WELCOME
to CBI 2013
Catholic Bible Institute – Diocese of Orange
Orientation Session – August 24, 2013
Loyola Institute for Spirituality
http://loyolainstitute.org/cbi
Opening Prayer:
“Enthrone the Bible in Your Home”
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White Booklet & Gray Music Sheet
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Place Bibles in the Center of your table
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Song: “Praise to You, O Christ, Our Savior”
Overview of Today
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9:00
Introductions, icebreakers
9:15
Session 1: Welcome/Intro to the CBI
10:30 Session 2: Catholic Biblical Interp.
12:00 Lunch
1:00
Session 3: Biblical Fundamentalism vs.
Contextualism/ Criticism
2:30
Session 4: Intro to Biblical Studies
4:00
Announcements, Prayer, Departure
Intro: CBI Team
Randy Lopez (CBI Coordinator)
Fr. Felix Just, S.J. (LIS Exec. Director)
Cindy Guzman (LIS [email protected])
Sr. Christine Hilliard, C.S.J.
Jess Moya
Ryan Ignatius Pratt
Edward Ray
Magdalena Santiago
Icebreakers for Table Groups
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Go around the table; allow each person opportunity to answer
the first question before moving onto the second, then the third.
Keep your answers brief so everyone has time to share.
1. Brief introduction – name and parish or
religious community
2. What are you seeking to get out of the
Catholic Bible Institute?
3. If you could spend a day with any biblical
character, who would it be, and why?
1) Intro to the CBI
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CBI History - Jess Moya
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Began in LA in 1993
Three-year program: OT, NT, Practicum
Experiential learning: talks, discussion, prayer
Reading and writing assignments
Jess completed CBI in 2005-2008
He then led Bible program in H.F. parish 2008-2013
Now CBI also being offered here in Orange
Expectations and Prospects for YOU?
1) Intro to the CBI
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CBI Philosophy - Randy Lopez
CBI offers an experience of encountering the Word of
God that is:
 Professional
 Prayerful
 Purposeful
 Participatory
 Pastoral
 Personal
Faith Sharing Guidelines
As we listen to others share how God is speaking to them, God can also
speak to us. We need to listen attentively, with our ears and eyes and
hearts open, in order for us to hear God speaking to us through others.
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See Jesus in every member of your group.
Love each member just as she or he is today.
Treat everyone as well as you want them to treat you (the “Golden Rule”).
Share only what God is revealing to you about yourself and your life.
Allow each person equal time to share, but don’t force anyone.
Be courteous of one another. Allow each person to speak without interruption.
Listening is even more important than speaking (we have two ears, one mouth).
Do not try to solve another person’s problems. Do not teach, preach, judge,
condemn, or give advice. Just listen and offer support.
Do not share with others outside the group what you heard in the group.
Confidentiality is essential for the trust level of a group.
All members of the group assume responsibility for these guidelines.
Gently remind and lovingly encourage one another if anyone forgets.
1) Intro: CBI Logistics
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3-Years; once a month (except summers)
Registrations: Scholarships?
Choice of Credit/Enrichment – changing later?
Statement of Intent & Letter of Recommendation
Monthly Reading/Writing Assignments for Year 1
Table Groups; Refreshments
Sacred Space; MP/EP
BOOKS
Books for Year 1: NT
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The Holy Bible (any Catholic “Study Edition”)
Dei Verbum, “Dogmatic Constitution on Divine
Revelation” (Vatican II; http://vatican.va)
Ron Witherup. Biblical Fundamentalism.
Kurt Aland. Synopsis of the Four Gospels.
Raymond Brown. An Intro to the New Test.
or Pheme Perkins. Reading the NT. 3rd edition.
Other: http://catholic-resources.org/Bible
Intro to
Biblical Studies
Session 4:
Catholic Bible Institute – Diocese of Orange
Orientation Session – August 24, 2013
Felix Just, S.J., Ph.D. – Loyola Institute for Spirituality
http://catholic-resources.org
What is the Bible?
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Not just one book, but a whole library!
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Greek biblia – “scrolls, books” (plural)
Books not all same type, but different kinds/genres
Some Key Terms (see “Glossary of Important Terms”)
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Scripture
Canon
Bible
Testament / Covenant
scriptural / canonical / biblical
non-scriptural / non-canonical / non-biblical
Wait! WHOSE Bible?
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Many different versions, with different contents!
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Not just different editions or different translations
Jewish Bibles vs. Christian Bibles
Jewish: ancient or modern? In Hebrew, or Greek, or English?
from Masoretic Text (MT) or Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)?
 Christian: Orthodox vs. Catholic vs. Protestant Bibles?
 New Testament – luckily, same 27 books for most (99%) Xns
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Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testaments:
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Sadly, different versions for different groups! (see color handout)
Jewish? Catholic? Orthodox? Protestant?
Different names, numbers, order, categories, texts…
Hebrew Bible / Jewish Scriptures
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Hebrew Bible / Tanak
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Three Main Sections:
Torah = “Law”? “Teaching, Instruction”
Nevi’im = “Prophets”
Khetuvim = “Writings”
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Torah ca. 6th Cent. BCE; Full Tanak ca. 1st Cent. CE!
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(ancient & modern Jews)
Septuagint
(ancient Greek-speaking Jews outside Palestine)
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Greek Translation of H.B. plus more books!
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Begun 3rd Cent. BCE; used widely by early Christians
Christian “Old Testament”
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“Hebrew Bible” / “First Testament” / “Old Testament”?
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“Old” does NOT mean “bad, defunct, out-of-date”
Differences between HB & OT:
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Foundational texts are different:
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Total number of biblical books is different:
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Modern Jewish Bibles are based on the Hebrew Bible (HB or MT)
OT section of Christian Bibles are based on the Septuagint (LXX)
Jews count 24, Protestants 39, Catholics 46, Orthodox up to 53
Arrangement of the categories of books is different
Names/Titles of some books are different
Categorization of some books is different
Summary: HB vs. LXX vs. OT
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Hebrew Bible (TaNaK – ca. 1000-400 BCE; canonized 90 CE)
 3 sections: Torah, Nevi’im, Khetuvim (24 books)
Septuagint (LXX – compiled ca. 250-100 BCE)
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Greek translation, rearrangement, and expansion of HB
4 sections: Law, History, Wisdom, Prophets
“Deutero-canonical” books added: T.J. McWeb
Christian Old Testament (OT – as of 1st Century AD)
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Law/Pentateuch, Historical, Wisdom, Prophets
Catholics follow Alexandrian Canon (46 books total)
Protestants removed the “Apocrypha” (39 books left)
Christian “New Testament”
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Christian Scriptures? Second Testament?
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Luckily the same 27 books for (almost) ALL Christians
Written in last 1/3 of 1st Century AD
Individual writings, all in Greek, only later collected
Four Main Sections:
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Gospels (Synoptics & John)
Acts of the Apostles
Letters/Epistles
Revelation/Apocalypse
New Testament Overview
NT Content:
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27 “books” (incl. many letters)
All originally written in Greek
Later translations: Latin, etc.
Composition History:
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Jesus’ Life/Death/Resurr. (ca. 30)
Apostolic Preaching: Oral Traditions
Early Written Sources (30’s? 50’s?)
Letters/Epistles (50’s – 110’s?)
Full Gospels (late 60’s – 90’s?)
Collections (1st – 3rd Cent.)
Canonization (late 4th Cent.)
NT Structure & Genres
Four “Gospels” (Euangelion, lit. “good news”)
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Canonical Order: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John (but Mark is oldest)
One “Acts” of the Apostles
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Vol. 2 of Luke’s work (traveling companion of Paul?)
Twenty-One “Letters” or “Epistles”
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“Pauline Letters” – attributed to Paul of Tarsus
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Named after Communities & Individuals TO WHOM written
7 “Undisputed” & 6 “Disputed”
Hebrews – vaguely Pauline; not really a “letter” but a sermon
“Catholic/General Epistles” – attribute to other apostles
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James; 1 Peter; 2 Peter; 1 John; 2 John; 3 John; Jude
One “Apocalypse” = Book of Revelation (singular!)
Ancient Writing Materials
Papyrus (reed plant)
Vellum / Parchment
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Cut in strips, flattened
Less expensive, durable
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www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/papyrus.html
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Animal skins, prepared
More expensive, durable
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www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/parchment.html
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Other Materials: Stone, Clay, Wood, etc.
Ancient Writing Format
Scroll
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Rolled, sealed on outside
Written on one side only
Papyrus or Vellum
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www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/roll.html
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Codex
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Sheets stacked, bound
Written on both sides
Papyrus or Vellum
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www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/codex.html
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Ancient Scrolls
Pompeii: Wall Painting
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Prior to AD 79 (when
Pompeii was buried by
lava from Mt. Vesuvius)
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Girl reading a scroll
(a letter or short book).
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Seated woman with a
scroll in her left hand.
Ancient Writing
Ancient Wall Painting
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Woman holding a book
and a writing stylus
Biblical Texts
Pre-Constantine Era (1st – 3rd Cent.)
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Christians were poor, persecuted, minority
NT texts: only few papyrus scraps survive
Emperor Constantine
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Edict of Milan (312 C.E.)
Imperial support of Christianity
Construction of Churches
Full Bible Codices on Vellum
some survive from 4th / 5th Cent.:
 Codex Sinaiticus
 Codex Vaticanus
 Codex Alexandrinus, etc.
Writing Styles
Manuscripts
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Lit. “hand-written”
Majuscule (ALLCAPSNOSPACES)
Minuscule (lower case, punctuation)
Printing
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First: carved wood blocks
Moveable type: ~1453
Johannes Gutenberg
P52 - Oldest NT fragment
Ca. 125 – 150 C.E. (now in John Rylands Library, Manchester)
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kchanson.com/ANCDOCS/greek/johnpap.html
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front: John 18:31-33
back: John 18:37-38
P75
Papyrus Bodmer XV
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Ca. 175 – 225 C.E.
End of Luke & Start of John;
both on same page!
(so Luke/Acts separated)
P46
Oldest manuscript of the
Pauline letters.
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Originally part of the
Chester Beatty Papyri
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Written ca. AD 200
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Total of 104 pages, but
several are now missing
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Included at least ten of
the Pauline letters
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This image shows the
text of 2 Cor 11:33–12:9
Bible Versions & Translations
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Ancient “Versions” (Languages):
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Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Coptic, Syriac, etc.
Modern Translations:
German, English, Spanish, etc.
 Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Ecumenical
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English Translations (sometimes also called “Versions”):
older: KJV, Douay-Rheims, etc.
 newer: JB , RSV, NEB, NAB, NIV, etc.
 newest: NJB, NRSV, REV, NAB-rev, NIV-rev, etc.
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Bible Formats & Editions
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Ancient Writing Materials & Formats:
Papyrus (plant) & Vellum (skins)
 Scroll (rolled) vs. Codex (bound)
 Majuscule (ALL CAPS) vs. Minuscule (small letters)
 Manuscripts (hand-written) vs. Print Editions (since 1453)
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Modern Editions & Publications:
Reader’s Editions: text only
 Study Editions: intros, footnotes, maps, etc.
 Same translation might be used in different editions
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Manuscripts vs. Print Editions
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Manuscripts = “written by hand” (ancient or modern)
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Copying introduces differences (intentional or accidental)
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Many small differences in spelling, grammar, word choice
Some large differences in content, placement, omission of whole books!
Printing invented in 1540’s (Gutenberg Bible) – standardization
We have no original MSS, only “copies of copies”
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First MSS written long after events; surviving copies even later
Oldest HB texts before 1940’s: "Masoretic text" (9th -10th CE)
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Oldest NT texts: a few fragments from 2nd -3rd Cent. CE
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HB books in DSS (discovered 1940’s): written in/before 1st Cent. CE
Whole NT Manuscripts from 4th - 5th Cent. CE
“Textual Criticism” tries to determine best/original readings
Why So Many Translations?
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No original manuscript of any biblical book has survived!
Extant manuscripts contain numerous textual variations!
Important old manuscripts were found in last 200 years!
Meanings of some biblical texts are unknown/uncertain!
Ancient languages are very different from modern ones!
Every "translation" is already an "interpretation"!
All living languages continually
change & develop over time!
Cultural developments require
new sensitivities in language!
(See English Translations for more detail)
Two Main Types of Translation
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“Formal Correspondence” Translations
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Preserve original wording & word-order of Hebrew & Greek
Require explanations (footnotes) to avoid misinterpretations
Good for in-depth academic study of the Bible
Difficult to understand when heard or read aloud
Ex: Douay-Rheims, KJV/NKJV, RSV/NRSV, NAB, NIV
“Dynamic Equivalence” Translations
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Focus on meaning & ideas, not “word for word” translation
better for public proclamation or liturgical use
Ex: NEB/REB, TEV/CEV, JB/NJB
Alternative Versions
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“Biblical Paraphrases”
Not accurate translations (don’t even claim to be)
 Often intended for children or teenagers
 Condense and/or omit much of the biblical material
 Freely change the wording of the original texts
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“Amplified Bible”
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“Amplifies” the text, adding many extra words &
phrases to explain the meaning (but whose opinion?)
Avoid either of these for Bible Study purposes
Which Is the Best Translation?
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Over 500 different translations in English today!
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No “Perfect” or “Best” Translation Exists!
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More and more produced each decade
But some are better than others, for various purposes
More Recent Ones are Usually Better:
Based on best/oldest manuscripts
discovered in past 50-150 years
 New insights from biblical scholarship
 So avoid KJV or Douay-Rheims !
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Which translation do you have?
Translations vs. Editions?
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Bible Translation (or Version)
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An interpretation of the meaning of the Bible from its original
languages into another (modern) language
Ex: King James Version (KJV), New English Bible (NEB), New
Revised Standard Version (NRSV), Jerusalem Bible (JB), New
American Bible (NAB), etc.
Reader’s Edition – translation printed w/ little extra material
Study Edition or Study Bible
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Printing of a certain translation by a particular publisher, with
added introductions, study helps, commentary, references, etc.
Ex: “The Catholic Study Bible: New American Bible”;
“New Oxford Annotated Bible: NRSV with the Apocrypha”
What’s the Point?
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What Is the Bible? That’s a complex question!
Whose Bible? Different versions (Jewish, Prot, Cath)
 Different contents, based on different manuscripts.
 Different translations, due to many factors.
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Not All Bibles Are Equal !
Newer translations are often better than older ones.
 Study editions provide helpful tools for learning.
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Which Bible should you use for LEMP?
Your choice; there’s no “best” or “required” version.
 But a “Catholic edition” or “…with Apocrypha”
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Resources for Biblical Study
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See the Basic Bibliography (handout or online) for details
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Study Bibles (with good intros, notes, maps, etc.)
Bible Dictionaries (alphabetical order of entries)
Bible Commentaries (canonical order of books)
Bible Atlases
Bible Concordances
Other Resources
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Use of Bible in Liturgy & Prayer
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Lectionary Readings:
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Catholic: Lectionary for Mass
Protestant: Revised Common Lectionary
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See the Roman Catholic Lectionary website
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Personal Prayer & Study:
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Lectio Divina
Reading the Bible Daily
Small Group Bible Study
Biblical References: Caution!
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Book Names &
Abbreviations
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Ex vs. Ez vs. Ezr
Hb vs. Heb
Jon vs. Jn
Phil vs. Phlm
Ti vs. Tim
Jn 1 vs. 1 Jn
1 Cor vs. Cor 1 ?
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Chapter & Verse
Numbers
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John 9:12
John 9, 12
John 9:1, 12
John 9:1-12
John 9:1; 12:36
John 9:1-12, 36
John 9:1—12:36
Closing Prayer
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See Gray Handout
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Song: “Open My Eyes, Lord”
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Catholic Approaches to Biblical Interpretation