4.01B Authoring Languages and Web
Authoring Software
4.01 Examine webpage development and design.
Authoring Languages
 Used to control the appearance and
functionality of webpages when displayed in
a browser
 Examples include:
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HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
XHTML (eXtensible HTML)
HTML 5
HTML
HyperText Markup Language
 First and still primary
language for developing
webpages/sites.
 Uses codes, or tags, to
instruct the browser how to
display text and images.
 Is platform independent.
Example of HTML code
<html>
<title>Student Website</title>
<b>Welcome to my website!</b>
</html>
XML
eXtensible Markup Language
 Describes data types to
facilitate data processing
 Designed to carry data, not
to display it
 Allows the author to define tags
to identify each data entry so
that the data can be easily
imported into other applications
 Metadata—data about data
Example of XML code
<weather>
<city>Atlanta</city>
<state>Georgia</state>
<temp>75</temp>
</weather>
XHTML
eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
 Combination of HTML and XML
 Allows the designer to mix HTML and XML so that browsers can
display and manage data correctly
 Originally intended to replace HTML as dominant authoring
language
 Places restrictions on HTML tags so that code is cleaner and
can display data as the author intended
 Requires all HTML tag sets be closed
 Requires lowercase tags
 Many devices can’t interpret bad HTML code (mobile phones,
PDAs)
HTML 5
 The latest revision of HTML.
 It has been adopted by the W3C as the next
HTML standard.
 It merges some of the features of HTML and
XHTML.
 It is still being developed.
Website Enhancement Tools
 Style Sheets
 Describe how browsers should present or display
information on a webpage.
 Give web developers more control over layout
and page formatting.
 Scripting Languages
 Lightweight programming languages used to
create interactive webpages.
 Applets
 Short programs written in Java code that can be
embedded into webpages.
<html>
<head>
CSS
Cascading Style Sheets
 Separates content from
appearance and gives
web authors more control
over layout and page
format
 CSS code instructs the
Web browser how to
format each item.
<style type="text/css">
h1 {color: #00ff00}
h2 {color: #dda0dd}
p {color: rgb(0,0,255)}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is header 1</h1>
<h2>This is header 2</h2>
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
</body>
</html>
Pros and Cons of CSS
Advantages
 One style sheet can
control the formatting for
multiple webpages.
 An entire website can be
reformatted by editing one
CSS file.
 Styles can also be set
internally. The CSS code
is keyed in the header
section of the html
document.
Disadvantages
 May alter the ability of
some devices to
accurately read and
display information.
 Not all browsers
recognize style sheets,
especially older
versions of browsers.
 Many browsers do not
recognize all the styles
in CSS.
JavaScript
 An object based
scripting language that
allows creation and
execution of
procedures within a
webpage.
 Does not require plugins (additional
programs for the user
to install).
 Widely supported by
most browsers.
 The JavaScript below
displays this dialog box
in the browser window:
<html>
<head>
<title>JavaScript Example</title>
<script type="text/JavaScript">
var foo="Greetings,
visitor!"alert(foo);
</script>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>
Java Applets
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Short programs written in Java code
Added to basic HTML and XHTML
Used to add multimedia, animation,
gaming, and other interactive elements
to webpages to make them more
interesting.
http://java.sun.com/applets/
Web Authoring Software
 There are several web authoring software solutions available for
authoring and managing websites.
 Text Editors – allow developers to write code in plain text.
 Examples: Notepad and Wordpad
 Web Editors - provides a graphical user interface with menus
containing commands to make webpage creation easier for
developers. Examples include:
 Adobe’s Dreamweaver
 Microsoft’s Expression Web
 Kompozer – open source software
 Seamonkey – open source software
 Website hosts also provide proprietary web software authoring
solutions for managing pages stored on their sites.
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Web Site Development Competency 8 Create a multimedia …