WELCOME TO MUSIC 1E, INTRODUCTION TO
MUSIC: LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
INSTRUCTOR: RON DUNN (PLEASE CALL ME RON)
Please sit toward middle section of the room
Silence, put away cell phones--This rule is effective throughout the
quarter
Laptop computers: Anyone using laptops must sit in first row
Important information:
Copy this email: [email protected]
Copy this URL: http://faculty.deanza.edu/dunnron -instructor's website including Music 1E course resources
Introduction to Music:
Latin America and the
Caribbean
WHERE IS LATIN AMERICA?
• From tip of Tierra del Fuego
(to Tijuana
• Latin America has an area of
approximately 7,880,000 sq.
mi
• 14.1% of earth’s land
surface area.
• Hundreds of indigenous
groups and languages still in
existence—many languages
dying
• In modern times, areas
defined by Colonial
administrative language:
Spanish (most prevalent),
French, Portuguese (Brazil),
English (Trinidad, Jamaica)
“THIS IS WHO I AM”: MUSIC IS THE
EXPRESSION OF PEOPLE’S LIVES
• How does music express identity in your life?
GETTING TO KNOW YOU….
Find a group of strangers
When it’s your turn, introduce yourself to your group
• How long at De Anza?
• If new, from what school or college?
• Your major?
• Read or paraphrase the two questions from Student
Info sheet
Follow-up questions or comments from group members?
Be sure to exchange email addresses!
MUSICAL STUDY IN LATIN AMERICA
MUST INCLUDE
Ethnicity
Geography
Musical elements,
style, aesthetics
History
Religion
OUR JOURNEY
• Introduction to the class
• Introduction regional history and issues
• Introduction to musical elements: rhythm, melody, form,
texture, etc.
• “Classical” music—first contact, church music, colonial
“art” music, modern expression
• Regional musics:
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•
•
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Mexico
Spanish-speaking Caribbean
Brazil
Andes
Southern Cone (Argentina and Chile)
MUSICAL INTOLERANCE/RELATIVITY
• Latin America has long history of “coarse” vs. “refined”
• Class and ethnicity used to denigrate music “taking [one’s
own] worldview as an absolute standard”
• This practice is called Ethnocentrism
Music/culture must be seen in its own terms:
Cultural Relativity
TRANSFORMATION/COMPLICATING
MATTERS…
Accepted categories of music
• Folk: music of the people, often anonymous, steeped in
tradition and community ritual and associated with
uneducated working class, usually in rural areas
• Popular: urban settings, composed by known
individuals, circulated throughout the community at all
levels, often with commercial considerations
• Art/classical: music of the elite and educated members
of a society, music that is studied, written down and
performed in more formal settings
MORE COMPLICATIONS…
• However, many genres blur: Martinican Kwadril–
Furthermore, Much Latin American music began as folk
music
• 20th century brought migration to cities
• hybridization occurs, reification, abandonment of ritual/religious
underpinnings
• Folk music becomes preferred popular music
• Nationalism in 20th century
• Uses folk music as underpinnings
TRANSFORMATIONS
Transformation of folk genres by modernization,
globalization
• use of electric instruments, pop beat
• abandonment of African or Native elements as
commercial interests “sanitize” for middle class
• simultaneous rise of popular genres: salsa, reggae,
tejano, calypso, from folk roots
• Typical trajectory: Folk  “Art”  Popular
• Political borders, language not barriers in spread of
popular styles
GLOBALIZATION OF L.A. MUSIC
BEGAN IN 1492
• Globalization has helped to create “world music”
• Latin American music played big role in creation of world
music as a broad popular category
• Latin American music has been transformed in the
process:
• Pop orientation, electric instruments
• Homogenization criticized by academics and others, see it as
degradation of “authentic” styles
What does this say about “authenticity?”
INDIGENOUS CULTURES BEFORE 1492
• Thousands of groups
inhabiting the regions:
much diversity
• Extreme geographic
diversity, isolations create
diverse cultures
• Over time, 3 major groups
• Aztec
• Mayan
• Inca
• As many as 100 million
• European contact
decimates populations
• Warfare/conquest
• disease
THE FIRST AMERICANS
Earliest known instruments were percussion:
• gourds, seeds, claws, hooves
• Also flutes: wood, cane, bone
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•
•
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Each had complex governments, religious belief systems
significant architectural landmarks
lucrative economic systems and trade networks
powerful militaries
How do we know what we know?
• Loss of history – Europeans systematically destroyed
artifacts
• Music itself almost completely lost: remaining filtered
through eyes of conquistadors and missionaries
• Europeans described music as barbaric, demonic,
uncivilized because
• no harmony
• complex syncopation
• Dissonance
Reconstructing history
• What’s left?
What we know
No string instruments–all wind, percussion and human
voice
• Similar instruments found in various parts of continent
• Drums
• Shakers
• Rasps
• Conch shells
• Flutes–many different scales, ranges; beauty of flutes is that tuning
system remains intact
• Music for religious ceremony dominated
1492 and the advent of syncretism
• What is Syncretism?
• process of mutual influence and adaptation among
different religious or cultural traditions: two or more
cultures combine to form a new culture
• Not a simple “mixing”—power structures complicate
White Legend and Black Legend
Two opposing models
• Black legend: Europeans destroyed people they
contacted and subjugated
• White legend: Europeans brought prosperity and spiritual
salvation to indigenous populations
• What’s wrong with these models?
Population Decimation
Indigenous populations had no natural immunity to
European diseases
• Smallpox
• Tuberculosis
• Measles
• Dysentery
• By 17th century, as much as 90% of populations were
destroyed
Emergence of Mestizo culture:
Pragmatism, survival and adaptation
 Encomienda
 Reducciones
 Repartamiento
Emergence of Mestizo culture:
Pragmatism, survival and adaptation
 Expert metallurgy combined
with European filigree work
Simple European skirts decorated
with indigenous patterns and colors
European string Instruments
Adaptations
Andean Charango
Andean harp with other strings instruments
EUROPEAN CULTURES IN AMERICA
THE EMERGENCE OF AFRICAN CULTURE:
TRIANGLE TRADE AND THE “MIDDLE PASSAGE”
“Sins traded, bartered for
goods to trade for slaves:
glass beads, textiles,
guns, whiskey, ivory
Slaves traded in
Caribbean for products of
slave labor:
• rum, sugar, tobacco, molasses–
so-called “Sin” products
European goods
traded for slaves in
Africa
African Influence in South America
• Shaded areas show
areas of slave importation
in South America
Cabildos in Cuba (Wikipedia)
Name of Cabildo
African region of origin
Ethnic group of origin
Abakuá
Nigeria/Cameroon
Ekpe
Mandinga
Sierra Leone
Malinké
Ganga
Sierra Leone
Malinké
Mina
Gold Coast
Akan
Lucumi
Benin and Nigeria
Yoruba
Carabalis
Biafra
Igbo - Efik
Macauas
Mozambique
Makua
Congo
Angola
Bantu
General Elements of Sub-Saharan African
Culture Transplanted to New World
• Complex rhythmic layering–conversation
– cross rhythm/polyrhythm
• Bell or clave as guide rhythm, drum patterns fit within it
– strong metronomic sense without thinking of beat and/or meter, whereas
Westerners are conditioned to think of organizing music to a meter
– Tresillo, cinquillo, other rhythmic patters are African rhythmic patterns
• Short phrases, responsorial forms in both song and instrumental music:
lead drum (call) – and support rhythm (response)
• Open-ended cycle AB vs ABA
• Drums very important
– Upright and horizontal
• Other instruments: marimba, thumb piano, many string instruments
• Tonal language–rhythms often have meaning, drums can “talk”
• Drums sometimes banned because of their ability to communicate over
long distances.
Religious Syncretism
• Religious devotion a part of both European
and indigenous American cultures
• The plan for conversion
– Incorporate some elements of native American
worldview
– Make religious ceremony joyous, full of splendor
– Use lots of music
Patron Saint Festivals
Liturgical Drama and Dance
Bumba meu boi
Dance-drama used as means of conversion
• Matachines, Moros y Christianos
– Symbolism beyond historical enactment,
moral undertone
• Pasiones—stylized representations of
passion of Christ
• Some incorporated indigenous and
African elements; biblical and doctrinal,
others with moral undertones, others
comedic
Mojigangas puppets
– Mojigangas: fin de fiesta
– Bumba meu boi: resurrected bull
• Modern versions still in existence, widely
practiced, regional in nature
The syncretic process
• Did missionary strategies work?
• Separate practices eventually merge: syncretism
• Virgen Mary/Tonatzin, Mother of Aztec gods
• Merged as Virgen of Guadalupe
• Guelaguetza , Zapotec feast of Thanksgiving
/feast of Virgen of Mount Carmel
Syncretism and Slavery
• Ancestor worship/animism at core of African religions
• Pantheon of gods merges with Christian saints
• In Cuba, Santeria major religion
– Babalu Aye becomes St. Lazarus
Oshun/Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre
Carnaval: the most widespread of all syncretic celebrations!
Syncretism beyond race, religion, culture
• What elements were shared between cultures?
Modern Native Societies
• Importance of Native societies
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Introduction to Music: Latin America and the Caribbean