Kristi M. Mulligan
Final Project Presentation
Elluminate Session
December 6, 2009
Maps from A to Z:
A Guide for the
Presented by:
Kristi M. Mulligan
December 2, 2009
Image taken from:
► Atlases
are collections of data
about countries or specialized
topics. Data and topics include,
but are not limited to:
Maps & Photographs
Roads & Populations
Agriculture & Weather
Let’s Use An Online Atlas
Visit the National Atlas at .
1. Click on “Geology.” Choose “Geologic Maps.”
Write a brief description of the map that
2. Return to . Click on
“Potentially Active Volcanoes.” Follow the
directions to find those in California. What is
the name of the potentially active volcano
nearest to Fresno?
Geographic regions or areas of interest are separated from
one another by boundaries. Boundaries can be lines like
those that separate counties and states on road maps.
Colored blocks can also serve as boundaries as with the
map shown below.
Let’s practice: What type of boundary might the blue and red
blocks of color represent on this map? Hint: the map might
be seen in your senior government class.
Image taken from: http://illuminations.nctm.
Cartography is the science of mapmaking.
It includes acquisition, presentation, and
use of data.
Let’s Practice: Be the Cartographer
Draw a map that shows the route you take to get from
your house to school. Provide at least four details that
would help someone to know the route whether or not
he/she had ever gone that way before.
Distance is the extent or amount
of space between two things,
places, points, or lines.
Let’s Practice!
Answer the following questions using the map
on the next slide:
1. What crucial piece of information is
included that helps you find the distance
between Fresno and Selma?
2. What is that distance in miles? In
3. What is the approximate distance between
Fresno and Madera?
Image taken from:
Is the altitude of a place above sea level.
(Sea level is 0 feet or 0 km).
Let’s Practice
Use the elevation markers on the following
map to identify the:
a. Highest elevation
b. Lowest elevation
Image taken
A map feature is a visual
representation of real-world data. A
variety of features can be included
on a map. Some common features
 Roads
 Water Features (blue creeks, rivers, lakes)
 National parks (often green)
 Restaurants (often represented by a fork and
Let’s Practice!
Identify two special features on the following
map. What do you think they represent?
City Center, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Image taken from:
This system of 24
satellites can be
used by anyone
with a G.P.S. unit
to calculate their
position on the
Earth’s surface to
within a few feet.
Let’s Practice!
Go online and find four
different G.P.S. units &
• the manufacturer
• 3 product details
• common uses
• a sale price for each
California is rich in resources. It is also rich in the
potential for damage due to natural hazards like
earthquakes. Cartographers provide maps of these
hazards as references for the public.
Let’s practice!
Look at the map on the next slide. Answer
these questions:
When was the map created?
1)How many earthquakes had been measured
within an hour of the map’s creation?
2)Approximately what magnitudes were the
two strongest earthquakes that occurred near
Fresno within a week of the map’s creation?
3)According to the data on the map, citizens in
what areas of the state were most likely to
have felt an earthquake during the week
leading up to the map’s creation?
Image taken from:
Contour line that is accentuated in thickness and is
often labeled with the appropriate measure of elevation.
Index contours occur every four or fifth contour
interval and help the map user read elevations on a
Let’s Practice:
The Contour Interval on the following map is 20 feet.
What is the elevation of the lake?
Image taken from:
Known as “Father
of the National
Park Service”
His cartographic
work made a
lasting and
profound impact
on our nation and
Let’s Practice!
Go online and find two additional individuals
whose cartographic contributions impacted the
study of our world in a lasting way. Describe
their work and its impact.
Images taken from:
KAP image of the Ring of Brodgarancient burial chamber taken from:
Photos taken from aloft provide a new perspective from
which we can view our world.
KAP is both a hobby and scientific method of collecting
remotely-sensed images for fun and science!
KAP image taken from:
Let’s Practice!
Visit the KAP website
maintained by Dr. James
Name 3 uses scientists
have found for images
gathered through KAP
► Explain why each use
is preferable to traditional
methods of data collection.
Image of Slains Castle, Scotland, by Pierre
Lesage and taken from:
Latitude is the distance north or
south from a point on the
Earth’s surface to the equator.
 Longitude is the distance of a
point to the east or west of the
prime meridian.
Each is represented by lines that
form a grid over a map.
 Positions on the grid are
identified as East/West and
North/South coordinates.
1) What point is
located at 14’
N and 45’ W?
2) What are the
coordinates of
point C?
3) What are the
coordinates of
point F?
Image taken from:
Let’s Practice!
Maps are visual representations of data
Traditional maps are two-dimensional.
Some are hand-drawn, others are digital.
Some digital maps are even threedimensional
Many types of maps: topographic, political,
road, weather, traffic, Bigfoot sightings, and
Let’s Practice!
Image taken
Name three languages that are spoken in more than
one country.
Other than English, what are three other major
languages of the world?
Image taken from: http://savanna.
Nautical maps represent hydrographic (water-related)
features and their surrounding shorelines.
Common sources of nautical maps are:
► U.S. Oceanographic Society
► National Geographic Society
Let’s Practice!
Image taken from:
1) Name 2 ways that this map differs from a road
2) Name 3 features on this map that are ALSO
found on road and topographic maps:
► Object-based
data is data on a map in which one
feature represents one real-world object (such as
a hotel, a gas station, or a volcano).
► Maps that are created for travel and tourism
purposes often supply users with object-based
Old Faithful Region of Yellowstone National Park Image taken from:
Let’s Practice!
This map demonstrates the use
of Object-Based Data. Please:
1.Name two types of data from
this map that you might also
find on a city map.
2.Who do you think created this
map? (Hint: think about
organizations we have
discussed during this unit).
3. Name one type of data on
this map that is specific to the
map’s place of origin.
The science and art
of making accurate
measurements of
distance by using
aerial photography
Image taken from:
Four-sided area, bounded by
parallels of latitude and meridians
of longitude used as an area unit
in mapping.
► Quadrangles often illustrate
the geographic data of a large
land area.
► The
process of obtaining data about an area,
while remaining a great distance from the
► Common tools used in Remote Sensing:
 Satellites
 Kites (KAP) and Blimps (Blimp Aerial
Let’s Practice!
This image was taken by the
Landsat satellite. It is a view of
Mount St. Helens, after its
eruption in 1980.
1)Name 1 similarity between this
Landsat image and a topographic
2)Name 1 difference between this
Landsat image and a map of your
3)What do you think the white
area in the center of the picture
Image was taken from:
1 inch = 50 miles
Maps must, by necessity, be smaller than the area they represent.
A map’s scale is a ratio of the distance on the map as it compares to
the actual distance that the map is representing.
An example of one such ratio is 1:24,000 (one unit of distance on the
map represents 24,000 of the same units of distance on the Earth).
Other examples of map scale might be: 1 inch = 1 mile or 1 inch =
2,000 feet.
Let’s Practice!
map’s scale is 1 inch = 75 miles. The
distance between Town A and Town D is 3.5
inches. How far would one have to drive to
travel between the two?
map’s scale is 2 cm = 15 km. The distance
between Elephant City and Giraffe National
Park is 8.75 cm. What is the actual distance
between these two locations?
According to
The Mission of the USGS is that it “serves the Nation by providing reliable
scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize
loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water,
biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect
our quality of life.”
The Vision of the USGS is that it “has become a world leader in the
natural sciences thanks to our scientific excellence and responsiveness
to society's needs.”
This governmental department supports the study of: Biology, Geology,
Geography, Water, and Geospatial Data.
Let’s Practice!
Go to: Find the box titled
“Science Topics.” Choose three of the topics
1. Write the name of the topic.
2. Browse the topic and write down three
types of data that the USGS provides for
3. Click on the “Education” tab. Name 1
resources that is available to secondary
Maps provide us with a view of our world that is different
than the one we see every day.
They condense features down into a manageable size. How
much easier is it to imagine yourself hiking into the Grand
Canyon when you look at a map than when you look at
this image?
Different perspectives can
be gained through use of
both topographic and
aerial ‘views.’
Compare and contrast Image A with Image B:
1) What do you think the image shows?
2) What type of image might each be? (Hint:
None are still photos).
Image B
Image A
(Image sources given in notes.)
(1) The entire geographic region supplying water
to a drainage basin, river, or lake.
(2) An area of land that drains naturally into a
stream or other waterway.
(3) Water usage issues affect:
Daily lives & associated
Agriculture production
Image of Central Valley Watershed Monitoring
Stations taken from:
Let’s Practice!
Go to Type: Fresno AND “freshwater
sources” into the search. What
are two sources of freshwater?
2) Look at this image. The white
region is the snow-covered
Sierra Nevada Mountains. The
green is the Central Valley. The
blue is…?
3) The brown on the right is the
eastern edge of California and
western Nevada. Why do you
think the Central Valley remains
green while this area is brown?
(Remember: they both have
Image taken from:
snowy mountains nearby.).
eXtra credit!
You have been given a copy of this map.
Color each country.
 it’s name,
 the predominant language spoken there,
 one of its geographic features.
Use The CIA World Factbook as your primary
Image taken from:
You are almost done!
Go exploring this awesome website… Image taken from:
► To
increase or decrease the detail of a portion of a
geographic data set
► This is a feature of online maps.
► Many times the mouse looks like a magnifying
glass when you have an option to ‘Zoom.’
The following resources have been instrumental in the creation of this presentation
Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). The world factbook. Retrieved on
December 2, 2009, from publications/theworld-factbook/.
Enchanted learning. (2009). World geography. Retrieved on November
29, 2009, from
Ordinance Survey. (2009). Ordinance survey glossary. Retrieved on
November 30, 2009, from
U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). Our mission and vision. Retrieved on
November 25, 2009, from

Maps from A to Z: A Guide for the Novice