THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE
AN EMPIRE LOOKING
BACKWARD
THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE
• A. DYNASTIC,
ABSOLUTIST, AND
AGRARIAN in a
Europe that was
becoming more
parliamentary,
republican, and
industrialized.
THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE
• B. EMPEROR FRANCIS JOSEPH
(1848-1916)
• 1. A centralized administration was
established that was dominated by
German-speaking Austrians.
• 2. All internal tariffs were abolished.
• 3. Hungary was divided into military
districts.
• 4. The Catholic Church controlled
education.
THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE
• EMPEROR FRANCIS JOSEPH
5. Survived an assassination attempt in 1853.
Worries about succession increased, so
Franz Joseph looked for a wife.
– He ignored the older of his maternal
cousins and fell for his 16 year old cousin,
Elisabeth, Sissi, of Bavaria.
– She was often sick and away from court,
but encouraged her husband to support the
Hungarian cause.
– She traveled Europe extensively – fashion
icon.
– In 1898, she was stabbed in the heart by an
anarchist in Geneva, Switzerland
– Despite taking several mistresses, it was
said that Franz Joseph never recovered.
THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE
• C. GOOD-BYE
RUSSIA: Since
Austria did not
support Russia
during the Crimean
War, the tsar would
no longer prop us
Hapsburg rule in
Hungary.
THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE
• D. DEFEAT: by France and Piedmont in
1859 resulted in the loss of Italian
territories.
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• A. 1860 OCTOBER
DIPLOMA created
an Austrian
federation with local
diets and a single
imperial government.
This was rejected by
the Magyars
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• B. 1861 FEBRUARY
PATENT established a
bicameral imperial
parliament, the Reichsrat.
The Magyars again
refused to participate but
this form of government
actually did go into effect
and remained so until
World War I.
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• C. COMPROMISE OF
1867, AUSGLEICH:
1866 defeat by Prussia
forced Francis Joseph to
deal with the Magyars.
Austria-Hungary was
created, essentially two
separate countries with a
common ruler.
Ferenc Deák
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• The Hungarians pursued
Magyarization in their part of the
empire, suppressing Slavic
languages and culture.
• To manage the situation in Austria,
Prime Minister Edward von Taaffe
expanded voting rights and tried to
win over the Czechs, Slovaks, and
Poles by including them in the
Imperial Parliament.
• German nationalists resented
these policies.
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• Anti-Semitism emerged as a political
force in Austrian politics with the rise
of the Christian Social Party. From
1897 to 1910, Karl Lueger served as
mayor of Vienna and pursued policy
of restriction and exclusion against
Jews.
• Not until 1907 did Austria grant
universal male suffrage, and even
then, the imperial Reichsrat so often
descended into ethnic conflict that
Franz Joseph was forced to rule by
decree.
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• Political difficulties in
Austria mounted
continuously through the
late 1800s and into the
20th century. But Franz
Joseph remained
immensely respected. His
patriarchal authority held
the Empire together while
the politicians squabbled.
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• D. After Rudolf, the heir to the throne,
died in 1889, Archduke Franz
Ferdinand became heir. He was
nephew of Franz Joseph and almost
lost his position by falling in love with
and marrying Sophia, a mere
countess. Franz Joseph wanted the
marriage declared morganatic.
• When Franz Ferdinand and Sophia
were assassinated, Franz Joseph
declared that "in this manner a
superior power has restored that
order which I unfortunately was
unable to maintain."
THE DUAL MONARCHY
• E. SIMMERING
NATIONALISM among the
Czechs and other
nationalities under Austrian
domination caused disruption
in the Reichsrat and resulted
in rule by imperial decree in
the late 1890's. Continued
tension in the Balkans would
eventually result in the chaos
of World War I.
1914
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THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE