How God gave us His Perfect Word
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE
KJV EXTREMISM
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I. Old English Period (300-1150)
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I.
II.
Old English Period (300-1150)
Middle English Period (1150-1475)
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I.
II.
III.
Old English Period (300-1150)
Middle English Period (1150-1475)
Modern English (1475-Present)
EXCURSES #1
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Dynamic equivalence vs. Formal Equivalence
EXCURSES #1

Dynamic equivalence—functional equivalency—
thought equivalence emphasized
EXCURSES #1
Dynamic equivalence—functional equivalency—
thought equivalence emphasized
 Definition—thought for thought; concept for
concept; meaning for meaning; grammar is
secondary.

EXCURSES #1
Dynamic equivalence—functional equivalency—
thought equivalence emphasized
 Definition—thought for thought; concept for
concept; meaning for meaning; grammar is
secondary.
 Goals—1. To simplify the Bible 2. To interpret as
you translate. 3. Simplify. 4. Update. 5. Make
more readable.

EXCURSES #1
Dynamic equivalence—functional equivalency—
thought equivalence emphasized
 Definition—thought for thought; concept for
concept; meaning for meaning; grammar is
secondary.
 Goals—1. To simplify the Bible 2. To interpret as
you translate. 3. Simplify. 4. Update. 5. Make
more readable.
 Methods—1. Drop metaphors and change to
direct statements. 2. Add Explanatory comments.
3. Change concrete images into abstractions.

EXCURSES #1





Dynamic equivalence—functional equivalency—thought
equivalence emphasized
Definition—thought for thought; concept for concept;
meaning for meaning; grammar is secondary.
Goals—1. To simplify the Bible 2. To interpret as you
translate. 3. Simplify. 4. Update. 5. Make more readable.
Methods—1. Drop metaphors and change to direct
statements. 2. Add Explanatory comments. 3. Change
concrete images into abstractions. 4. Change gender
reference, and number references. 5. Make sure of
orthodoxy in translation.
Focus—Reader, receptor language, man.
EXCURSES #1

Formal Equivalence
EXCURSES #1

Formal Equivalence—verbal equivalency. The
very words of the original language—verbal
inspiration.
EXCURSES #1
Formal Equivalence—verbal equivalency. The
very words of the original language—verbal
inspiration.
 Definition—Word for word, form for form—also
word order, syntax, and arrangements.

EXCURSES #1



Formal Equivalence—verbal equivalency. The very words of the original
language—verbal inspiration.
Definition—Word for word, form for form—also word order, syntax, and
arrangements.
Methodology—
1. Very Words—belief in verbal inspiration.
2. Respect for syntax.
3. Theological orthodoxy—comes from Bible, not
necessary to manipulate translation.
4. Must present depth and breadth while retaining full
exegetical work of original language.
5. Works to retain beauty and dignity of parent language.
6. Translation by way of methodology seeks transparency to
the original world of the bible.
EXCURSES #1



•
Formal Equivalence—verbal equivalency. The very words of the original language—
verbal inspiration.
Definition—Word for word, form for form—also word order, syntax, and arrangements.
Methodology—
1. Very Words—belief in verbal inspiration.
2. Respect for syntax.
3. Theological orthodoxy—comes from Bible, not
necessary to manipulate translation.
4. Must present depth and breadth while retaining full
exegetical work of original language.
5. Works to retain beauty and dignity of parent language.
6. Translation by way of methodology seeks transparency to
the original world of the bible.
Goal—To accurately render words, grammar, and syntax from Hebrew and Greek
into a receptor language.
EXCURSES #1



•
•
Formal Equivalence—verbal equivalency. The very words of the original language—
verbal inspiration.
Definition—Word for word, form for form—also word order, syntax, and arrangements.
Methodology—
1. Very Words—belief in verbal inspiration.
2. Respect for syntax.
3. Theological orthodoxy—comes from Bible, not
necessary to manipulate translation.
4. Must present depth and breadth while retaining full
exegetical work of original language.
5. Works to retain beauty and dignity of parent language.
6. Translation by way of methodology seeks transparency to
the original world of the bible.
Goal—To accurately render words, grammar, and syntax from Hebrew and Greek
into a receptor language.
Key—Transparency to original text. (it can be translated back accurately).
EXCURSES #1



•
•
•
Formal Equivalence—verbal equivalency. The very words of the original language—verbal inspiration.
Definition—Word for word, form for form—also word order, syntax, and arrangements.
Methodology—
1. Very Words—belief in verbal inspiration.
2. Respect for syntax.
3. Theological orthodoxy—comes from Bible, not
necessary to manipulate translation.
4. Must present depth and breadth while retaining full
exegetical work of original language.
5. Works to retain beauty and dignity of parent language.
6. Translation by way of methodology seeks transparency to
the original world of the bible.
Goal—To accurately render words, grammar, and syntax from Hebrew and Greek
into a receptor language.
Key—Transparency to original text. (it can be translated back accurately).
Focus—The source language. Ultimately on God as the author. “What does God say?”
I. Old English Period (300-1150)
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I.
Old English Period (300-1150)
A. Translations
a. Aldhelm and Colman (Psalms) 709
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I.
Old English Period (300-1150)
A. Translations
a. Aldhelm and Colman (Psalms) 709
b. Bede (John) 730
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I.
Old English Period (300-1150)
A. Translations
a. Aldhelm and Colman (Psalms) 709
b. Bede (John) 730
c. Egbert (portions of gospels) 760-still extant copies.
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I.
Old English Period (300-1150)
A. Translations
a. Aldhelm and Caedman (Psalms) 709
b. Bede (John) 730 Finished on his deathbed
the day he died. Used the vulgate.
c. Egbert (portions of gospels) 760-still extant copies.
d. King Alfred—portions of Psalms, 10
commandments, Gospels, and Acts—
1st major translation
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
I.
Old English Period (300-1150)
A. Translations
a. Aldhelm and Colman (Psalms) 709
b. Bede (John) 730
c. Egbert (portions of gospels) 760-still extant copies.
d. King Alfred—portions of Psalms, 10
commandments, Gospels, and Acts—
1st major translation
e. Aldred and Aelfric--(Portions of OT including
Job) 950
Middle English Period (1150-1475)
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Middle English Period (1150-1475)
I.
Wycliffe—1382
A. Used Latin vulgate. 1st whole Bible
translated in English.
B. Purvey—1388 revised Wycliffe to be more readable—still
170 extant today.
C. It became illegal in 1409 for common
persons to own a Bible without Bishop’s
permission.
* (Wycliffe’s Bible was about 70 years before the printing press and
was never believed to have been wholly printed, although the New
Testament was more than once).
Modern English Period (1475-present)
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
• Gutenburg’s printing press revolutionized the
ability to copy scripture.
*From 1409 it was illegal for common person to
own a Bible or read it.
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
1. 1525—Tyndale responsible for 1st translation
from Greek (Erasmus) and Hebrew (Masoretic
Text). Wycliffe’s Bible was also consulted.
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
1. 1525—Tyndale responsible for 1st translation
from Greek (Erasmus) and Hebrew (Masoretic
Text). Wycliffe’s Bible was also consulted.
1530 Pentateuch added. 1534 Revision.
*irritated the ignorant priests with his study of
greek and said that he would “cause the boy
who driveth the plow to know more of the
Scriptures,” thus ending Papal assumption.
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
1. 1525—Tyndale responsible for 1st translation from
Greek (Erasmus) and Hebrew (Masoretic Text).
Wycliffe’s Bible was also consulted. 1530 Pentateuch
added. 1534 Revision.
*irritated the ignorant priests with his study of greek and
said that he would “cause the boy who driveth the plow to
know more of the Scriptures,” thus ending Papal
assumption.
*Contemporary of Luther, used Luther’s translation, and
even the order of Luther’s translation (New Testament,
then earlier books, etc.)
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
2. Coverdale—1535—continued Tyndales OT
from Vulgate. Coverdale was a student of
Tyndale
3. Matthew Bible—1537 revision (William
Matthew) real name John Rogers.
*These copies of the Scripture were illegal to
own.
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
2. Coverdale—1535—continued Tyndales OT
from Vulgate. Coverdale was a student of
Tyndale
3. Matthew Bible—1537 revision (William Matthew) real
name John Rogers.
*These copies of the Scripture were illegal to own.
4. Great Bible—1539—Henry VIII commissioned in
rebellion to pope, and used Tyndale and Polyglot. (it’s
gothic Roman letters were hard to read and it was
unaffordable.
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
2.
Coverdale—1535—continued Tyndales OT
from Vulgate. Coverdale was a student of
Tyndale
3.
Matthew Bible—1537 revision (William Matthew) real name John
Rogers.
*These copies of the Scripture were illegal to own.
4.
Great Bible—1539—Henry VIII commissioned in rebellion to pope,
and used Tyndale and Polyglot. (it’s gothic Roman letters were
hard to read and it was unaffordable.
1543 Parliament banned Wycliffe, Tyndale, & Coverdale
5.
Geneva Bible—1560—done out of country. Used Erasmus NT,
Hebrew MT, Great bible, Latin Vulgate. 1st Bible to use original
languages
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
2.
Coverdale—1535—continued Tyndales OT
from Vulgate. Coverdale was a student of
Tyndale
3.
Matthew Bible—1537 revision (William Matthew) real name John
Rogers.
*These copies of the Scripture were illegal to own.
4.
Great Bible—1539—Henry VIII commissioned in rebellion to pope,
and used Tyndale and Polyglot. (it’s gothic Roman letters were
hard to read and it was unaffordable.
5.
Geneva Bible—1560—done out of country. Used Erasmus
NT, Hebrew MT, Great bible, Latin Vulgate.
6.
Bishops Bible—1560—(to compete with Geneva Bible which
was printed out of country. Elizabeth dies in 1602.
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
Modern English Period (1475-present)
2.
Coverdale—1535—continued Tyndales OT
from Vulgate. Coverdale was a student of
Tyndale
3.
Matthew Bible—1537 revision (William Matthew) real name John
Rogers.
*These copies of the Scripture were illegal to own.
4.
Great Bible—1539—Henry VIII commissioned in rebellion to pope,
and used Tyndale and Polyglot. (it’s gothic Roman letters were
hard to read and it was unaffordable.
5.
Geneva Bible—1560—done out of country. Used Erasmus
NT, Hebrew MT, Great bible, Latin Vulgate.
6.
Bishops Bible—1560—(to compete with Geneva Bible which
was printed out of country. Elizabeth dies in 1602.
7.
Douai Version—1582—NT Latin (Used by Catholics)
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KJV 1611—Named after James Stuart (From James I-VI
Formally a revision of the 1602 Bishop’s Bible.
Puritans suggested a revision to King James in 1604
Qualifications






Best linguists
Reverence for God’s Word
Pious
Methodology—not interpretation but word for word
translation
Thorough—began in 1607, finished in 1611
Right texts—Masoretic OT, Erasmus, Stephanus, Beza,
current English translations, Vulgate
THREE PERIODS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
King James Procedures for translations
1. 54 Translators began, 47 finished
2. Each translator worked individually—assigned
chapter or small portion.
3. Submitted to colleagues reviewing necessary
revisions.
4. Final result reviewed by a committee of 12.
5. Final revision committee of two (Dr. Miles smith
and Dr. Thomas Bilson)
EDITIONS OF KJV
A.
B.
C.
Cambridge Edition (1629)—mostly printing and
editing corrections.
The Wicked Bible (1631)—Left out the word “not”
in the 7th commandment.
18th century revisions. 1. Cambridge (1762)
1. Corrected and updated spelling,
punctuation, vocabulary, and grammar after
150 years.
2. Thomas Paris corrected the italicized words
and added marginal notes, cross-references,
and a chronology.
EDITIONS OF KJV
A.
B.
C.
Cambridge Edition (1629)—mostly printing and editing corrections.
The Wicked Bible (1631)—Left out the word “not” in the 7th
commandment.
18th century revisions. A. Cambridge (1762)
1. Corrected and updated spelling,
punctuation,
vocabulary, and grammar after
150 years.
2. Thomas Paris corrected the italicized words
and
added marginal notes, cross-references,
and a
chronology.
B. Oxford Edition (1769)
1. Benjamin Blayney collated the current editions, incorporated
most of Paris’s work, and further edited punctuation and
italicized words.
2. This is the KJV edition used most today.
EDITIONS OF KJV
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cambridge Edition (1629)—mostly printing and editing corrections.
The Wicked Bible (1631)—Left out the word “not” in the 7th
commandment.
18th century revisions. A. Cambridge (1762)
1. Corrected and updated spelling,
punctuation,
vocabulary, and grammar after 150 years.
2. Thomas Paris corrected the italicized words
and
added
marginal notes, cross-references, and a chronology.
B. Oxford Edition (1769)
1. Benjamin Blayney collated the current editions, incorporated
most of Paris’s work, and further edited punctuation and italicized
words.
2. This is the KJV edition used most today.
Noah Webster’s Edition (1833)
EDITIONS OF KJV
Cambridge Edition (1629)—mostly printing and editing corrections.
B.
The Wicked Bible (1631)—Left out the word “not” in the 7th commandment.
C.
18th century revisions. A. Cambridge (1762)
1. Corrected and updated spelling,
punctuation,
vocabulary, and
grammar after 150 years.
2. Thomas Paris corrected the italicized words and
added marginal
notes, cross-references, and a
chronology.
B. Oxford Edition (1769)
1. Benjamin Blayney collated the current editions, incorporated most of
Paris’s work, and further edited punctuation and
italicized words.
2. This is the KJV edition used most today.
D.
Noah Webster’s Edition (1833)
1. Webster’s 1828 dictionary defines words Biblically.
2. Webster’s Bible was a sixty-year project to correct grammar and spelling
and to update archaic words.
3. Sold for $2.00 (no royalties) but never became popular.
A.
EDITIONS OF KJV
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Cambridge Edition (1629)—mostly printing and editing corrections.
The Wicked Bible (1631)—Left out the word “not” in the 7th commandment.
18th century revisions. A. Cambridge (1762)
1. Corrected and updated spelling, punctuation, vocabulary, and grammar after 150 years.
2. Thomas Paris corrected the italicized words and added marginal notes, cross-references,
and a chronology.
B. Oxford Edition (1769)
1. Benjamin Blayney collated the current editions, incorporated
most of Paris’s work, and
further edited punctuation and italicized words.
2. This is the KJV edition used most today.
Noah Webster’s Edition (1833)
1. Webster’s 1828 dictionary defines words Biblically.
2. Webster’s Bible was a sixty-year project to correct grammar and spelling
and to update archaic words.
3. Sold for $2.00 (no royalties) but never became popular.
Cambridge Paragraph Bible, edited by Scrivener (1873)
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A Short History of the English Bible