Authoring Languages and Web
Authoring Software
4.01 Examine web page development and design.
Authoring Languages
 Used to control the appearance and
functionality of web pages when displayed in
a browser
 Examples include:
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HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
XHTML (eXtensible HTML)
Java Applets
HTML
HyperText Markup Language
 First and still primary
language for developing
web pages/sites
 Uses codes, or tags, to
instruct the browser how to
display text and images
 Treats all data the same—
for display only
Example of HTML code
<html>
<title>Student Website</title>
<b>Welcome to my website!</b>
</html>
XML
eXtensible Markup Language
 Describes data types to
facilitate data processing
 Designed to carry data, not
to display it
 Uses author-defined tags to
identify each data entry so that
the data can be easily imported
into other applications
 Metadata—data about data
Example of XML code
<weather>
<city>Atlanta</city>
<state>Georgia</state>
<temp>75</temp>
</weather>
XHTML
eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
 Combination of HTML and XML
 Allows designer to mix HTML and XML so that browsers can
display and manage data correctly
 Aimed to replace HTML as dominant authoring language
 Places restrictions on HTML tags so that code is cleaner and
can display data as author intended
 Requires all HTML tag sets be closed
 Requires lowercase tags
 Many devices can’t interpret bad HTML code (mobile phones,
PDAs)
Java Applets
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Short programs written in Java code
Added to basic HTML and XHTML
Add multimedia, animation, gaming, and
other interactive elements to add interest
to the page
http://java.sun.com/applets/
Presentation and Scripting
Languages
 CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
 JavaScript
<html>
<head>
CSS
Cascading Style Sheets
 Separates content from
appearance and gives
web authors more control
over layout and page
format
 CSS code instructs the
Web browser how to
format each item.
<style type="text/css">
h1 {color: #00ff00}
h2 {color: #dda0dd}
p {color: rgb(0,0,255)}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is header 1</h1>
<h2>This is header 2</h2>
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
</body>
</html>
Pros and Cons of CSS
Advantages
 One style sheet can control
the formatting for multiple
web pages. An entire web
site can be reformatted by
editing one CSS file.
 Styles can also be set
internally. The CSS is in
the header of the html
document.
Disadvantage
 May alter the ability of some
devices to accurately read
and display information.
JavaScript
 An object based scripting  JavaScript example displays this
language that allows
dialog box in the browser
creation and execution
window:
procedures within a web
page
<html>
 Does not require plug-ins
(additional programs for
the user to install)
 Widely supported by most
browsers
<head>
<title>JavaScript Example</title>
<script type="text/JavaScript">
var foo="Greetings, visitor!"alert(foo);
</script>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>
Web Authoring Software
There are several web authoring software
solutions available for authoring and
managing web sites. Two major solutions
are Microsoft Expression Web2 and Adobe
Dreamweaver CS4.
Web site hosts also provide proprietary web
software authoring solutions for managing
their sites.
Web Authoring Software
 Microsoft Expression Web2 (replaces Microsoft
FrontPage)
http://www.microsoft.com/expression/products/
Overview.aspx?key=web
 Adobe Dreamweaver CS4
http://www.adobe.com/products/dreamweaver/
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