Please check, just in case… APA Tip of the Day: Changing sentence final punctuation “The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax” (APA, 2010, p. 172). • This means that you can do things like getting rid of the final period or question mark at the end of a quote without indicating this change. APA Example From: The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax. To: “The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence may be changed to fit the syntax” (APA, 2010, p. 172). Announcements 1. Start thinking about/exploring what intervention you might like to research for this class. Some examples might include: functional communication training (FCT), milieu techniques, total communication, responsive interaction. Please send me an e-mail with three interventions that you would be interested in researching. Quick questions or quandaries? Today’s Topic: Theories of language development, cont. Ways to contrast approach to language development: Language is separate from cognition Language is a subset of cognition Ways to contrast approach to language development: “Nature” is the major influence on language development “Nurture” is the major influence on language development Chomskyan Nativism “The child’s language ‘grows in the mind’ as the visual system develops the capacity for binocular vision, or as the child undergoes puberty at a certain stage of maturation. Language acquisition is something that happens to a child placed in a certain environment, not something the child does.” (Chomsky, as cited in Cowie, 1999, p. 153) Nature AND Nurture According to Chomsky (1959), the characteristics of complex organisms “are in general a complicated product of inborn structure, the genetically determined course of maturation, and past experience (p. 27). Ways to contrast approaches to language development: Focus on competence Focus on performance Competence is “the speakerhearer’s knowledge of his language” and performance is “the actual use of language in concrete situations.” Chomsky, 1965, Aspects of the theory of syntax, p. 4) Focus on Linguistic Competence “Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous speech-community, who knows its language perfectly and in unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors… in applying his knowledge of the language in actual performance.” Chomsky, 1965, Aspects of the theory of syntax, p. 3) “The problem for the linguist, as well as for the child learning the language, is to determine from the data of performance the underlying system of rules that has been mastered by the speaker-hearer and that he puts into actual performance. Hence, in the technical sense, linguistic theory is mentalistic, since it is concerned with discovering a mental reality underlying actual behavior.” Chomsky, 1965, Aspects of the theory of syntax, p. 3) What’s the “problem” for language socialization? Competence or performance? (Ochs, 1986, p. 11) Small Group Activity: 1. What do you think Ochs (1986) meant when she wrote that language socialization refers to both "socialization through language and socialization to language" (p. 2)? 2. How does this relate to individuals with intensive communication needs? Quick Write Define language socialization in your own terms. How might this concept relate to your work with students with intensive communication needs? What does it mean to know a language? Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JmA2Cl UvUY What is Socialization? “an interactional display (covert or overt) to a novice of expected ways of thinking, feeling, and acting.” (Ochs, 1986) “One critical area of social competence a child must Language Socialization acquire is the ability to recognize/ interpret what social event is taking place and to speak and act in ways that are sensitive to the context.” (Ochs, 1986, p. 3) Social Events??? Attending church Hanging with my bud…. The Job Interview Closing the Deal Family Counseling Session Telephone Conversations socialization through language and socialization to use language “Johnny, Don’t say Bob, say Dr. Jones” Socialization through language: “…children and other novices in society acquire tacit knowledge of principles of social order and systems of belief (ethnotheories) through exposure to and participation in language-mediated interaction.” (Ochs, 1986, pp. 2-3) Socialization through language, cont. “…grammatical and conversational structures…are also culturally organized and as such expressive of local conceptions and theories about the world. Language use then is a major if not the major tool for conveying sociocultural knowledge and a powerful medium of socialization. In this sense, we… suggest that children acquire a world view as they acquire a language.” (Ochs, 1986, pp. 2-3) The Transactional Model of Communication Development “This perspective emphasizes the reciprocal, bidirectional influence of the communication environment, the responsiveness of communicative partners, and the child's own developing communicative competence… Transactional Model, cont. …For example, this model assumes that the increasing readability or clarity of the child's communicative behavior may influence the parent's style and frequency of contingent responsiveness in ways that will further scaffold the child's developing competence during the transition to linguistic communication.” (Wetherby, Warren, & Reichle, 1998, p. 2) The Communication Environment The responsiveness of communicative partners The child’s developing communicative competence Another definition… “Children are viewed as active participants who learn to affect the behavior and attitudes of others through active signaling and who gradually learn to use more sophisticated and conventional means to communicate through caregivers’ contingent social responsiveness.” (Kublin et al., 1998, p. 286) And… “The quality and nature of the contexts in which interaction occurs are considered to have a great influence on the successful acquisition of language and communicative behavior... development can be understood only by analysis of the interactive context, not simply by focusing solely on the child or the caregivers, because successful communication involves reciprocity and mutual negotiation." (Kublin et al., 1998, p. 286) Think-Pair-Share • Individually reflect on what we’ve talked about so far tonight. What seem to be important points? What isn‘t clear? How does this perhaps relate to your work with individuals with intensive communication needs? • Talk about your thoughts with a partner. • Share with the group as a whole. Today’s Main Points: 1. Children are active participants in their own language development. 2. Children develop language within a social context -- language is not learned without interacting with others. 3. Children learn about the way their society is organized and about their culture by learning their language. Main points, cont.: 4. We speak differently in different contexts, i.e. with friends versus during religious ceremonies. By learning to speak in different situations, we learn about how our culture is organized. 5. By participating in cultural events, we learn language. 6. Therefore, active participation in meaningful communicative interactions is necessary for develop language. Looking ahead… Cultural differences in the development of communication Please take a minute for the minute paper. And don’t forget to turn your phone back on.