Vocabulary

Pick up the vocabulary handout for Ch. 5 The
Cardiovascular System and complete.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Warm-up: Pair Share
For the healthcare worker, it may be argued that
the cardiovascular system is the most important
system.

Discuss with your partner why the
cardiovascular system may be the most
important system you learn as a healthcare
worker.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Cardiovascular System at a Glance





Heart disease is the leading cause of death for
both men and women.
About 600,000 Americans die from heart disease
each year—that’s 1 in every 4 deaths.
In the United States, someone has a heart attack
every 34 seconds.
Each minute, someone in the United States dies
from a heart disease-related event.
Coronary heart disease alone costs the United
States $108.9 billion each year.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Risk Factors

Key Risk Factors




High Blood Pressure
High Cholesterol (LDL)
Smoking
Other Risk Factors





Diabetes
Overweight and Obesity
Poor Diet
Physical Inactivity
Excessive Alcohol Use
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Interesting Facts About the
Cardiovascular System

If you put your circulatory system on a straight
line, it is actually long enough to orbit the
earth two and a half times!

The heart beats around 3,000,000,000 (3
billion times) in the average person's life.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Interesting Facts About the
Cardiovascular System

About 8 million blood cells die in the human
body every second, and the same number are
born each second.

Inside a tiny droplet of blood, there are around
5 million red blood cells and up to 7,000 to
25,000 white blood cells.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Medical Terminology
A Living Language
http://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=m_-7e81rVd8
Chapter 5
Cardiovascular System
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Objectives
Describe the major organs of the cardiovascular
system and their functions.
Describe the anatomy of the heart.
Describe the flow of blood through the heart.
Explain how the electrical
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Functions of Cardiovascular System
Also called circulatory system

Maintains distribution of blood to all areas of body

Delivery of needed substances to cells
-oxygen and nutrients to cells
(ex. glucose and amino acids)

Removal of wastes
-Picks up waste products from cells and delivers to
lungs, liver, and kidneys for elimination (ex. CO2)
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Cardiovascular System at a Glance

Organs of
Cardiovascular System




Heart
Arteries
Capillaries
Veins
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Circulation
Divided into
pulmonary
circulation

systemic
circulation

Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Systemic Circulation

Between heart and
cells of body
 Carries oxygenated
blood away from left
side of heart to body
 Carries
deoxygenated blood
from body to right
side of heart
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pulmonary Circulation

Between heart and
lungs
 Carries
deoxygenated blood
away from right side
of heart to lungs
 Carries oxygenated
blood from lungs to
left side of heart
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
http://educationportal.com/academy/less
on/the-humancirculatory-system-partsandfunctions.html#lesson
Figure 5.1 – A schematic of the circulatory system illustrating the
pulmonary circulation picking up oxygen from the lungs and the
systemic circulation delivering oxygen to the body.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Heart

Muscular pump


Made up of cardiac muscle fibers
Could be called a muscle instead of an organ
Beats an average of 60 – 100 beats per
minute (bpm), or about 100,000 times a day
 Each time the muscle contracts:



Blood is ejected from heart
Pushed throughout body within blood vessels
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Heart

Located in the mediastinum


More to left side of chest
Directly behind sternum

About size of a fist
 Shaped like upside-down pear
 Tip of heart at lower edge

Called the apex
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 5.2 – Location of the heart within
the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Heart Layers
Endocardium Myocardium
Epicardium
 Inner
 Outer
layer
 Lines heart
chambers
 Smooth, thin
layer that
reduces friction
as the blood
passes through
heart chambers
 Middle
layer
Thick muscle
 Contraction of
this layer
develops the
pressure
required to
pump blood
through blood
vessels
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
layer
 Forms the
visceral layer of
pericardial sac
 Fluid between
layers of
pericardial sac
reduces friction
as heart beats
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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http://educationportal.com/academy/less
on/anatomy-of-the-heartblood-flow-andparts.html#lesson
Figure 5.3 – Internal view of the heart illustrating the heart chambers,
heart layers, and major blood vessels associated with the heart.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Heart Chambers

Divided into four chambers



Two atria
Two ventricles
Heart is divided into right and left sides by a
wall called the septum
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Atria

Left and right upper
chambers
 Receiving chambers
 Blood returns to atria
in veins


Superior and
inferior vena cava
Pulmonary veins
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Ventricles

Left and right lower
chambers
 Pumping chambers


Thick myocardium
Blood exits ventricles
into arteries


Aorta
Pulmonary artery
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 5.3 – Internal view of the heart illustrating the heart chambers,
heart layers, and major blood vessels associated with the heart.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 5.4 – Internal view of heart specimen illustrating
heart chambers, septum, and heart valves.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Heart Valves

Four valves in heart

Tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, aortic

Act as restraining gates to control direction of
blood flow
 Found at entrance and exit to ventricles
 Allow blood to flow only in forward direction by
blocking it from returning to previous chamber
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 5.4 – Internal view of heart specimen illustrating
heart chambers, septum, and heart valves.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Tricuspid Valve

An atrioventricular
valve
 Between right atrium
and ventricle


Prevents blood in
ventricle from flowing
back into atrium
Has 3 leaflets or
cusps
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Pulmonary Valve

A semilunar valve
 Between right
ventricle and
pulmonary artery


Prevents blood in
artery from flowing
back into ventricle
Semilunar – valve
looks like half moon
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Mitral Valve

An atrioventricular
valve
 Between left atrium
and ventricle


Prevents blood in
ventricle from flowing
back into atrium
Also called bicuspid
valve - has two
cusps
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Aortic Valve

A semilunar valve
 Between left
ventricle and aorta

Prevents blood in
aorta from flowing
back into ventricle
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 5.5 – Superior view of heart valves illustrating
position, size, and shape of each valve.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Path of Blood Flow Through Heart
1. Deoxygenated blood
from body enters
relaxed right atrium
via two large veins
called:


Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Atrial Blood Flow Animation
Click here to view an animation of atrial blood flow.
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Back
to Directory
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Path of Blood Flow Through Heart
2. Right atrium
contracts

Blood flows through
tricuspid valve into
relaxed right ventricle
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Path of Blood Flow Through Heart
3. Right ventricle
contracts


Blood is pumped
through pulmonary
valve into pulmonary
artery
Carries blood to
lungs
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Path of Blood Flow Through Heart
4. Relaxed left atrium
receives blood that
has been
oxygenated by lungs

Blood enters left
atrium from the four
pulmonary veins
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Path of Blood Flow Through Heart
5. Left atrium contracts

Blood flows through
mitral valve into
relaxed left ventricle
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Path of Blood Flow Through Heart
6. Left ventricle
contracts



Blood is pumped
through the aortic
valve and into aorta
Largest artery in the
body
Carries blood to all
parts of body
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Figure 5.6 – The path of blood flow through the
chambers of the left and right side of the heart.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rj_qD0SEGGk
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.

Circulatory System Musical Quiz (Heart Quiz) YouTube
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition
Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
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Chapter 5