European Imperialism War on Iraq • The government of Iraq, and • Our armies do not come into your the future of your country, cities and lands as conquerors or will soon belong to you. ... We enemies, but as liberators. ... It is will end a brutal regime ... so [not] the wish of [our] government to that Iraqis can live in impose upon you alien institutions. ... security. We will respect your [It is our wish] that you should great religious traditions, prosper even as in the past, when whose principles of equality your lands were fertile, when your and compassion are essential ancestors gave to the world to Iraq's future. We will help literature, science, and art, and when you build a peaceful and Baghdad city was one of the wonders representative government of the world. ... It is [our] hope that that protects the rights of all the aspirations of your philosophers citizens. And then our and writers shall be realized and military forces will leave. that once again the people of Iraq will go forward as a Baghdad shall flourish, enjoying unified, independent, and their wealth and substance under sovereign nation that has institutions which are in consonance regained a respected place in with their sacred laws and their the world. You are a good and racial ideals. gifted people -- the heirs of a • -- General F. S. Maude to the people great civilization that of Mesopotamia, March 19, 1917 contributes to all humanity. • -- President George W. Bush to the people of Iraq, April 4, 2003 Imperialism • Imperialism: process through which a state attempts to control the economic and/or political and cultural makeup of another state. • Between 1815-1914 the West (Europe and America) increased their control of the world’s land mass from 35%-85%. Source for Raw Materials Economic Markets for Finished Goods Do something no one has done Exploration Spread Christianity Reasons for European Imperialism Religious Social Darwinism End Slavery Ideological Political Gain Territory Racism “White Man’s Burden” Gain Power Nationalism Causes of Imperialism • Economic • Industrialization gave the West the ability to conquer other parts of the world, but more reasons to do so, too. • Large-scale industrial production made Western factories demand more raw materials, which could be seized from less powerful nations. • Also, Western nations needed markets for goods produced. • Colonies would serve as potential markets. • Immense wealth allowed Western world to conquer far-flung places. Causes of Imperialism • Political • Power- What better way to show the world that you are a power than by taking over other countries. • Nationalism- If my country has a huge empire, we must be powerful. • Territory- The more territory we have the more powerful we are and the more resources we control Causes of Imperialism • Religion • Christians feel it is their duty to convert others and show them the way to heaven. • By this time most European countries had outlawed slavery on the belief than men were equal under God. • Slavery still existed in other parts of the world and in Africa. • The only way to enforce the ban was to control Africa. Causes of Imperialism • Ideological • Social Darwinism- Application of Charles Darwin’s “Theory of Survival of the Fittest” to humans. • The Lion eats the Gazelle. Lion lives to pass on its fast genes. Gazelle dies, doesn’t pass on genes. • ONLY THE STRONG SURVIVE. • This was natures way of improving the species. • Therefore, the stronger humans (Whites) should take over the weaker ones (Natives). • This was natures way of improving the species. Causes of Imperialism • Ideological • White Man’s Burden • Named after a poem by Rudyard Kipling. • It was the duty of the superior race (Whites) to help bring culture and civilization to the lesser races. • Get rid of your ways and do it like us. • Well meaning, but racist at the same time. • A lot of good was done, but at the same time many natives lost their culture and heritage. Causes of Imperialism • Ideological • Racism • Created a sense that Western nations were entitled to conquer & colonize areas that appeared “backwards” or “primitive”. • White European culture is best and should be spread throughout the world. • Wear clothes, speak language, act like the Whites. • Cecil Rhodes, British imperialist, “I contend that we are the finest race in the world, and the more of it we inhabit, the better.” Causes of Imperialism • Exploration • Since the beginning of time humans have wanted to do something that no one else has done before and explore their world. • Follow in the footsteps of Columbus. • Dr. Livingstone goes to Africa. No one hears from him • Newspaperman Henry Stanley finds him and writes about it. • Creates interest in Africa. Western advantages • • • • • • Strong economies Well-organized governments Powerful armed forces Superior technology and medicine Maxim gun Quinine Africa • 1880, Europeans controlled 10% of Africa • 1914 Europeans controlled all except Liberia & Ethiopia Africa: Berlin Congress 1884-85 • Established the "rules" for conquest of Africa • sought to prevent conflict over imperialism • Congress coincided with Germany's rise as an imperial power • Agreed to stop slavery and slave trade in Africa • Germany took control of Cameroon, Togo, southwest Africa, & East Africa • France took control Tunisia, Algeria, French West Africa (including Morocco, Sahara, Sudan, Congo basin) • Italy: took control of Libya • Belgium: Took control of the Congo The Congo "I do not want to risk...losing a fine chance to secure for ourselves a slice of this magnificent African cake.”--Leopold II Belgian Congo King Leopold II of Belgium • King Leopold II of Belgium was a figurehead without any actual say in the governement from 1865–1909. • He had great ambition to make Belgium, a relatively new and small nation, one of the great imperial powers of Europe. • He thought that colonization was the best way to do this. • “Since history teaches that colonies are useful, that they play a great part in that which makes up the power and prosperity of states, let us strive to get one in our turn." Leopold’s Attempts at Acquiring Colonies • He launched several unsuccesful schemes to buy colonies, but all of his attempts at aquiring territory were blocked by the Belgian government, which viewed colonization as a bad investment. • Leopold decided that if the Belgian government would not support him, then he would do it himself. • He set his sights on the Congo, a piece of land in the heart of Africa that had remained uncolonized by “civilized” society. The African International Association • In 1876 Leopold, using his own vast wealth, and acting completely independent of the Belgian state, sponsored a humanitarian conference as a front for his ambition to colonize, which resulted in the formation of the African International Association, of which he was the sole shareholder. • The Association was given internation support in its quest to “civilize” the natives, through promises to end slavery in the Congo, protect the rights of the natives, and guarantee free trade, none of which he actually intended to do. Stanley’s Takeover of the Congo • Leopold hired Henry Morton Stanley, a famous explorer who understood the customs and politics of the tribes and peoples of the Congo, to organize the takeover • Stanley used guns and other modern weapons, cheap European goods to win over 450 local chiefs and their people and take over their land. Cheating the Natives Chiefs of Ngombi & Mafela, in return for "one piece of cloth per month to each of the undersigned chiefs, besides present of cloth in hand," they promised to "freely of their own accord, for themselves and their heirs and successors for ever...give up to the said Association the sovereignty and all sovereign and governing rights to all their territories...and to assist by labour or otherwise, any works, improvements or expeditions which the said Association shall cause at any time to be carried out in any part of these territories....All roads and waterways running through this country, the right of collecting tolls on the same, and all game, fishing, mining and forest rights, are to be the absolute property of the said Association.” Henry Morton Stanley in his --Treaty handing over land to Leopold II “Stanley Cap” which he designed for exploring the tropics The Congo Free State • Through deceit and diplomacy, international conferences, and false promises to various nations, Leopold, who still did not formally own the land, was able to convince the international community in 1885 to allow him absolute control over a 90,000 square mile piece of land at the heart of the Congo, which was named the “Congo Free State”. • He now officially owned 30 million people, “without constitution, without international supervision, without ever having been to the Congo, and without more than a tiny handful of his citizens having heard of him.” (Wikipedia) Women kept hostage to force their husbands to go and gather rubber. Rubber was harvested by climbing the rubber tree, tapping into it and letting the sap run all over the slave’s body, where it would congeal. Later he would peel the rubber off his body, taking any body hair with it. Rubber harvesters were given impossible quotas to fill each month. Two victims (l.) who lost their hands, one because his wrists were tied too tightly, the other because company militia cut it off to claim him as killed and get a reward. Below, a father looks at the severed hand and foot of his daughter. 5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official Punishing “Lazy” Workers Hands collected if rubber quotas not met… • In practice, soldiers sometimes "cheated" by simply cutting off the hand and leaving the victim to live or die. More than a few survivors later said that they had lived through a massacre by acting dead, not moving even when their hand was severed, and waiting till the soldiers left before seeking help. Leopold Tries to Maintain His Image • Despite his cruelty as a leader, ironically much of Leopold’s success rested on his international image as a philanthropist, who was dedicated to improving the lives of the African people. • In order to maintain this image, Leopold bribed many journalists and outlawed his employees from leaving the country Belgium’s Stranglehold on the Congo The Reign of Terror Ends • Leopold was ultimately unsuccessful in dispelling rumors about the awful conditions of life in the Congo Free State. By 1908 criticism of his rule and lobbying by the American Congo Reform Association forced his withdrawal as sovereign and the region was annexed to Belgium. Its name was later changed to Zaire and is now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Europe’s Overseas Empire • Western Approaches • Britain’s was the largest and most powerful colonial establishment. • France, Belgium, and the Netherlands also had sizable colonies. • Various approaches to governing • British considered to have most “enlightened” approach to colonization. • Did take their colonies by force & exploited them economically-and were prone to the same sense of racial superiority as the others Europe’s Overseas Empires • Egypt • Perhaps most important territory was Egypt. • Became a British protectorate in 1880’s. • France & Britain both vied for Egypt, mainly b/c of the financing of the Suez Canal (1869). • Control over the canal-a vital link between Med. And Red Sea/ Indian Ocean-was crucial • British used eco. pressure to gain more political control over Egypt. British Imperialism European Interest in India • Europeans need and have a high demand for spices, cotton, and other goods • Europeans trade by land over what route? SILK ROAD India was a major supplier of raw materials Indians must produce raw materials for Britain Jewel in the Crown Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and jute, opium Indians must buy finished goods from Britain British in India • Set up trade in India • Corrupt Mogul Empire in India • ignores British gains • British soon control India • Export cotton from India to Britain • Machine cotton spinning in Britain • starts industrial revolution • British empire expands • Africa, Asia, Australia British Rule in India • The East India Company, a British owned company, established trading post in India. 1. Establish colonies 2. Make laws and collect taxes 3. Have an army • They fought with France as well as India over control of the sub-continent. Britain won. • By 1857 the British were hiring Indian allies to protect British interest. Problems of British Rule • 1- Indians bought cheaper cloth from Britain which destroyed Indian textiles. • 2-The British collected taxes from the Indians to keep the army in India. This caused some farmers to lose their farms. • 3-Britain convinced many farmer to grow cotton instead of food which led to starvation. • Educated Indians, predominantly Hindu, demanded increasing equality & self-gov't • India became independent in 1946 (just after WWII) Why were the Indians so angry?? • • • • • • • • Brits had changed traditional practices Indians Forced to buy British stuff Indians were treated as second class Not allowed to have best jobs Paid less for the same jobs as British Even educated people discriminated against Indian economy became dependent on Brits! How do you think some Indians feel about this?? I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent. -Gandhi An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind. - Gandhi British Empire At its peak controlled one sixth of humanity • Other European countries scramble to set up colonies all over world • • • • • France Belgium Germany Denmark Great Britain- Opium Wars Impact of Imperialism Positive Results -Negative Results Spread of Western thought, government, and ideas (end to slavery) -Became dependent on parent Improved infastructure (Roads, Dams, etc) Improved Sanitation and public health Improved Education and Literacy End to local warfare country -Cash crops led to famine -Racism -Indians treated like second class citizens -Loss of traditional languages and cultures -# of dead?????? -Problems with independence when colonial powers leave (Mid-East, Africa, SE Asia) When India achieved independence in 1947, it was separated from East and West Pakistan.