America produced primary
products and was dependent on the Iberian Peninsula for
markets, capital, and credit
• Land ownership- the colonial era saw the development of
large landowners at the top of the hierarchy.
– Many landless peasants at the bottom.
– Unequal distribution of land, resources, and wealth
continued into the independence era.
– The gap between rich and poor.
• Gender relation-
Vocabulary
Europe
Africa
Latin America
North America
Asia
Mercantilism
Christianity
Protestant
Caravels
Prince Henry
Alternative trade route
Indentured servants
Gold
Commercial Revolution
Bourgeoisie
Absolute monarchs
Urban centers
Manufactured products
Limited monarchies
(constitutional)
Renaissance
Age of exploration
Reformation
Religious intolerance
New world foodstuffs
Universities
Jesuits
What goes on in Europe…
Islam
Christianity
Chattel slavery
Cassava and Sweet potato
Dahomey
Kongo ( King Alfonso and
Queen Ndzinga)
Benin
Ife
Civil War
Firearms
Molasses
Rum
Diplomacy
Portuguese trade ports
Bight of Benin
Middle Passage
Triangle Trade
Slave ships
Great Circuit
Animism
10-14 million enslaved
Intensive labor
Encomienda
Repartamiento
Sugar
Silver
Las castas system
Viceroyalties
New Granada, New Spain,
New Castile
Jesuits
Mita
Audiencia
God, Gold and Glory
Peninsulares
Creoles
Mestizos
Mullatoes
Native
African
European urban centers
Horses, guns, wheat,
chickens
Deforestation
Catholicism
Universities
Columbus, Cortez, Pizzaro
Treaty of Tordesilla
North American
Charters of Joint Stock Co
Mostly Protestant
Laws forbidding
intermarriage of race
Family colonization
Heavily private financing
Families settling
Virginia joint stock Co
Dutch West Indian Co
Massachusetts Bay Co
Indian wars
Pilgrims
New Amsterdam
New England
New France
Fur
Timber
Fish
Rough winters
Mercantilism
Royal patronage
Silver
Manila Galleons
Luxury products
Sweet potato
Coastal trading ports
Jesuits
Australia (not Asia I know)
Philippines (Spanish Colony)
Treaty of Tordesilla
Indonesia (Dutch colony)
Spices
Sugar
Las castas system in colonies
Portuguese and Dutch then
English and French
Isolation of China and Japan
Ottoman and Safavid
blocking trade along
Mediterranean and Silk
Rotes
Further Reading
• Schwarts, Stuart B. (1985) Sugar plantations in the
formation of Brazilian society: Bahia 1550-1835.
• Clayton, Lawerence A. and Conniff, Michael L. (1999). A
history of Latin America.
• Winn, Peter (1992). Americas: The changing face of Latin
America and the Caribbean.
• Blouet, Brian W. and Blouet, Olwyn M. (2002). Latin
America and the Caribbean: A systematic and regional
survey.
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Worlds Collides” - White Plains Public Schools