Introduction to Psychology
Human Development
Cognitive Perspectives
Harlow study
• Harlow study
Sensorimotor Stage
• Age 0-2
• senses to explore
• Largely non-verbal
• Toward the end, object permanence
Preoperational Stage
• Age 2-7
• Language
• Symbolic thinking/Make-believe play
• Egocentrism
Piaget’s Three Mountains Task
View 1
View 2
(d)
(c)
Child
seated
here
(d)
(b)
(a)
Child seated here
Fig. 6.6
(a)
(c)
(b)
Concrete Operational Stage
• Age 7-11
• Logic/Reasoning
• Classify (i.e. mammals, reptiles)
• Ability to conserve
Piaget’s Conservation Task
Fig. 6.8
Conservation clip
• Conservation Task
Formal Operational Stage
• Age 11+
• Abstract thought
Vygotsky’s Zone of
Proximal Development
Fig. 6.11
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Introduction to Psychology