UPDATES Quiz 1 will be graded and returned Feb. 24 NO CLASS FEB. 26 – HARBER AT CONFERENCE Anything Strange about Strange Situation? Mom leaves kid. Kid acts unconcerned Mom returns to kid. Kid still unconcerned Attachment explanation? Insecure/avoidant: mom messed up Alternative explanation? Kid was born that way, Temperament Temperament Aspects of behavior and emotion that are: 1. Constitutional (in-born, genetic) 2. Stable across time and situations 3. Neurophysiologically based How Stable is Temperament? In early infancy – Correl. 6 mos. To 9 mos. Smiling, Laughter: r = .48 Fear: r = .37 Distress re. Limits (Anger): r = .51 Easy/Difficult At: 3 yrs Easy/difficult as an adult r = .31 4 yrs r = .37 5 Yrs r =.15 Is Temperament Genetic? How would this be tested? With what kind of population? Twins Monozygotic (MZ) Share all genes: identical Dizygotic (DZ) Share half genes: Not identical Pictures of DZ Twins Results of Twin Studies and Temperament (Metheny, et al., 1981) 6 mos Hurt Feelings 2 yrs MZ DZ MZ DZ NA NA .37 .13 Tantrums .39 .26 .41 .15 Irritability .45 .29 .46 .28 Crying .62 .51 .59 .39 MZ = monozygotic, “identical twins” DZ = dizogotic, “fraternal twins” Temperament and Strange Situation Temperament may explain Strange Sit. better than attachment. Irritable newborns insecurely attached Neurophysio-reactive ambivalent Interest in objects vs. people avoidant Interactive explanation Parents respond to newborns temperament Parent either flexible or inflexible to baby temp. Baby’s emotional profile reflects “goodness of fit” Physiology of Emotions I Class 8 Approaches to Emotions So Far Philosophical (Spinoza, Jefferson, Des Cartes) Evolutionary (Ekman) Cultural (Culture of Honor) Conceptual (defining emotions) Developmental (Attunement, Attachment) Ole and Sven and Trabatt Functional Diagram of Brain Limbic System How do we know how the brain works? fMRI a. Anatomy b. Lesions c. Stimulation d. Recording Electroencephalogram (EEG) ...functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) ...Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) EEG TMS TMS Stimulation and Self Recognition Decety & Sommerville, 2003 Subject Familiar other TMS stimulation of Right Hemisphere suppresses ability to recognize self in self/other morph Early Explorations of Brain and Emotions Descartes: Reflex Theory (1650s) Events sensory receptors message to brain via nerves. Strings in motor nerves open valves, send fluid through nerves that inflate muscles. Degree of response proportional to magnitude of event. (But, who/what determines “magnitude”?) Implications of Descartes: * Behavior dictated by environmental prompts * No role for planning, values, in guiding behavior * Emotions not even mentioned Cannon/Bard Theory of Emotions Cannon and Bard (1930s) * Believe in central controller of emotions * Remove neocortex from cats * Cats display “sham rage” * Suggests that neocortex guides, controls emotional behavior. Cannon’s “Organizational Chart” Model of Brain Functions CORTEX governs EMOTIONAL STRUCTURES govern SIMPLE REFLEXES “Evidence”: Phineas Gage, drunkenness, sham rage Implications: Emotions have specific location Emotions undifferentiated; depend on cortical control. Modern Views of Emotional Brain (Papez, 1930s and MacLean, 1990s) Hypothalamus --> Emotional EXPRESSION Other regions --> Emotional EXPERIENCE Thalamus is routing station of events: Info not always processed top-down Limbic system is seat of emotions Brain organized in terms of function, not structure MacLean’s “Routing System” Model of Brain Functions Neocortex (thought) Stimuli Hypothalamus Limbic System (feeling) neocortex Striatum (movement) striatum Major Divisions of the Forebrain Main Divisions of the Brain Striatal system: Reptilian brain neocortex Limbic system: Emotional center Neocortex: Reasoning striatum Striatal System Reptilian in origin MacLean extensively studies lizards to learn about the functions of striatum. Basic survival functions: hunting, territorial, mating, four basic communications: Self Identification: Hey, it’s me. Territory: Don’t lean on my wheels Courting: Hey bayybee, hey bayybee Surrender: Oh gee, Officer, was I really going 95? Differences Between Lizards and Mammals Mammals Maternal care-giving X Vocalizing X Play X Terrorize Tokyo when fully grown Lizards X Limbic System in mammals provides for these unique abilities. Limbic System Evidence That Limbic System Regulates Behavior Electrode Studies (Hess, 1940s) 1. Superfine electrode stimulation of rats' limbic system 2. Rats respond to jolts as if hugely rewarding: a. Go to where jolts occurred b. Work long to get jolts c. Learn tasks paired with jolts 3. Refers to this as "self-stimulation behavior" 4. 85% of limbic system --> self stim behavior, rare outside of limbic system Rats' response to jolts is like what kind of problematic human behavior? Addiction More Evidence That Limbic System Regulates Behavior Psychomotor Epilepsy 1. Occurs when brain cells in certain area fires in waves 2. Psychomotor epilepsy restricted to limbic system 3. Has similar effect in humans as electrode shocks in rats. 4. Results of limbic epilepsy--emotional auras: a. Happiness: Dostoevsky reports "indescribably happiness." b. Other emotions: Desire, sadness, affection, fear, anger. Behaviors associated with P.E. 1. Shadow boxing 2. Kissing fits Amygdala 1. Emotion central: pleasure and pain 2. Sensitive to unfamiliar stimuli (recall mere exposure?) 3. Makes first assessment of event’s emotional significance 4. Neural pathway to amygdala bypasses cortex Klϋver-Bucy Syndrome Removal of monkey amygdala leads to: 1. Lose fear to and aggressiveness towards humans 2. No facial expression 3. Examine things regardless of danger: fire, broken glass 4. Eat everything: meat, feces 5. Mate everything: other sex, same sex, inanimate objects Klϋver-Bucy Syndrome occurs when amygdala is damaged. Shows same effects in humans as amygdala removal in monkeys. What does K-B Syndrome say about emotions and judgment? LeDoux’s Neural Pathways STANDARD ROUTE: SENSORY THALAMUS CORTEX AMYGDALA EMERGENCY ROUTE: neoco rtex SENSORY THALAMUS AMYGDALA striatu m HEMISPHERE LATERALIZATION Hemis. Lateralization and Emotions Lateralization: L hemisphere guides right side of body R hemisphere guides left side of body Lateral functions: L hemisphere – speech, reasoning R hemisphere – emotional recognition and interpretation. All reversed if Left-handed (i.e., L hemi. guides emotion, etc.) Research on hemisphere lateralization 1. Split-brain studies of epileptics 2. Emotional ID of faces and hemi. dominance 3. Lie detection and hemisphere dominance Chimeric Faces Hemispheric Damage and Lie Detection Who would be better able to detect liars? X People w’ damage to rational centers? People w’ damage to emotional centers? Study of patients with L vs. R hemisphere damage (e.g., due to strokes, accidents) L-Hemi damage (use only emotional R Hemi) do better than RHemi damage AND do better than normals (no damage). Neurological Development and the Limbic System R-Hemi closer connections to limbic system than L-Hemi. R-Hemi develops earlier in infancy than L-Hemi Emotions appear in babies before language Emotionally expressive babies start talking later When babies start to talk, don’t show emotion 13 mos—talk, no emotion 19 mos—talk + emotion What does this say about separate systems?