Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800 By M.D. Bergquist World History Instructor Alexander High School Europe Developed Into Absolute Monarchies • Feudalism had collapsed. • National monarchies replaced. • Intense competition for land and trade lead to many wars. • Religious differences sparked civil wars. • Absolute monarchy emerged to protect the nation and preserve order. • “Gunpowder Revolution” began. MAP: The Hapsburg ruler, Charles V, ruled his empire as a family estate, rather than a united kingdom. Each part kept its own languages, customs, laws and forms of government. Charles traveled round, holding court in different capitals. Note how France is surrounded by the Hapsburg Empire. www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/ background/flanders.htm http://www.tudorhistory.org/people/charles5/charlesv.jpg Philip II King of Spain (1556-1598) • Inherited Spain from father. • Sought to strengthen power by war, colonies, and the Catholic Reformation. • Weakened Spain by incessant wars and poor economic choices. www.tudorhistory.org/ people/ France was wracked by religious warfare until Henry of Navarre agreed to be king (1589-1610) • First of Bourbon dynasty • Issued Edict of Nantes which promised religious toleration. • Began to rebuild French economy. • Assassinated leaving 9-year old son to rule. http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/p/pourbus/frans_y/ Cardinal Richelieu created a strong monarchy. • Regent (1624-1642) for Louis XIII (1610-1643) • Richelieu broke the power of nobles and Protestants by destroying walled cities and castles. • Used the middle class for government jobs. • Challenged Hapsburg power by intervening in Thirty Years War. . http://home.nyu.edu/~rgr208/richelieu jpg When Louis XIII died leaving his five year-old son as king Cardinal Mazarin became regent (1643-1661). • Continued Richelieu policies. • Generally disliked by the French people because of increased taxes and continued consolidation of royal power. • Fronde Revolt by nobles harshly suppressed. http://www.ac-strasbourg.fr/pedago/lettres/Victor%20Hugo/Notes/Mazarin.htm Louis XIV becomes the most powerful king in Europe (1643-1715) • When Mazarin died, Louis assumed full control at age 23. • Worked long hours to strengthen France. • Broke power of nobles and Protestants. • Restored economy via mercantilism. • Builder of the Palace of Versailles. http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/France/LouisXIV.html •Louis XIV, The Sun King •The best and worst example Of absolute monarchy. •“L’Etat c’est moi!” • Crippled France by fighting a series of losing wars and revoking the Edict of Nantes • On his deathbed he urged his young grandson and heir to avoid wars. Ferdinand II Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637) • Wanted greater control of his Protestant nobles. • Touched off the Thirty Years War, which eventually involved most of western Europe. • Took German States 100 years to rebuild. http://www.kaisergruft.at/anhang/ezhferdi.htm The arrival of King Gustavus Adolfus’ Swedish forces. Next slide: Soldiers sack and loot a home. The Hanging Tree The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) •Hapsburgs v. German Protestants •Sweden v. Hapsburgs •France v. Hapsburgs •Peace of Westphalia, 1648 created modern Europe. The Thirty Years War Many cities were destroyed and an estimated 4 million Germans died. This is the Sack of Magdeburg Eastern Europe • Slower to develop due to the many ethnic minorities and lack of development—primarily agricultural. • Feudalism still strong. • Hapsburg Family in control. • Maria Theresa, Queen of Austria. (1740-1780) http://www.batguano.com/VLBmcaroline.jpg Frederick the Great (1740-1786) of Prussia was determined to make Prussia the dominate power. • Created a strong aggressive military. “ Most nations have an army, Prussia is an army with a nation”. • Promoted religious toleration and education at home. • Successfully made Prussia dominate power by defeating Austrians. • ( Seven Years War) www.ncl.ac.uk/~nhistory/ german.htm Russia centralized under the leadership of the tsars Ivan III The Great Ivan IV The Terrible 1462-1505 1533-1584 www.xenophongi.org/rushistory/ rusinwax/wax28s.jpg www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com/ archive/peter.gif Peter the Great 1672-1725 English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system • James I (1603-1625) fought with Parliament over his authority. • Puritans wanted Anglican Church to reflect a Calvinist view. • James refused to cooperate, except for a new Bible translation. www.bbc.co.uk/history Charles loses his head in an argument • Charles I (1625-1649) pursued an aggressive foreign policy with Spain. • Continually sought new funds from Parliament, members checked his power by forcing him to sign the Petition of Right, 1628. • When Charles dissolved Parliament and tried to raise money, civil war resulted. : www.mdarchives.state.md.us/.../ 01glance/images/charles1.jpg Oliver Cromwell defeats king’s forces and became Lord Protector • Charles executed for treason. • On paper, England was a republic but in practice a dictatorship. • Cromwell suppressed revolt in Ireland. • Imposed Puritan ideals on English. http://www.graham.day.dsl.pipex.com/civilwar-cromwell.gif Monarchy Restored • When Cromwell died, so did his government. • English invited Charles II (16601685) to restore monarchy. • Reign was a period of calm marked by court decadence. Monarchy In Crisis • On Charles’ death, brother became king. • James II (1685-1688) was pro-Catholic, which angered many. • When his young wife produced an heir, Parliament feared a renewed period of turmoil and removed king from power. www.bbc.co.uk/.../monarchs_leaders/ images/james_2_full.jpg The Glorious Revolution William and Mary Restore English Monarchy www.camelotintl.com/heritage/ rulers/images/willmary.gif • Parliament invited Mary, daughter of Charles I, and a Protestant, to jointly rule with her husband, William of Orange. (1689-1702) • Both agreed to follow Parliamentary laws and accepted English Bill of Rights. • England became the only limited monarchy in Europe. Parliament in control.