Thinking For A Change An Integrated Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Curriculum Charla Suggs Thinking For A Change – T4C Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Curriculum Product of the National Institute of Corrections • Comprised of 25 lessons • 5th Grade academic level • Suitable for youthful & adult offenders • Designed for small group formats • Delivered via Team Facilitation • Available in multiple languages • Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Primarily Educational • Non-clinical • Evidenced-Based • Group or Individual • Considered a viable option on a continuum of interventions to address the cognitive and emotional needs of the offender population People do what makes sense to them based on their cognitive structure & the habits they have developed By taking charge of our thinking we can take control of our lives. T4C: A Cognitive-Behavioral Program Psycho-Social-Educational Approach Cognitive Restructuring Cognitive Skills Training Thinking Controls Behavior Behavior Influences Thinking To change a behavior, the thinking behind that behavior must change first By practicing new behavior, new thinking will eventually align to support it Aaron Beck Albert Ellis Stanton Samenow Samuel Yochelson Albert Bandura Donald Meichenbaum George Spivak Myrna Shure T4C Strategies to Build Cognitive & Behavioral Skills Didactic Instruction • Group Discussions • Thinking Reports • Modeling • Role Playing • Varied Stimuli • Repetition • Conceptual Overlap • Homework / Transfer of Training • Appropriate Self Disclosure • Pre & Post Testing • In a Group Context Cognitive-behavioral group work combines the best of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy into one broad-based, group intervention strategy T4C operates on a learning principle that states: A person’s behavior is comprised of his external AND internal responses, and behavior is learned *Furthermore, this principle maintains that behaviors and cognitions alike can be conditioned! T4C is Integrated … T4C is a skills-based, problem solving curriculum embellished with cognitive restructuring and cognitive skills development T4C utilizes a group setting to equip participants with the internal & external skills necessary for change Benefits of T4C’s Group Format • • • • • Group cohesion allows members to give & receive feedback Relationships formed in the group lend support for positive change in thoughts & behaviors New behaviors can be effectively modeled Group members can “try on” new behaviors before trying them in the real world New behaviors & new cognitions can be coached to make them fully functional for each participant Thinking For A Change: 3 Components Cognitive Self-Change Pay Attention to Our Thoughts Recognize the Risk Use New Thinking Social Skills Problem Solving Listening Asking Questions Giving Feedback Knowing Your Feelings Understanding Others’ Feelings Making A Complaint Apologizing Responding to Anger Negotiating 6 skills Delivered in 9 lessons Practical Application of T4C • • • • • Lessons are scripted & easy to understand The manual is easily downloaded along with accompanying slides NIC allows reproduction of the materials in whole or part Facilitator Training, T4C materials, and a pre-selected group are the only requirements to begin A credentialing process is underway to certify T4C facilitators What does the research say? One marker of effective interventions is their inclusion of techniques that foster an offender’s thinking and reasoning skills, their social comprehension, and problem-solving skills. (Ross, Fabiano, & Ross, 1988) all because… A well-known risk factor for criminal behavior is the lack of adequate interpersonal & social problem-solving skills. (Andrews & Bonta, 1994; Ross & Fabiano, 1985) Research Findings Over 500 validated research studies point to the fact that CBI reduces recidivism by an average of 15%. (Andrews, et. al., 1989) CBI can be an extremely effective component of relapse prevention strategies for substance abusing offenders. (Carroll, 1996) The empirical framework used in CBT & CBI is ideal for developing more effective treatments for co-occurring depression and substance use, as these models can be easily combined with other psychological treatments. (HIDES, SAMET, & LUBMAN, 2010) Research continued… Principles of effective intervention suggest delivering behaviorally based programs to offenders with a higher likelihood of recidivism while focusing on relevant criminogenic needs like antisocial attitudes, values, and beliefs Probation agencies that follow these aspects report lower rates of recidivism (Lowenkamp, Latessa, & Smith, 2006; Taxman et al., 2006) A Probe into T4C 100 male and 42 female probationers were examined using a quasi-experimental design. Probationers who completed T4C were matched with comparison groups that either dropped out or were never assigned to T4C. In this study, 33% fewer probationers who completed T4C committed new offenses up to a year later; they had significantly fewer probation violations as well thus indicating a trend toward lower recidivism for T4C completers. (Golden, Gatchel, & Cahill, 2006) A Subsequent Probe into T4C In Tippecanoe County, Indiana another statistical difference substantiated the benefits of T4C concerning treatment & control groups. Just more than 2 years following T4C, the treatment group recidivated at a rate of 23% compared with 36% for the control group. This supports the notion that a specific cognitive behavioral curriculum that is readily available to correctional agencies can work to reduce recidivism. (LOWENKAMP, HUBBARD, MAKARIOS, & LATESSA, 2009) T4C in North Carolina For Corrections, it began with the CBI Task Force in 1997 Department of Corrections; Parole Commission; TASC; Administrative Office of the Courts Through the Governor’s Crime Commission funding was secured to support education for staff as well as technical assistance for implementation sites Various CBI curricula have been used, but T4C has been utilized the most DOP; DCC; DART Community College HRD’s T4C in North Carolina Now Initiative not a strong as it once was … • • • Cumberland County Day Reporting Center utilizes T4C with probationers and Adult Drug Treatment Court participants 20 Division of Prisons staff and 20 NC Community College System Staff were trained to facilitate T4C earlier this year; the status of these groups is unconfirmed DART has opted for A NEW DIRECTION instead of T4C • • • There remains interest in T4C, & a new buzz has been created by the credentialing process Local programs like Operation Ceasefire in Fayetteville, NC utilizes T4C individually and in group formats Coastal Horizons has expressed interest in T4C Thinking For A Change This curriculum can fit most anywhere, and has built-in pre/post testing for measurable results For more information visit: http://nicic.gov/t4c http://www.cce-global.org/Prof/Credentials References Andrews, D.A., & Bonta, J. (1994). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinatti, Ohio: Anderson Publishing Company. Bush, J., Glick, B.,&Taymans, J. (1997). Thinking for a change. Longmont, Colorado: National Institute of Corrections, United States Department of Justice. Golden, L., Gatchel, R. J., & Cahill, M. (2006). Evaluating the effectiveness of the National Institute of Corrections' "Thinking for a Change" program among probationers. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 43(2), 55-73. doi:10.1300/J076v43n0203 Hides, L., Samet, S., & Lubman, D. I. (2010). Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of co-occurring depression and substance use: Current evidence and directions for future research. Drug & Alcohol Review, 29(5), 508-517. doi:10.1111/j.14653362.2010.00207 Lowenkamp, C. T., Hubbard, D., Makarios, M. D., & Latessa, E. J. (2009). A quasi-experimental evaluation of Thinking For A Change: A "real-world" application. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 36(2), 137-146. doi:10.1177/0093854808328230 Ross, R.R.,& Fabiano, E.A. (1985). Time to Think: A Cognitive Model of Delinquency prevention and offender rehabilitation. Ottawa: Institute of Social Sciences and Arts. Ross, R.R., Fabiano, E.A., & Ross, R.D. (1988). Rehabilitation through education: A cognitive model for corrections. Journal of Correctional Education, 39 (2), 44-47.