Kristi M. Mulligan Final Project Presentation Elluminate Session December 6, 2009 Maps from A to Z: A Guide for the Novice Presented by: Kristi M. Mulligan December 2, 2009 Image taken from: http://www.dessertseed.com/world_climate_map-large.jpg www.amazon.com/National-Geographic-World-AtlasExplorers/dp/1426300883/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&s=book s&qid=1259644838&sr=1-4#noop ► Atlases are collections of data about countries or specialized topics. Data and topics include, but are not limited to: www.amazon.com/Color-AtlasAnatomy-PhotographicStudy/dp/0781790131/ref=sr_ 1_53?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid= 1259645294&sr=1-53 Maps & Photographs Roads & Populations Agriculture & Weather Astronomy Let’s Use An Online Atlas Visit the National Atlas at www.nationalatlas.gov . 1. Click on “Geology.” Choose “Geologic Maps.” Write a brief description of the map that appears. 2. Return to www.nationalatlas.gov . Click on “Potentially Active Volcanoes.” Follow the directions to find those in California. What is the name of the potentially active volcano nearest to Fresno? Geographic regions or areas of interest are separated from one another by boundaries. Boundaries can be lines like those that separate counties and states on road maps. Colored blocks can also serve as boundaries as with the map shown below. Let’s practice: What type of boundary might the blue and red blocks of color represent on this map? Hint: the map might be seen in your senior government class. Image taken from: http://illuminations.nctm. org/Lessons/ElectoralCollege/2000map.jpg Cartography is the science of mapmaking. It includes acquisition, presentation, and use of data. Let’s Practice: Be the Cartographer Draw a map that shows the route you take to get from your house to school. Provide at least four details that would help someone to know the route whether or not he/she had ever gone that way before. Distance is the extent or amount of space between two things, places, points, or lines. Let’s Practice! Answer the following questions using the map on the next slide: 1. What crucial piece of information is included that helps you find the distance between Fresno and Selma? 2. What is that distance in miles? In kilometers? 3. What is the approximate distance between Fresno and Madera? Image taken from: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/countymaps/california/maps/fresno-county-map.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/countymaps/california/fresno-county-map.html&usg=__V8BohRSsuiCdqg6HbyJock6xG_U=&h=554&w= 700&sz=378&hl=en&start=7&sig2=aMAHLe8OVvAU-p4e4RpXWQ&tbnid=RnYhbxYN4nWSYM:&tbnh= 111&tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dfresno%2Bmap%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den&ei=IAIWS8f_EIPGsQO Zuvz3Aw. Is the altitude of a place above sea level. (Sea level is 0 feet or 0 km). Let’s Practice Use the elevation markers on the following map to identify the: a. Highest elevation b. Lowest elevation Image taken from: www.rollanet. org/~conorw/ cwome/hahaton ka_topo_map. jpg A map feature is a visual representation of real-world data. A variety of features can be included on a map. Some common features are: Cities Roads Water Features (blue creeks, rivers, lakes) National parks (often green) Restaurants (often represented by a fork and knife) Let’s Practice! Identify two special features on the following map. What do you think they represent? City Center, Buenos Aires, Argentina Image taken from: http://argentiniantravel.com/imag/mapa__map_buenos_ aires__base_MODIFICADO.jpg This system of 24 satellites can be used by anyone with a G.P.S. unit to calculate their position on the Earth’s surface to within a few feet. Let’s Practice! Go online and find four different G.P.S. units & name: • the manufacturer • 3 product details • common uses • a sale price for each California is rich in resources. It is also rich in the potential for damage due to natural hazards like earthquakes. Cartographers provide maps of these hazards as references for the public. Let’s practice! Look at the map on the next slide. Answer these questions: When was the map created? 1)How many earthquakes had been measured within an hour of the map’s creation? 2)Approximately what magnitudes were the two strongest earthquakes that occurred near Fresno within a week of the map’s creation? 3)According to the data on the map, citizens in what areas of the state were most likely to have felt an earthquake during the week leading up to the map’s creation? Image taken from: earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/ Maps/US10/32.42.-125.-115.php ► ► Contour line that is accentuated in thickness and is often labeled with the appropriate measure of elevation. Index contours occur every four or fifth contour interval and help the map user read elevations on a map. Let’s Practice: The Contour Interval on the following map is 20 feet. What is the elevation of the lake? Image taken from: http://www.rollanet.org/~conorw/cwome/hahatonka _topo_map.jpg Known as “Father of the National Park Service” His cartographic work made a lasting and profound impact on our nation and culture. Let’s Practice! Go online and find two additional individuals whose cartographic contributions impacted the study of our world in a lasting way. Describe their work and its impact. Images taken from: http://digitalcollections.pacific.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/muirjournals&CISOPT R=723&REC=13 KAP image of the Ring of Brodgarancient burial chamber taken from: http://web.archive.org/web/20050214044533/ www.harb87.fsnet.co.uk/circ/circ.htm Photos taken from aloft provide a new perspective from which we can view our world. KAP is both a hobby and scientific method of collecting remotely-sensed images for fun and science! KAP image taken from: http://www.geospectra.net/ kite/pueblo/pueblo.htm Let’s Practice! Visit the KAP website maintained by Dr. James Aber http://www.geospectra.net /kite/applic/applic.htm Name 3 uses scientists have found for images gathered through KAP ► Explain why each use is preferable to traditional methods of data collection. ► Image of Slains Castle, Scotland, by Pierre Lesage and taken from: www.flickr.com/photos/tahitipix/146415461 8/ Latitude is the distance north or south from a point on the Earth’s surface to the equator. Longitude is the distance of a point to the east or west of the prime meridian. Each is represented by lines that form a grid over a map. Positions on the grid are identified as East/West and North/South coordinates. 1) What point is located at 14’ N and 45’ W? 2) What are the coordinates of point C? 3) What are the coordinates of point F? Image taken from: http://www.jsu.edu/ depart/geography/mhill/ phygeogone/ltlng.jpg Let’s Practice! Maps are visual representations of data Traditional maps are two-dimensional. Some are hand-drawn, others are digital. Some digital maps are even threedimensional Many types of maps: topographic, political, road, weather, traffic, Bigfoot sightings, and more! Let’s Practice! ► ► Image taken from: http://www. mapsofworld. com/worldlanguagemap.htm Name three languages that are spoken in more than one country. Other than English, what are three other major languages of the world? Image taken from: http://savanna. mosaicglobe.com/gallery/2723/mid/Carb_ Chart_thumb.jpg Nautical maps represent hydrographic (water-related) features and their surrounding shorelines. Common sources of nautical maps are: ► U.S. Oceanographic Society ► National Geographic Society Let’s Practice! Image taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fi le:NOAA_chart_25664_1976. png 1) Name 2 ways that this map differs from a road map: 2) Name 3 features on this map that are ALSO found on road and topographic maps: ► Object-based data is data on a map in which one feature represents one real-world object (such as a hotel, a gas station, or a volcano). ► Maps that are created for travel and tourism purposes often supply users with object-based data. Old Faithful Region of Yellowstone National Park Image taken from: http://www.nps.gov/archive/yell/interactivemap/ofdetail.htm Let’s Practice! This map demonstrates the use of Object-Based Data. Please: 1.Name two types of data from this map that you might also find on a city map. 2.Who do you think created this map? (Hint: think about organizations we have discussed during this unit). 3. Name one type of data on this map that is specific to the map’s place of origin. The science and art of making accurate measurements of distance by using aerial photography ► Image taken from: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://arch.ced.berkeley.edu/kap /images/3rig3.jpg&imgrefurl=http://arch.ced.berkeley.edu/kap/equip/kapri g3.html&usg=__TKHavVgBSfBkfl4lwJ7jVqyPzXQ=&h=472&w=300&sz=27 &hl=en&start=17&sig2=w4zJESZTXwl9SWsd8d4VuQ&um=1&tbnid=dxIlGo HXsRZjyM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=82&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dkap%26hl%3De n%26rlz%3D1T4TSNA_enUS355US355%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&ei=I24 XS4erGomIsgP7qLS3DQ Four-sided area, bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude used as an area unit in mapping. ► Quadrangles often illustrate the geographic data of a large land area. ► ► The process of obtaining data about an area, while remaining a great distance from the location. ► Common tools used in Remote Sensing: Satellites Kites (KAP) and Blimps (Blimp Aerial Photography) Let’s Practice! This image was taken by the Landsat satellite. It is a view of Mount St. Helens, after its eruption in 1980. 1)Name 1 similarity between this Landsat image and a topographic map. 2)Name 1 difference between this Landsat image and a map of your choice. 3)What do you think the white area in the center of the picture represents? Image was taken from: http://landsat.usgs.gov/images/ gallery/54_M.jpg 1 inch = 50 miles ► ► ► ► Maps must, by necessity, be smaller than the area they represent. A map’s scale is a ratio of the distance on the map as it compares to the actual distance that the map is representing. An example of one such ratio is 1:24,000 (one unit of distance on the map represents 24,000 of the same units of distance on the Earth). Other examples of map scale might be: 1 inch = 1 mile or 1 inch = 2,000 feet. Let’s Practice! ►A map’s scale is 1 inch = 75 miles. The distance between Town A and Town D is 3.5 inches. How far would one have to drive to travel between the two? ►A map’s scale is 2 cm = 15 km. The distance between Elephant City and Giraffe National Park is 8.75 cm. What is the actual distance between these two locations? ► ► ► . According to http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/ The Mission of the USGS is that it “serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.” The Vision of the USGS is that it “has become a world leader in the natural sciences thanks to our scientific excellence and responsiveness to society's needs.” This governmental department supports the study of: Biology, Geology, Geography, Water, and Geospatial Data. Let’s Practice! Go to: www.usgs.gov. Find the box titled “Science Topics.” Choose three of the topics and: 1. Write the name of the topic. 2. Browse the topic and write down three types of data that the USGS provides for each. 3. Click on the “Education” tab. Name 1 resources that is available to secondary schools. View Maps provide us with a view of our world that is different than the one we see every day. They condense features down into a manageable size. How much easier is it to imagine yourself hiking into the Grand Canyon when you look at a map than when you look at this image? Different perspectives can be gained through use of both topographic and aerial ‘views.’ Let’s Practice! Compare and contrast Image A with Image B: 1) What do you think the image shows? 2) What type of image might each be? (Hint: None are still photos). Image B Image A (Image sources given in notes.) Watershed (1) The entire geographic region supplying water to a drainage basin, river, or lake. (2) An area of land that drains naturally into a stream or other waterway. (3) Water usage issues affect: (1) (1) (2) Daily lives & associated activities Agriculture production Biodiversity Image of Central Valley Watershed Monitoring Stations taken from: http://www.sanjoaquinmonitoring.org/ lookup26.php?station=CRS,MST,NEW,OBB,SJRDO013,SJS,STC507,USFWS023&print=true Let’s Practice! Go to www.google.com. Type: Fresno AND “freshwater sources” into the search. What are two sources of freshwater? 2) Look at this image. The white region is the snow-covered Sierra Nevada Mountains. The green is the Central Valley. The blue is…? 3) The brown on the right is the eastern edge of California and western Nevada. Why do you think the Central Valley remains green while this area is brown? (Remember: they both have Image taken from: www.eosnap.com/public/ snowy mountains nearby.). 1) media/2009/03/usa/20090310-california-full.jpg eXtra credit! You have been given a copy of this map. Color each country. Label: it’s name, the predominant language spoken there, and one of its geographic features. Use The CIA World Factbook as your primary Image taken from: http://www.theodora.com/maps/ resource: new4/world_color.gif You are almost done! Go exploring this awesome website… Image taken from: www.enchantedlearning.com/geography/mapreading/1.shtml ► To increase or decrease the detail of a portion of a geographic data set ► This is a feature of online maps. ► Many times the mouse looks like a magnifying glass when you have an option to ‘Zoom.’ The following resources have been instrumental in the creation of this presentation ► Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). The world factbook. Retrieved on December 2, 2009, from https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/theworld-factbook/. ► Enchanted learning. (2009). World geography. Retrieved on November 29, 2009, from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/geography/. ► Ordinance Survey. (2009). Ordinance survey glossary. Retrieved on November 30, 2009, from http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/ oswebsite/aboutus/reports/misc/glossary.html. ► U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). Our mission and vision. Retrieved on November 25, 2009, from http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/.