-Education system
• Full country name: Republic of Ecuador
• Area: 175,780 sq mi)
Population: 13,000,000
• Capital city: Quito (1.5 million)
• People: 40% mestizo, 40% Indian, 15% Spanish descent, 5% African
Language: Spanish, Quechua, Quichua, other indigenous languages
Religion: Over 90% Roman Catholic and other Christian
Ecuador was one of the seven countries established after the Spanish
defeat in the Independence Wars (1808-1824).
Demographics of
• According to…
• Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador is a
representative democratic republic in South
America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by
Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific
Ocean on the west. The country also includes the
Galápagos Islands, about 965 kilometers
(600 miles) west of the mainland. Ecuador is the
Spanish word for equator. Ecuador straddles the
equator and has an area of 256,370 square
kilometers (98,985 mi²). Its capital city is Quito.
Division of People
• Population of Ecuador: 13 million
*2% annual population growth
* ½ live in cities
• 22 Provinces
*named after mountains or rivers
• Divided into 10 different communities
• Guayaquil is largest city
*population over 2 million
*seaport is economic
*industrial heart of Ecuador
Geography of Ecuador
• Equatorial line runs through its heart
*led to its name
• Straddles the Andes Mountain Range on western most
point of South America
• Smallest of Andean Countries
• Only slightly larger than Colorado
*half the size of France
• Contains a variety of landforms
*snow-capped Andes
*both extinct and active volcanoes
*beaches on the Pacific Coast
*Amazon Jungle
Andes Mountain Chain
• Divides country into 3 distinct regions
*Costa-coastal plain
*Sierra-Andean Mountains
*Oriente-Amazon jungle
• Gently rolling hills
• Low-lying areas flood frequently
*access to area is difficult in rainy season
• Devoted to agriculture
• Sandy beaches on shoreline
• River estuaries harbor mangrove swamps
*important breeding grounds for land and
marine wildlife
*areas being converted to expansive pools for
commercial shrimp ranching
*important industry
• Mache-Chindul
* low mountain range near coast
* 800 meters high
*one of few spots that still supports coastal rainforest and indigenous
communities known as chachis
• Valleys are found between the eastern and western ranges of the Andes
*highly productive volcanic soils
*populated and farmed for several
thousand years
*small fields extend far up mountain sides
• Northern end of Ecuadorian Andes is dominated by 10 glaciated
volcanoes that tower to over 5,000 meters
• Chimborazo in western chain is highest peak in Ecuador(6,310 meters)
• Cotopaxi(5,900 meters) is highest active volcano in the world
• Sub-alpine grasslands
*known as páramo
*host diversity of wildlife
• Represents a meager 4% of population
• Amazon rainforest begins in foothills of
eastern Andean slopes
• Rivers from this area form tributaries of
Amazon River
*principal means of transport through hilly
and densely vegetated terrain
• Virgin rainforests converting to pastures and
• The Coasta and Oriente have two seasons
*the wet season (winter) lasts from Jan.-June
*Dry season (summer) lasts from JuneDec.
*Regions are hot all year (25C/80F)
• The central valleys of the Sierra experience the
rainy season from Feb.-May
• *Short wet season from Oct.-Nov.
*Climate is mild overall
• Official name: San Francisco de Quito
• Capital city of Ecuador
• City’s elevation is 9,300 ft above sea level
– Second highest capital city in the world
• Area of Quito is approximately 112 square
• Located 15 miles south of the equator (la
mitad del mundo = the middle of the world)
Demographics of Quito
(as of 2001)
• Population: 1,865,541
– 892,570 men; 947,283 women
– Population density: 439.8 inhabitants per square km
– Inhabitants over 12: 639,068 = married, 541,758 =
single, 33,116 =divorced, 30,898 = separated, 47,930 =
– Second most populated city of Ecuador, after Guayaquil
• Number of households: 419,845
• Illiteracy rate: 3.6%
• Unemployment rate: 8.9%
• Average monthly income: $387
Geography of Quito
• Climate: mild to cool
– High: 67 degrees
– Low: 49 degrees
• Two seasons: summer = dry season, winter = rainy season
• Located north of Sierra Negra (Galapagos) in
Guayllabamba river basin
– Eastern part of basin = volcanoes
• Cotpaxi, Antisana, Sincholagua, Cayambe (east)
• Illiniza, Atacazo, Pichincha, Pululagua (west)
• Volcanoes
– Guagua Pichincha (13 miles from Quito)
• Ongoing volcanic activity
• Last eruptive activity: October 5 and 7, 1999
• Quito only capital in world to be directly
menaced by active volcano
– Reventador
• Last eruptive activity: November 2002
• City showered in ash more than what was in
• Earthquakes
– Worst was in 1797
• Killed nearly 40,000
– Most recent in 1987
• Magnitude of 7 on Richter scale
• Epicentre about 50 miles
• Killed nearly 1,000 throughout Ecuador
• Minor damage to Quito buildings
– October 16, 2006
• Felt a quake = 4.1 on Richter scale
• No damage reported
Points of Interest of Quito
• Northern Quito
– Business district of Quito
– International airport
– Museo del Banco Central
• Ecuadorian art
– Parque Metropolitano - 1,376 acres (Central Park = 843
• Mountain biking, walking, or running
• Eucalyptus forest with trails
– La Carolina – 165.5 acres
– Play fútbol, básket, ecuavolley, aerobics, flying kites,
running, etc
Galapagos Islands
• What makes the Galapagos Islands?
• The Islands are famous for their unique plant life and vast
number of endemic (known only to the islands) species
such as red and blue-footed boobies, frigate birds
(members of the pelican family), giant colorful tortoises,
and marine and land iguanas that grow to be about 5 feet
• The Galapagos were visited by Charles Darwin in 1835
where he collected evidence that led to his theory of
natural selection. Our Galapagos cruises will take you to
Darwin's "living laboratory" which was birthed by
underwater volcanic eruptions.
• The Galapagos Islands are on an archipelago
owned by Ecuador and are approximately 600
miles from the Ecuadorian mainland.
• Due to the unparalleled scientific interest, Ecuador
designated them as a National Park in 1959 and
UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific
and Cultural Organization) placed them on the
World Heritage list in 1978. There's no other place
like them on earth...
Education System
Specific Demographics
and Rates
Adult literacy rate, 2000-2004: Male 92 Female 90
• 2002-2004 Internet users 5 per 100 Ecuadorians
• Population, 2005, under 18: 5,100,000
• Population, 2005, under 5: 1,445,000
• Population annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990: 2.7
• Population annual growth rate (%)1990-2005: 1.7
• Percent of population urbanized, 2005: 63
• Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1970
1990: 4.4
• Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1990
2005: Not Available
Specific Demographics and Rates,
• Crude death rate, 1970: 12
Crude death rate, 1990: 6
• Crude death rate, 2005: 5
• Crude birth rate, 1970: 42
• Crude birth rate, 1990: 29
• Crude birth rate, 2005: 22
• Life expectancy, 1970: 58
• Life expectancy, 1990: 68
• Life expectancy, 2005: 75
• Total fertility rate, 2005: 2.7 (about 2.1 needed for stable
population levels)
Implications for Education in
• Declining fertility rates, declining death
rates, increasing life expectancy, and
increasing urbanization indicate Ecuador’s
• Increasing modernization and a large
percentage of children under 18 places a
great need for education in Ecuador.
• (Source:
• Elementary education is mandatory to the end of grade 6. Only
about 50% finish. Of those beginning secondary school, only
about 50% finish grade 12.
A high school diploma is necessary for students to attend one of
the approximately 22 universities or technical schools.
The school year differs between the coast and the highlands. On
the coast, the school year begins in May and ends in January. In
Quito and the highlands the year runs from October to July.
The adult literacy rate is approximately 91%.
10.2% of 15 year olds are still illiterate
26% leave school before 6th grade.
33 universities/technological colleges – holds 202,683 students.
Education system based on reform, intended to improve the archaic
system, eliminate education by memorization, and develop logical and
creative thinking.
Partially successful, but requires much more time and follow-up.
Requires a new generation of teachers to bring change.
No training for teachers to first learn content and then teach.
Private and public schools.
Some private schools base their curriculum on U.S. standards.
– Instruction is in English.
– Spanish is taught in grades K-12.
– English as a second language (ESL) is provided for those who are
not fluent in English.
• Nearly a third of all abandoned children are
• Children available for adoption include
infants, sibling groups, older and special
needs children, both boys and girls.
• Number of Children Adopted by Americans
in 2004: 28 (significant declining rate)
• Over the past 20 years, the population of
Ecuador has doubled. This has created a
growing population of abandoned children.
• Most of these
children come
from poor or
• Growing poverty,
lack of education,
and limited
resources further
perpetuate the
problem of street
children and
• In Quito there are approximately
4500 street children.
• Unemployment rate:
• Underemployment
rate: 47%
• Population below
poverty line: 45%
• Orphanages provide the following:
– children mistreated by their parents
- children who used to work and live in the streets
- children who were forced to live with their
imprisoned parents
- children whose parents were unable to supply them
- shelter
- food
- medical care
- schooling and professional training
- a feeling of security in a new family
• Most people walk but the bus, trolley, and cabs are very
inexpensive by US standards.
• At night the bus system and trolley shut down so you can walk or
ride a cab; however, I would recommend taking a cab unless you're
with a group of 5 or more for safety reasons.
• At night the cabs don't run off the meter so you can bargain with
the driver for the fee.
• They have a new mean of transportation called "Trole o "Ecovia"
which is a sort of over ground metro, that routes around the city
and the city itself is not that big so a long journey would probably
cost you no more than 10 USD, something you should know is that
you always need to negotiate beforehand.
Urban Buses
Very cheap service (20-25 cents)
Many seats are created for one person
May not stop at all bus stops or vice versa
Older buses can cause discomfort
Bus for Provinces
• Easiest and cheapest way to travel inside
• Cost may vary to distance and quality of
• Bus drivers are fearless
• If you are uncomfortable with the driving
don’t be afraid to get off…
Trolley and Ecoway
• Most modern and efficient way of transport
in country
• Cheap service (about 20 cents)
• May be a little tight during rush hour
• Only exists in Quito from 6am to 12pm
• Cabs are very popular
• In general, the service is good and the drivers are pleased
to help tourists.
• Cost depends on the taximeter, average is about $1.50 to
$2.00 during the day
• At night, may not use taximeters (illegal), but usually
won’t charge more than $2.00 to $3.00.
• 24 hour service
• Safer to use radio taxi at night. You must call for them and
it shouldn’t take more than 5 minutes to arrive.
• Best air transportation systems in the region
• Longest flight inside Ecuador is 45 minutes
(with the exception of the Galapagos
Islands which is an hour and a half).
• Not always cheap
Boats, Motor Boats, and Canoes
• Many places in Ecuador can only be
reached by boat.
• Costs vary depending on distance and
• Some times free, but will desire a tip.
• Cost, you can discuss with owner before
you step foot on the boat.
• Used mostly for tourism
• Known as the hardest working transportation in
the whole world because it runs through the
• One of the greatest ways to get to know Ecuador
• Very old and slow
• Hard to know arrival and departure schedule.
• Very common, (more common in Ecuador than in
any other country), especially in small towns.
• Some drivers will charge a small fee. It is okay to
ask about the price before you hop in the vehicle.
• It is not guaranteed to be safe, so use common
sense, especially if you are a woman or traveling
• The main thought drivers in Ecuador have
is: “I have the right away.”
• Whoever is bigger, goes first
• Because of this, you may hear a lot of
horns, screeching brakes, insults flying, and
pedestrians running for their lives…OH
• Spanish is the main language of Ecuador.
• English is spoken only in the large hotels and tourist
agencies (sometimes) in the larger cities.
Taking a basic course in Spanish before you come to
Ecuador is a good idea. There are many excellent Spanish
schools in Quito, where group rates are about US$1 per
hour, and private lessons are US$3 or so. The basics are
fairly easy to learn, because it is a very phonetic language.
You can also buy a pocket phrase guide. Ecuadorians are
wonderfully patient with foreigners trying to speak to them
in their own language.

Demographics of Ecuador