International Port Security Program
LCDR Robert Keith
U. S. Coast Guard Headquarters
LCDR Sam Forbes
U.S. Coast Guard Activities Europe
In order to implement the ISPS Code
in the U.S., Congress passed the
Maritime Transportation and Security
Act (MTSA)
In addition to domestic improvements, the
MTSA also requires the Secretary of
Department of Homeland Security to
learn about the antiterrorism measures in
foreign ports
International Port Security (IPS) Program
The IPS Program focus is to:
 Engage in bilateral and
multilateral security
discussions with all of our
trading partners
 Exchange best practices
 Work with other regional
international organizations to
improve security worldwide
International Port Security Program
 Program managed at Coast Guard Headquarters
 A network of International Port Security Liaison Officers
(IPSLOs) throughout the world
 Asia-Pacific Region – Tokyo and Singapore
 Europe/Mid-East/Africa Region - Rotterdam
 South/Central America (East) – Portsmouth, Virginia
 South/Central America (West) – Alameda, California
Multi-Phased Approach
Preliminary Information
Exchange between Nations
In Country Visit and
Information Exchange
Reciprocal Visits
Ongoing Dialogue
Interest in Each Nation’s Interpretation
of the ISPS Code
• Security organization
• Communication of security
• Preventing unauthorized
access (personnel/cargo)
• Physical security measures
• Security policies/procedures
• Security in ship/port interface
• Response to security threats or
• Training, drills & exercises
IPS Program Country Visit
Country Visits involve:
 Discussion of the host
country’s implementation
philosophy with the
Designated Authority
 Visits to select port facilities
 Observation of implemented
security practices
 Discussion of observations
General Visit Observations
 157 Countries (trading partners)
 Every continent
 Developing and developed
 Large and small
 Good awareness of the
requirements of the ISPS Code
 Sustainability may be a challenge
for some countries
 Cargo documentation is an area
with potential for increased security
 “Management Infrastructure” must
continue to evolve
Best Practices
 Alfapass – Belgium
 Industry led
 Worker access to various facilities
 Internet based
 Electronic and biometric technologies
Control tower - Romania
 Observe entire facility
 Monitor personnel and vehicles
 Climate controlled
Best Practices
 Pipe barrier – Saudi Arabia
 Supplements perimeter fence
 Recycled material
 Virtually impenetrable
 Concertina wire at bottom of fence –
 Discourages access over or under
 Additional deterrent
Best Practices
• Security Zones - Jamaica
Waterside access is common weakness
Political implications
Cooperative effort
Potentially costly
• Railroad Gate Guard Tower – India
Locked gate
Guards on ground and tower
Moderate cost
Not fool proof
Best Practices
• Anti-vehicle barriers - Korea
– Low cost (scrap materials)
– Easy to deploy
– Little/no training
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) detector –
Dominican Republic
– Uncomplicated
– Low cost (<$300 U.S.)
– Minimal training
Best Practices
 Color-coded flags – Ecuador
 Easily understood
 Country-wide
 Cost Effective
 Color-coded uniforms – Philippines
 Required for all contractors
 Color coded per restricted area
 Easily seen from a distance
Best Practices
 24-hour guards – Algeria
 Stationed at transfer pier
 Must have authorized access
 Additional guards during transfer
 Monthly DA inspections – Costa
 Announced
 Observes security measures and
 Follow-up
Best Practices
 Signs in Multiple Languages – Malaysia
 Three languages
 Posted at gates
 Port security advisory committee –
South Africa
 All port stakeholders
 Emphasis on port security
 Informed response
Best Practices
 Security Training - Uruguay
 All personnel
 Minimum 2 hours = Admin
 Contracted truck drivers
 Response Cards - Peru
 Details security duties
 All security levels
 Laminated
 Worn around neck
IPS Program Website
 IPS Program specific
information is provided on the
USCG HOMEPORT website at
 Specific information includes:
Best Practices
Port Security Advisories
News and Events
IPS Program Reciprocal Visit
 The U.S. invites other countries
to visit to learn how we are
implementing the ISPS Code
 Timing is flexible; visit can
occur before or after the U.S.
visit to their country
 Reciprocal visits normally
follow the same format as our
country visits
 Discussions in Washington
 Trips to U.S. ports
Status of Reciprocal Visits
Hosted 51 Reciprocal Visits from 50 countries:
 Albania (2)
 Gabon
 Argentina
 Gambia
 Bahrain
 Ghana
 Bangladesh
 Guatemala (2)
 Barbados
 Haiti (2)
 Brazil (2)
 Honduras
 Canada
 Indonesia
 Chile
 Israel
 China
 Mexico (3)
 Colombia
 New Zealand
 Dominican Republic
 Nicaragua
 European Commission
 Nigeria (2)
European Union (5):
Belgium (2) Italy (3)
 Norway (2)
Netherlands (2)
France (3)
UK (5)
Saudi Arabia (2)
South Africa
South Korea
Trinidad and Tobago
Reciprocal Visit Previous Topics of Interest
 Container, bulk liquid,
cruise, & coal facilities
 National Vessel
Movement Center
 El Paso Intelligence
Center (EPIC)
 Joint Harbor Operations
Center (Norfolk, VA)
 Vessel Traffic Centers
Reciprocal Visit Potential Topics of Interest
 Security Committees
 Security Exercises
 Inland River Ports
 Outer Continental
Reciprocal Visits Requests
 Delegation
 4 to 6 working level DA reps
 Point of Contact for Reciprocal Visit
 U.S. Embassy
 International Port Security Liaison
IPS Program International Outreach
 Work with regional international
 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum
 Organization of American States (OAS)
 G-8
 Participate in Capacity Building
initiatives through International
 Encourage use of MSC Circular
What happens when the U.S. has
security concerns regarding security
in foreign ports?
 Concerns will be discussed
 Can USCG/U.S. help by providing technical
assistance or guidance?
 Other regional/global “best practices”
 Additional security measures may be
imposed on ships arriving to U.S. ports
as a condition of entry
 Conditions of Entry are a last resort
 Advance public notice given
 Actions taken in foreign ports can reduce the
measures imposed in the U.S.
Non-compliant Countries
Vessels arriving from non-compliant ports
are immediately subject to increased port
state control scrutiny
Coast Guard coordinates further actions
with the Department of State and other
agencies (example: CBP)
Country formally notified and normally
given 90 days to take actions to remediate
port security problems with CG Liaison
Officer’s assistance
After 90 days vessels departing noncompliant ports are subject to Conditions
of Entry requiring additional security
measures in order to be allowed to enter
U.S. Ports.
Placed on Port Security Advisory List
• Mauritania
Port Security Advisory
• Guinea-Bissau
• Liberia
• Equatorial Guinea
• Cameroon
• Cuba
• Cambodia
• Syria
• Iran
• Indonesia
IPS Program Summary
 Goal is to improve port security in
the U.S. and the world
 ISPS Code implementation is the best way to
accomplish that goal
 Exchange information based on each trading
partner’s interpretation of the ISPS Code
 Mutual visits
 Engagement with international organizations
 Take appropriate action to minimize
the risk to the U.S. from vessels
coming from ports with inadequate
security measures
For Further Information:
LCDR Robert Keith
Coast Guard Headquarters
Int’l Port Security, Africa Desk Officer
+01 202 372-1157
LCDR Sam Forbes
Coast Guard Activities Europe
International Port Security Liaison Officer
+31 10 442 4458

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