Medical Terminology
A Living Language
Chapter 12
Nervous System
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System at a Glance

Functions of Nervous System




Coordinates and controls body function
Receives sensory input
Makes decisions
Orders body responses
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System at a Glance

Organs of Nervous System



Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Combining Forms






cephal/o
cerebell/o
cerebr/o
encephal/o
gli/o
medull/o
head
cerebellum
cerebrum
brain
glue
medulla
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Combining Forms






mening/o
meningi/o
myel/o
neur/o
phas/o
poli/o
meninges
meninges
spinal cord
nerve
speech
gray matter
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Combining Forms





pont/o
radicul/o
thalam/o
thec/o
ventricul/o
pons
nerve root
thalamus
sheath (meninges)
ventricle
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Suffixes






–algesia
–esthesia
–paresis
–phasia
–plegia
–taxia
pain, sensitivity
feeling, sensation
weakness
speech
paralysis
muscle coordination
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Anatomy and Physiology

Coordinates all activity of body



Receives information from both external and
internal sensory receptors
Uses that information to adjust activity of muscles
and glands to match needs of body
Nervous system is divided into:


Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Anatomy and Physiology

Central nervous system consists of:



Brain
Spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system consists of:


Cranial nerves
Spinal nerves
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous Tissue

Nervous system composed of two types of
cells



Neurons
Neuroglial cells
Neurons


Individual nerve cells
Capable of conducting electrical impulses
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous Tissue

Neurons have three basic parts:



Dendrites – highly branched projections that
receive impulses
Nerve cell body – contains nucleus & organelles
Axon – conducts electrical impulse to destination
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.1A – The structure of a neuron.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Figure 12.1B – Photomicrograph of typical neuron showing the nerve
cell body, nucleus, and dendrites.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous Tissue

Synapse


Synaptic cleft



Point where axon of one neuron meets dendrite of
second neuron
Gap between two neurons in a synapse
Electrical impulse cannot cross
Neurotransmitter


Chemical released by axon
Crosses gap to stimulate dendrite of second neuron
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous Tissue

Neuroglial cells




Variety of cells found in nervous tissue
Each has different support function for neurons
Some neuroglial cells produce myelin, a fatty
substance that acts as insulation for many axons
Neuroglial cells do not conduct electrical impulses
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Central Nervous System

Combination of the brain and spinal cord
 Function




Receives impulses from all over body
Processes this information
Responds with action
Bundles of nerve fibers interconnecting
different parts of CNS are called tracts
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Central Nervous System

Consists of both gray and white matter
 Gray matter


Comprised of unsheathed or uncovered cell
bodies and dendrites
White matter

Myelinated nerve fibers
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Brain

One of the largest organs in body
 Coordinates most body activities
 It is center for:




Thoughts
Memory
Judgment
Emotion
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
The Brain

Four sections:




Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Diencephalon
Brain stem
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.3 – The regions of the brain.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Cerebrum

Largest section
 Upper portion
 Processes:





Thoughts
Judgment
Memory
Association skills
Ability to
discriminate
between items
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.3 – The regions of the brain.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Cerebrum

Cerebral cortex



Gyri


Outer layer of cerebrum
Composed of folds of gray matter
Elevated portions of the cerebrum, or convolutions
Sulci

Fissures, or valleys, between gyri
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Lobes of Cerebrum

Subdivided into left and right halves called
cerebral hemispheres
 Each hemisphere has four lobes:




Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Lobes of Cerebrum

Frontal lobe



Most anterior lobe
Controls motor
function, personality,
and speech
Parietal lobe



Most superior portion
Receives & interprets
nerve impulses
Interprets language
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Lobes of Cerebrum

Occipital lobe



Most posterior
Controls vision
Temporal lobe


Left and right lateral
portion
Controls hearing and
smell
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.4 – The functional regions of the cerebrum.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Diencephalon

Located below
cerebrum
 Contains two of most
critical areas of
brain:


Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.3 – The regions of the brain.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Diencephalon

Thalamus



Center for relaying impulses from eyes, ears, and
skin to cerebrum
Controls perception of pain
Hypothalamus


Controls body temperature, appetite, sleep, sexual
desire, and emotions
Controls autonomic nervous system, cardiovascular
system, gastrointestinal system, and release of
hormones from pituitary gland
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Cerebellum

Second largest portion of brain
 Located beneath posterior part of cerebrum
 Aids in:



Coordinating voluntary body movements
Maintaining balance and equilibrium
Refines muscular movements initiated in
cerebrum
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.3 – The regions of the brain.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Stem

Has three components:



Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.3 – The regions of the brain.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Stem

Midbrain


Pons



Acts as pathway for impulses between brain and
spinal cord
Means bridge
Connects cerebellum to rest of brain
Medulla oblongata


Most inferior portion of brain
Connects brain to spinal cord
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Ventricles

Cavities containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)



Watery, clear fluid
Provides shock protection for CNS
Locations:



One in each cerebral hemisphere
One in thalamus
One in front of cerebellum
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Spinal Cord


Extends from medulla
oblongata to second
lumbar vertebra
Within vertebral
column
 33 vertebrae of back
bone
 Line up to form
continuous canal
 Called spinal cavity
or vertebral canal
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Figure 12.5A – The levels of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Spinal Cord

Protected by cerebrospinal fluid


Flows through central canal down through spinal
cord
Outer portion of spinal cord is myelinated
white matter


Ascending tracts carry sensory information up to
brain
Descending tracts carry motor commands down
from brain to peripheral nerve
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Meninges

Protective
membrane sac
 Encases entire CNS
 Consists of three
layers:



Dura mater
Arachnoid layer
Pia mater
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.6 – The meninges.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Meninges

Dura mater



Means tough mother
Outermost, tough,
fibrous sac around
CNS
Subdural space

Empty space
between dura mater
and arachnoid layer
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Meninges

Arachnoid layer



Means spider-like
Thin, delicate layer
attached to pia mater
by web-like filaments
Subarachnoid
space


Between arachnoid
layer and pia mater
Contains
cerebrospinal fluid
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Meninges

Pia mater



Means soft mother
Innermost
membrane layer
Applied directly to
surface of brain
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Consists of:



Cranial nerves


12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Arise from brain
Spinal nerves


Split off from spinal cord
One pair (left and right) exit between each pair of
vertebrae
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nerves

A nerve:



Nerve root


Is a bundle of axon fibers located outside CNS
Carries messages between CNS and various parts
of body
Point where nerve is attached to CNS
Names of most nerves reflect:


Organ the nerve serves
Portion of body the nerve is traveling through
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.7 – The major spinal nerves.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Table 12.1 Cranial Nerves
I
Olfactory
sense of smell
II
Optic
sense of sight
II
Oculomotor
controls eye muscles and pupil of eye
IV
Trochlear
controls oblique muscles of eye
V
Trigeminal
facial sensation and controls muscles
for chewing
Abducens
controls eyeball muscles to turn eye to
side
VI
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Table 12.1 Cranial Nerves
VII
Facial
controls facial muscles for
expression, salivation, and taste on
two-thirds of tongue (anterior)
VIII Vestibulocochlear sense of equilibrium and hearing
IX
sensation from pharynx and taste on
Glossopharyngeal one-third of tongue
X
Vagus
supplies most organs in abdominal
and thoracic cavities
XI
Accessory
controls neck and shoulder muscles
XII
Hypoglossal
controls tongue muscles
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Neurons

Each nerve can carry information both to and
from CNS
 But any individual neuron can carry
information in only one direction
 Either an:


Afferent neuron
Efferent neuron
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Neurons

Afferent neurons



Also called sensory neurons
Carry sensory information from sensory receptor to
CNS
Efferent neurons


Also called motor neurons
Carry activity instructions from CNS to muscles or
glands
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Divisions of PNS

Nerves of PNS are subdivided into two
divisions



Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Somatic nerves
Each division serves different area of body
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Control of involuntary or unconscious bodily
functions
 It may increase or decrease the activity of:




Smooth muscle found in viscera and blood vessels
Cardiac muscle of heart
Glands
ANS divided into 2 branches:


Sympathetic branch
Parasympathetic branch
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Sympathetic branch



Stimulates body in times of stress and crisis
Increases heart rate, dilates airways, increases
blood pressure, inhibits digestion, and stimulates
production of adrenaline
Parasympathetic branch


Serves as counterbalance for sympathetic nerves
Causes heart rate to slow down, lowers blood
pressure, and stimulates digestion
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Somatic Nerves

Mainly involved with conscious and voluntary
activities of body
 Serve skin and skeletal muscles

Carry information from sensory receptors of skin


Such as touch, temperature, pressure, and pain
Carry motor commands to skeletal muscles
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with cephal/o,
cerebell/o and cerebr/o
–algia
cephalalgia
head pain
–ar
cerebellar
pertaining to cerebellum
–itis
cerebellitis
inflammation of cerebellum
–al
cerebral
pertaining to cerebrum
cerebrospinal
pertaining to cerebrum and
spine
spin/o
–al
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with encephal/o,
meningi/o and mening/o
electr/o
–gram
record of brain
electroencephalogram
electricity
–itis
encephalitis
brain inflammation
–oma
meningioma
meninges tumor
–eal
meningeal
pertaining to meninges
–itis
meningitis
meninges inflammation
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with neur/o
–al
neural
pertaining to nerve
–algia
neuralgia
nerve pain
–ectomy
neurectomy
removal of nerve
–ologist
neurologist
nerve specialist
–oma
neuroma
nerve tumor
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with neur/o
–pathy
neuropathy
nerve disease
–plasty
neuroplasty
surgical repair of nerve
poly–
–itis
polyneuritis
inflammation of many
nerves
–rrhaphy
neurorrhaphy
suture a nerve
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Word Building with myel/o and pont/o
–gram
myelogram
spinal cord record
–itis
myelitis
inflammation of spinal
cord
–ine
pontine
pertaining to pons
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Word Building with radicul/o, thalam/o
and thec/o
–itis
radiculitis
nerve root inflammation
–pathy
radiculopathy
nerve root disease
–ic
thalamic
pertaining to thalamus
intra– –al intrathecal
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
pertaining to inside
meninges
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Nervous System Vocabulary
anesthesiology
the use of anesthesia for surgical
procedures, resuscitation, and pain
management
neurology
diagnosis and treatment of diseases of
nervous system
neurosurgery
treating nervous system disease by
surgical means
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Nervous System Vocabulary
sensations occurring prior to epileptic
seizure or migraine; such as seeing colors
alternating between strong involuntary
convulsion
muscle contractions and relaxations
sudden, uncontrollable onset of symptoms;
seizure
such as in epileptic seizure
focal
seizure in only one limb or body part
seizure
aura
syncope
fainting
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Vocabulary
conscious
awake and aware of surroundings
unconscious
unaware of surroundings; unable to
respond to stimuli
coma
state of profound unconsciousness
paresthesia
abnormal sensations such as burning or
tingling
tremor
involuntary repetitive alternating
movements
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Vocabulary
delirium
confusion, disorientation, and agitation
dementia
impaired intellectual function
hemiparesis
weakness on one side of body
paralysis
temporary or permanent loss of voluntary
movement
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of body
paraplegia
paralysis of lower portion of body
palsy
loss of ability to control movements
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Pathology
Alzheimer’s
disease
astrocytoma
brain tumor
cerebral
aneurysm
disorder characterized by progressive
dementia, disorientation, apathy, and loss
of memory
malignant tumor originating in astrocytes,
a neuroglial cell
intracranial mass; may be malignant or
benign; dangerous because occupies
space
ballooning of cerebral artery; may cause
stroke
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Pathology
cerebral
contusion
concussion
cerebral
palsy (CP)
bruising of brain from impact; symptoms
last longer than 24 hrs; include
unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting,
unequal pupils
brain injury from impact; symptoms last
less than 24 hrs
brain damage results from defect, trauma,
or oxygen deprivation at time of birth
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Pathology
infarct due to loss of blood supply to
cerebrovascular
brain; may be due to hemorrhage,
accident (CVA)
thrombus, embolus, or compression;
commonly called a stroke
transient ischemic temporary interference with blood
attack (TIA)
supply to brain; may lead to a CVA
migraine
specific type of headache with
severe pain, light sensitivity,
dizziness, and nausea
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Pathology
epilepsy
tonic-clonic
seizure
absence
seizure
seizures and loss of consciousness
caused by uncontrolled electrical activity
of brain
epileptic seizure with strong muscle
spasms; formerly called grand mal
epileptic seizure characterized by loss of
awareness and absence of activity;
formerly called petit mal
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Brain Pathology
hydrocephalus
Parkinson’s
disease
Reye
syndrome
accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid
within brain ventricles
chronic disorder of brain with tremors,
weakness, muscle rigidity, and shuffling
gait
acute encephalopathy and organ
damage; follows viral infection and
associated with taking aspirin
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Spinal Cord Pathology
amyotrophic
degeneration of motor neurons of
lateral sclerosis spinal cord; also called Lou Gehrig’s
(ALS)
disease
viral infection affecting spinal cord;
poliomyelitis
paralysis may be mild and temporary or
severe and permanent
spinal cord
injury (SCI)
damage to spinal cord due to trauma;
may be bruised and recover or severed
and permanent
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Spinal Cord Pathology
spina bifida
meningocele
congenital defect where lamina of
vertebra do not meet or close to
form spinal canal
protrusion of meninges sac through
opening left by spina bifida defect
protrusion of meninges and spinal
myelomeningocele cord through opening left by spina
bifida defect
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.13 – Spina bifida.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nerve Pathology
one-sided facial paralysis due to
Bell’s palsy
inflammation of facial nerve caused by
virus
temporary loss of myelin sheath; may be
Guillain-Barré
autoimmune; starts in legs and
syndrome
progresses up nervous system
multiple
loss of myelin sheath; results in
sclerosis (MS) weakness and numbness
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nerve Pathology
muscular weakness and fatigue due
myasthenia gravis to insufficient neurotransmitter at
synapses
shingles
eruption of painful blisters on body
along a nerve path; caused by
Herpes zoster virus
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Meninges Pathology
epidural
hematoma
mass of blood in space outside dura mater
subdural
hematoma
mass of blood forming inside subdural
space; due to torn meningeal blood
vessel; space occupying lesion
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 12.15 – A subdural hematoma.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Clinical Laboratory Tests
cerebrospinal
fluid analysis
examination of CSF; may detect
infections and blood in the fluid
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Diagnostic Imaging
brain scan
cerebral angiography
image of brain after injection of
radioactive isotopes into
bloodstream
X-ray of cerebral blood vessels
after injection of radiopaque dye
echoencephalography ultrasound image of brain
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Diagnostic Imaging
myelography
X-ray of spinal cord after injection of
radiopaque dye into spinal canal
positron
emission
tomography
(PET)
use of positive radionuclides to construct
an image of the brain; image reveals
metabolic activity of brain areas
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Additional Diagnostic Tests
reflex test that reveals nervous
Babinski’s reflex
system lesions; performed by
stroking sole of foot
electroencephalography records the electrical activity of
(EEG)
brain
puncture to remove CSF for
lumbar puncture
examination
measures speed at which an
nerve conduction
impulse travels along a nerve;
velocity
reveals nerve damage
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Surgical Treatments
removes blockage of major artery in
carotid
neck that carries blood to brain by
endarterectomy
removing inner lining of the artery
cerebrospinal
shunt carries CSF from ventricle to
fluid shunt
abdominal cavity; treats hydrocephalus
removes part of vertebra; relieves
laminectomy
pressure on spinal nerve
surgical cut of nerve tract; treats severe
tractotomy
chronic pain
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Pharmacology
analgesic
treats minor to moderate
pain, non-narcotic
Tylenol,
Aleve
anesthetic
produces loss of sensation
or consciousness
Xylocaine,
Novocain
reduces nerve excitability to Tegretol,
anticonvulsant
prevent seizures
Nembutal
dopaminergic
drugs
treats Parkinson’s disease
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
L-dopa,
Sinemet
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Nervous System Pharmacology
hypnotic
promotes sleep
Seconal, Restoril
narcotic
analgesic
treats severe pain
OxyContin,
Demerol
sedative
calming or relaxing
effect
Amytal, Butisol
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
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Chapter 12