Ancient China and India
Mr. Stikes
SSWH2 The student will identify the major
achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from
1100 BCE to 500 CE.
a. Describe the development of Indian civilization; include
the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, the “Golden Age”
under Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka.
b. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and
Buddhism on India and subsequent diffusion of
Buddhism.
c. Describe the development of Chinese civilization under
the Zhou and Qin.
d. Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture;
include the examination system, the Mandate of Heaven,
the status of peasants, the status of merchants, and the
patriarchal family, and explain diffusion to Southeast
Asia, Japan, and Korea.
e. Explain how the geography of the Indian Subcontinent
contributed to the movement of people and ideas.
WHO?
Who?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Harappans
Aryans
Gupta
Shang
Zhou
Qin
WHERE?
China and India
CHINA
Mesopotamia
Egypt
You are here
INDIA
WHEN?
When?
• 1100 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.
Geography and India
PURPOSE OF SECTION:
• Explain how the geography of the Indian
Subcontinent contributed to the movement
of people and ideas.
Early India & Geography
• Early Indian civilizations developed in the
Indus River valley
• India is separated from the
rest of Asia by two major
mountain ranges
– Himalayas
– Hindu Kush
Indian subcontinent
• Invaders can only enter
the Indian subcontinent
over water or through a
small number of
mountain passes
Khyber Pass
Indian subcontinent
•The most well-known
mountain pass is the
Khyber Pass.
Early India & Geography
• Plains stretch south from the mountains
• There are three major rivers on these
plains
Brahmaputra
River
– Indus
– Ganges
– Brahmaputra
Indus
River
Ganges
River
Early India & Geography
• Two seasonal winds
called monsoons
affect the climate
– Winter or Northeast
(November to March)
• Brings dry air from
mountains
– Summer or Southwest
(June to September)
• Brings wet air from the
ocean
Development of Ancient India
PURPOSE OF SECTION:
• Describe the development of Indian
civilization; include the rise and fall of the
Maurya Empire, the “Golden Age” under
Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka.
Harappan Civilization
• We have named the
first major civilization
of India the
Harappan
civilization, after one
of it’s major cities
• The Harappan
civilization reached
its zenith about 2500
B.C.E.
Harappan Civilization
• The most important
advancement of the
Harappan people was
the development of
planned cities
– Cities were laid out in a
grid pattern
Excavations of Mohenjo-Daro
Aryan Civilization
• Beginning in
1500 B.C.E., a
group of
peoples called
Aryans
invaded the
Indus River
valley
ARYANS
Aryan Civilization
• The Aryans originated from the area north
of the Black and Caspian Seas
• The Aryans entered India through the
Khyber Pass
Aryan Civilization
• Nomadic at first, settled down into
agriculture in Indus Valley
• Each tribe led by a rajah (chief)
• Importance of cattle
– Served as basis of diet, eventually used as
money
Aryan India
• Spoke the Sanskrit language
• Wrote the Vedas
– Means “Books of Knowledge”
– Formed the basis of the Aryan religion
– 4 Vedas:
•
•
•
•
Rig Veda
Sama Veda
Yajur Veda
Atharva Veda
Aryan Social Structure
• Called “Caste System”
– System of 4 varnas (social classes)
• Each varna had it’s own duties (called dharma)
• Eventually, varnas were subdivided into smaller
jati
• Outside the system of varnas was a group called
“Pariahs” – untouchables or outcasts
Aryan Social Structure
Varnas
Groups
outside
the
Varnas
India’s Two Epics
• These addressed the concepts of good and evil and
taught proper behavior
• Together with Vedas, form basis of early Indian
religion
• Mahabharata
– 100,000 verses
– One portion, Bhagavad Gita (“Song of the Lord”) is most
famous)
• Ramayana
– Tale of Rama, the ideal king, and his queen Sita
Mauryan Empire
(321 B.C. - 184 B.C.)
• Unified by Chandragupta Maurya
– Overthrew the king of Magaha
• Skilled administrator
• Developed efficient
postal system
Mauryan Empire
(321 B.C. - 184 B.C.)
• Ashoka, grandson
of Chandragupta,
ruled from 274
B.C. to 232 B.C.
• He built an empire
that covered 2/3 of
India
Mauryan Empire
(321 B.C. - 184 B.C.)
• In 262 B.C., after defeating the kingdom of
Kalinga, Ashoka became convinced of
non-violence and adopted Buddhism
Mauryan Empire
(321 B.C. - 184 B.C.)
• After the adoption of Buddhism, Ashoka:
– Never again went to war
– Carved his laws on rocks and placed them
throughout the kingdom
– Established free hospitals and veterinary
clinics
– Built roads with rest areas for travelers
Gupta Empire
(A.D. 310 – A.D. 415)
• Built by Chandragupta I
– no relation to Chandragupta Maurya
• Called the “Golden Age” of India
– Built many Hindu temples
• Reached height under Chandragupta II
(A.D. 375 – 415)
Gupta Empire (A.D. 310 – A.D. 415)
• Achievements:
– Folktales & Drama:
• Panchantantra – folktales to teach moral lessons through stories of
animals
• Kalidasa, famous playwright – wrote Shakuntala – about the love
between a king and forest maiden
– Mathematics:
• Developed principles leading to algebra
• Invented concepts of infinity and zero
• Devised symbols for 1-9 (“Arabic Numerals”)
– Astronomy:
• Realized earth is round
– Trade:
• Land and sea trade
– Arabia – gems, spices, cotton, teak and ebony
– China – silk
– Rome – gold
Hinduism and Buddhism
PURPOSE OF SECTION:
• Explain the development and impact of
Hinduism and Buddhism on India and
subsequent diffusion of Buddhism.
Hinduism
• National religion of India
\
• Based on variety of beliefs and practices
• Is henotheistic: recognize existence of
many gods but believe in only one
supreme god
Hinduism
• God: Brahman – all of the universe is one
entity
• Three most important facets/aspects of
Brahman:
– Brahma – Creator
• Continues to create new creations
– Vishnu – Preserver
• Preserves new creation, sometimes by traveling to
earth if necessary
– Siva – Destroyer
• Can be compassionate or destructive
Hinduism
• Belief in reincarnation (or transmigration of
the soul)
– The soul is reborn into another body after death
– Karma determines where you are born
• Karma- the accumulation of good or bad deeds
• Therefore your actions determine your station in life
Hinduism (Reincarnation, cont.)
– One can be born into a higher caste or lower
caste
– Eventually, one can escape the cycle and
reach enlightenment
• Called moksha
• Prayer, rituals, self-denial and rejection of worldly
possessions can help achieve this
Hinduism
• Belief in dharma
– Dharma: duties you are expected to perform,
the ethical way in which you are supposed to
behave
• Belief in ahimsa: nonviolence towards all
living things
Hindu Symbols
\
• Aum (or Om)
– Represents Brahman,
everything that is absolute in
the universe
• Swastika
– Represents everything that is
good in the world
– Means “it is well” or “may
good prevail”
• Color: Saffron (Represents fire from Brahman)
Buddhism
• Founded by Siddhartha Gautama
– Called Buddha
– Means “Enlightened One”
– Legend:
• Born into luxury, became shocked when he drove
around in his chariot and saw poverty and sickness
• Left wife and newborn son to wander around India
at age 29
• Lived as hermit for 7 years until finally finding
enlightenment
Buddhism
• Related to Hinduism
– Shares belief of:
• Karma
– (accumulation of good or bad deeds)
• Dharma
– (but in this case is the teachings of Buddha telling you
how to act/live)
• Reincarnation
– (rebirth)
– Differs: Rejection of caste system
Buddhism
•
Teachings:
– Four Noble Truths:
1. The truth of suffering (dukkha)
•
All people suffer and know sadness and sorrow
2. The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya)
•
People suffer because of their material desires
3. The truth of the end of suffering (nirhodha)
•
Suffering could end by elimination desires
4. The truth of the path that frees us from suffering
(magga)
•
By following the Eightfold Path one could eliminate desires
Buddhism
•
Eightfold Path
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Know truth
Resist evil
Say nothing to hurt others
Respect life
Work for the good of others
Free your mind from evil
Control your thoughts
Practice meditation
Buddhism
• Purpose: To reach nirvana (enlightenment)
• More philosophy than religion, but can be
considered both or either
• The Middle Way is important
– Away from extremes
– Moderation
Eight Auspicious Symbols of
Buddhism
Right-coiled
White Conch
Precious
Umbrella
Dharma
Wheel
Auspicious
Drawing
Victory
Banner
Lotus
Flower
Golden
Fish
Vase of
Treasure
Color Symbolism in Buddhism
•
•
•
•
•
•
Blue = coolness, infinity
Black = hate, primordial darkness
White = knowledge, purity
Red = sacred blood, life
Green = balance, harmony
Yellow = earth, renunciation
Diffusion of Buddhism
• The first “great missionary faith”
• Spread into Afghanistan by A.D. 1
• Spread into China during mid 1st century
A.D.
• Reached Japan and Korea by A.D. 500
Diffusion of Buddhism
• Ashoka was the first ruler to send out Buddhist
missions to convert other nations, helping the religion
spread
Diffusion of Buddhism
Diffusion of Buddhism
• In some places, Buddhism merged with
local traditions
– Examples:
• Zen Buddhism in Japan
• Pure Land and Chan Buddhism in China
• Buddhism in Vietnam
Buddhism Throughout Asia
Japan
Buddhism Throughout Asia
China
Buddhism
Throughout
Asia
Vietnam
Buddhism Throughout Asia
Thailand
Afghanistan
Ancient China
PURPOSE OF SECTION:
• Describe the development of Chinese
civilization under the Zhou and Qin.
Ancient China
• Early societies in China developed along
the Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow River)
– It is the 3rd longest river in the world
– People lived here for 27,000 years
Shang China
(1700 B.C. – 1100 B.C.)
• The Shang was the first Chinese dynasty
• Agrarian
– Did not use plows
– Only used wooden and stone tools
• First Chinese dynasty with written
language
• Used oracle bones
Oracle Bones
• Sometimes called dragon bones
• Used to predict the future
– Process:
• A question was written on the bone.
• The bone was fired and a T shaped crack
appeared
• The crack was interpreted
• The interpretation was then written on the bone.
• After the predicted event occurred, the date of the
occurrence was also written on the bone.
Oracle Bone
Shang Religion
• The Shang religion had two main components:
– Worship of Shang Ti
• Supreme god who ruled over lesser gods and the forces
of the earth (rain, wind, sun)
– Ancestor Worship
• One act of worship was human sacrifice
– When a king died, often hundreds of servants would
be sacrificed with him
– For less important events, like the opening of a
temple, smaller numbers would be sacrificed
Shang China
(1700 B.C. – 1100 B.C.)
• Shang capital
was at
Zhengzhou
– It had walls 30
feet high, 65 feet
wide and over 4
miles long!
Zhou China
(1100 B.C. – 250 B.C.)
• Nomadic tribe that defeated the Shang
dynasty
• Established the idea of the “Mandate of
Heaven” to validate their rule
– Mandate of Heaven: Authority granted by
heaven to deserving rulers
Zhou China
(1100 B.C. – 250 B.C.)
• Feudal system of government
– Land given to vassals
• Cities divided into two parts:
– One for Zhou citizens
– One for Shang persons
Zhou China
(1100 B.C. – 250 B.C.)
• Map of Zhou China at it’s greatest extent
“Warring States Period”
(475 B.C. – 221 B.C.)
• The last portion of the Zhou dynasty is
called the Warring States Period
– This is because many large states in China
were fighting to control the whole empire
“Warring States Period”
(475 B.C. – 221 B.C.)
• The Warring States Period is considered
the Golden Age of Chinese Philosophy
– Confucianism was developed
during this time
– Taoism was developed during this time
– Legalism was developed during this time
Confucianism
• Founded by Kongfuzi (551-479 B.C.)
– (anglicized as Confucius)
• Taught that social harmony and good
government would return to China if
people lived ethically
• Writings were collected and called the
Analects
Taoism
• Based on teachings of Laozi
– Called Tao Te Ching
• Emphasizes harmony of individual with
nature
– The “tao” – universal force that guides all
things
Legalism
• Developed from Hanfeizi
• Humans are evil by nature and need a
strict law
• Used to support strict laws and harsh
punishments
Taoism v. Confucius/Legalism
• Confucianism/Taoism • Legalism
Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)
• China was unified by Qin Shihuangdi
– Name means “First Emperor”
• Utilized cavalry to conquer their enemies
• Divided his empire into 36 military districts
– Each had a civil governor, a military
commander, and an imperial inspector
– Each was subdivided into counties
Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)
• Legalist form of government
• Qin Shihuangdi destroyed the power of the
nobles
– All nobility were removed from their positions
and sent to live in the capital
– This prevented local leaders from becoming
strong enough to challenge the Emperor
Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)
• 213 B.C. - Afraid of rebellion from the
literate, Qin Shihuangdi burned thousands
of books relating to philosophy and
government
• Peasants hated Qin Shihuangdi for his
forced-labor gangs which constructed
immense public works
End of Qin China
• Qin Shihuangdi died in 210 B.C. and was
succeeded by his son
– Son was weak leader
– Hatred for Qin boiled over into rebellion in 206
B.C.
Qin China
• The greatest extent of Qin territory
Achievements of the Qin
• Standardized the Chinese language
• Standardized system of measurements
and currency
• Set up a unified law code for China
• We get the modern day name for China
from the Qin
Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)
• Famous for the Terra Cotta Army
Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)
• Connected walls built
along the northern
border of China to form
the Great Wall
– It stretched 4,000 miles
Confucianism
PURPOSE OF SECTION:
• Explain the impact of Confucianism on
Chinese culture; include the examination
system, the Mandate of Heaven, the
status of peasants, the status of
merchants, and the patriarchal family, and
explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan,
and Korea.
Confucianism
• Founded by Kongfuzi (551-479 B.C.)
– (anglicized as Confucius)
• Taught that social harmony and good
government would return to China if
people lived ethically
• Writings were collected and called the
Analects
Confucianism
• Stressed the importance of five relationships:
– Ruler & subject
– Parent & child
• Filial piety: children respecting their parents
– Husband & wife
– Old & young
– Friend & friend
Confucianism & Government
• Confucius taught that teaching ethics to
people would allow them police each other
• Confucius believed in a meritocracy
– That means that jobs are given to the most
qualified, not just to those of noble birth
Examination System
• System for developing the Chinese
bureaucracy
– The most qualified candidates would be hired
– This would be determined by written
examinations in Confucian writings and
teachings
– Eventually, almost all people in China could
take these exams and work for the
government
• Why was it beneficial to work for the
government?
Mandate of Heaven
• Authority granted by heaven to deserving
rulers
– If rulers were just and fair, heaven would not
allow them to be overthrown
– If rulers were immoral, they would be
overthrown
• What consequences does this have?
Social Classes in Chinese Society
• Landowners
• Peasants
• Merchants
Status of Landowners
in Chinese culture
• Wealthy
• Powerful – formed first bureaucracies
Status of Peasants
in Chinese culture
• ≈ 90% of all the people
• Most lived in villages and walked to fields
surrounding their villages
• Paid taxes of produce and livestock and had to
work one month a year on public works projects
(roads, walls, etc.)
• Could be drafted into the army
Status of Merchants
in Chinese culture
• Includes: shopkeepers, traders, & bankers
• Generally not allowed to take civil service
examinations
• Confucianism said pursuit of profit = bad
Patriarchal Family
• Family members were not equals
• Top – oldest male (father), followed by males in
chronological order, then females
• Role of the Father
– Determined education, career and marriages for his
children
– Controlled finances
– Rewarded or punished as he saw fit
• Structured, each member had specific duties
Descargar

Ancient China and India - Mr. Stikes' Virtual Classroom