EDUCATION GROUP ECUADOR -Demographics -Education system -Orphanages -Transportation -Spanish • Full country name: Republic of Ecuador • Area: 175,780 sq mi) Population: 13,000,000 • Capital city: Quito (1.5 million) • People: 40% mestizo, 40% Indian, 15% Spanish descent, 5% African descent Language: Spanish, Quechua, Quichua, other indigenous languages Religion: Over 90% Roman Catholic and other Christian denominations. Ecuador was one of the seven countries established after the Spanish defeat in the Independence Wars (1808-1824). Demographics of Ecuador • According to Wikipedia.org… • Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands, about 965 kilometers (600 miles) west of the mainland. Ecuador is the Spanish word for equator. Ecuador straddles the equator and has an area of 256,370 square kilometers (98,985 mi²). Its capital city is Quito. Ecuador Division of People • Population of Ecuador: 13 million *2% annual population growth * ½ live in cities • 22 Provinces *named after mountains or rivers • Divided into 10 different communities • Guayaquil is largest city *population over 2 million *seaport is economic *industrial heart of Ecuador Geography of Ecuador • Equatorial line runs through its heart *led to its name • Straddles the Andes Mountain Range on western most point of South America • Smallest of Andean Countries • Only slightly larger than Colorado *half the size of France • Contains a variety of landforms *snow-capped Andes *both extinct and active volcanoes *beaches on the Pacific Coast *Amazon Jungle Andes Mountain Chain • Divides country into 3 distinct regions *Costa-coastal plain *Sierra-Andean Mountains *Oriente-Amazon jungle Coasta • Gently rolling hills • Low-lying areas flood frequently *access to area is difficult in rainy season • Devoted to agriculture • Sandy beaches on shoreline • River estuaries harbor mangrove swamps *important breeding grounds for land and marine wildlife *areas being converted to expansive pools for commercial shrimp ranching *important industry • Mache-Chindul * low mountain range near coast * 800 meters high *one of few spots that still supports coastal rainforest and indigenous communities known as chachis Sierra • Valleys are found between the eastern and western ranges of the Andes *highly productive volcanic soils *populated and farmed for several thousand years *small fields extend far up mountain sides • Northern end of Ecuadorian Andes is dominated by 10 glaciated volcanoes that tower to over 5,000 meters • Chimborazo in western chain is highest peak in Ecuador(6,310 meters) • Cotopaxi(5,900 meters) is highest active volcano in the world • Sub-alpine grasslands *known as páramo *host diversity of wildlife Oriente • Represents a meager 4% of population • Amazon rainforest begins in foothills of eastern Andean slopes • Rivers from this area form tributaries of Amazon River *principal means of transport through hilly and densely vegetated terrain • Virgin rainforests converting to pastures and croplands Climate • The Coasta and Oriente have two seasons *the wet season (winter) lasts from Jan.-June *Dry season (summer) lasts from JuneDec. *Regions are hot all year (25C/80F) • The central valleys of the Sierra experience the rainy season from Feb.-May • *Short wet season from Oct.-Nov. *Climate is mild overall Quito • Official name: San Francisco de Quito • Capital city of Ecuador • City’s elevation is 9,300 ft above sea level – Second highest capital city in the world • Area of Quito is approximately 112 square miles • Located 15 miles south of the equator (la mitad del mundo = the middle of the world) Demographics of Quito (as of 2001) • Population: 1,865,541 – 892,570 men; 947,283 women – Population density: 439.8 inhabitants per square km – Inhabitants over 12: 639,068 = married, 541,758 = single, 33,116 =divorced, 30,898 = separated, 47,930 = widowed – Second most populated city of Ecuador, after Guayaquil • Number of households: 419,845 • Illiteracy rate: 3.6% • Unemployment rate: 8.9% • Average monthly income: $387 Geography of Quito • Climate: mild to cool – High: 67 degrees – Low: 49 degrees • Two seasons: summer = dry season, winter = rainy season • Located north of Sierra Negra (Galapagos) in Guayllabamba river basin – Eastern part of basin = volcanoes • Cotpaxi, Antisana, Sincholagua, Cayambe (east) • Illiniza, Atacazo, Pichincha, Pululagua (west) • Volcanoes – Guagua Pichincha (13 miles from Quito) • Ongoing volcanic activity • Last eruptive activity: October 5 and 7, 1999 • Quito only capital in world to be directly menaced by active volcano – Reventador • Last eruptive activity: November 2002 • City showered in ash more than what was in 1999 • Earthquakes – Worst was in 1797 • Killed nearly 40,000 – Most recent in 1987 • Magnitude of 7 on Richter scale • Epicentre about 50 miles • Killed nearly 1,000 throughout Ecuador • Minor damage to Quito buildings – October 16, 2006 • Felt a quake = 4.1 on Richter scale • No damage reported Points of Interest of Quito • Northern Quito – Business district of Quito – International airport – Museo del Banco Central • Ecuadorian art – Parque Metropolitano - 1,376 acres (Central Park = 843 acres) • Mountain biking, walking, or running • Eucalyptus forest with trails – La Carolina – 165.5 acres – Play fútbol, básket, ecuavolley, aerobics, flying kites, running, etc Galapagos Islands • What makes the Galapagos Islands? • The Islands are famous for their unique plant life and vast number of endemic (known only to the islands) species such as red and blue-footed boobies, frigate birds (members of the pelican family), giant colorful tortoises, and marine and land iguanas that grow to be about 5 feet long. • The Galapagos were visited by Charles Darwin in 1835 where he collected evidence that led to his theory of natural selection. Our Galapagos cruises will take you to Darwin's "living laboratory" which was birthed by underwater volcanic eruptions. • The Galapagos Islands are on an archipelago owned by Ecuador and are approximately 600 miles from the Ecuadorian mainland. • Due to the unparalleled scientific interest, Ecuador designated them as a National Park in 1959 and UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) placed them on the World Heritage list in 1978. There's no other place like them on earth... Education System Specific Demographics and Rates Adult literacy rate, 2000-2004: Male 92 Female 90 • 2002-2004 Internet users 5 per 100 Ecuadorians • Population, 2005, under 18: 5,100,000 • Population, 2005, under 5: 1,445,000 • Population annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990: 2.7 • Population annual growth rate (%)1990-2005: 1.7 • Percent of population urbanized, 2005: 63 • Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1970 1990: 4.4 • Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1990 2005: Not Available Specific Demographics and Rates, Continued • Crude death rate, 1970: 12 Crude death rate, 1990: 6 • Crude death rate, 2005: 5 • Crude birth rate, 1970: 42 • Crude birth rate, 1990: 29 • Crude birth rate, 2005: 22 • Life expectancy, 1970: 58 • Life expectancy, 1990: 68 • Life expectancy, 2005: 75 • Total fertility rate, 2005: 2.7 (about 2.1 needed for stable population levels) Implications for Education in Ecuador • Declining fertility rates, declining death rates, increasing life expectancy, and increasing urbanization indicate Ecuador’s modernization. • Increasing modernization and a large percentage of children under 18 places a great need for education in Ecuador. • (Source: UNICEF.org) • Elementary education is mandatory to the end of grade 6. Only about 50% finish. Of those beginning secondary school, only about 50% finish grade 12. • A high school diploma is necessary for students to attend one of the approximately 22 universities or technical schools. • The school year differs between the coast and the highlands. On the coast, the school year begins in May and ends in January. In Quito and the highlands the year runs from October to July. • The adult literacy rate is approximately 91%. • • • • • • • • • 10.2% of 15 year olds are still illiterate 26% leave school before 6th grade. 33 universities/technological colleges – holds 202,683 students. Education system based on reform, intended to improve the archaic system, eliminate education by memorization, and develop logical and creative thinking. Partially successful, but requires much more time and follow-up. Requires a new generation of teachers to bring change. No training for teachers to first learn content and then teach. Private and public schools. Some private schools base their curriculum on U.S. standards. – Instruction is in English. – Spanish is taught in grades K-12. – English as a second language (ESL) is provided for those who are not fluent in English. Orphanages • Nearly a third of all abandoned children are disabled. • Children available for adoption include infants, sibling groups, older and special needs children, both boys and girls. • Number of Children Adopted by Americans in 2004: 28 (significant declining rate) Orphans • Over the past 20 years, the population of Ecuador has doubled. This has created a growing population of abandoned children. • Most of these children come from poor or indigenous families. • Growing poverty, lack of education, and limited governmental resources further perpetuate the problem of street children and orphans. • In Quito there are approximately 4500 street children. • Unemployment rate: 11.1% • Underemployment rate: 47% • Population below poverty line: 45% • Orphanages provide the following: – children mistreated by their parents - children who used to work and live in the streets - children who were forced to live with their imprisoned parents - children whose parents were unable to supply them - shelter - food - medical care - schooling and professional training - a feeling of security in a new family Transportation • Most people walk but the bus, trolley, and cabs are very inexpensive by US standards. • At night the bus system and trolley shut down so you can walk or ride a cab; however, I would recommend taking a cab unless you're with a group of 5 or more for safety reasons. • At night the cabs don't run off the meter so you can bargain with the driver for the fee. • They have a new mean of transportation called "Trole o "Ecovia" which is a sort of over ground metro, that routes around the city and the city itself is not that big so a long journey would probably cost you no more than 10 USD, something you should know is that you always need to negotiate beforehand. Urban Buses • • • • Very cheap service (20-25 cents) Many seats are created for one person May not stop at all bus stops or vice versa Older buses can cause discomfort Bus for Provinces • Easiest and cheapest way to travel inside Ecuador • Cost may vary to distance and quality of service • Bus drivers are fearless • If you are uncomfortable with the driving don’t be afraid to get off… Trolley and Ecoway • Most modern and efficient way of transport in country • Cheap service (about 20 cents) • May be a little tight during rush hour • Only exists in Quito from 6am to 12pm Taxis • Cabs are very popular • In general, the service is good and the drivers are pleased to help tourists. • Cost depends on the taximeter, average is about $1.50 to $2.00 during the day • At night, may not use taximeters (illegal), but usually won’t charge more than $2.00 to $3.00. • 24 hour service • Safer to use radio taxi at night. You must call for them and it shouldn’t take more than 5 minutes to arrive. Airplanes • Best air transportation systems in the region • Longest flight inside Ecuador is 45 minutes (with the exception of the Galapagos Islands which is an hour and a half). • Not always cheap Boats, Motor Boats, and Canoes • Many places in Ecuador can only be reached by boat. • Costs vary depending on distance and destination. • Some times free, but will desire a tip. • Cost, you can discuss with owner before you step foot on the boat. Trains • Used mostly for tourism • Known as the hardest working transportation in the whole world because it runs through the Andes. • One of the greatest ways to get to know Ecuador • Very old and slow • Hard to know arrival and departure schedule. Hitchhiking • Very common, (more common in Ecuador than in any other country), especially in small towns. • Some drivers will charge a small fee. It is okay to ask about the price before you hop in the vehicle. • It is not guaranteed to be safe, so use common sense, especially if you are a woman or traveling alone. Cars • The main thought drivers in Ecuador have is: “I have the right away.” • Whoever is bigger, goes first • Because of this, you may hear a lot of horns, screeching brakes, insults flying, and pedestrians running for their lives…OH NO! • Spanish is the main language of Ecuador. • English is spoken only in the large hotels and tourist agencies (sometimes) in the larger cities. • Taking a basic course in Spanish before you come to Ecuador is a good idea. There are many excellent Spanish schools in Quito, where group rates are about US$1 per hour, and private lessons are US$3 or so. The basics are fairly easy to learn, because it is a very phonetic language. You can also buy a pocket phrase guide. Ecuadorians are wonderfully patient with foreigners trying to speak to them in their own language.