Chapter Two
Culture
Society, The Basics
10th Edition
John J. Macionis
What is Culture?
Culture – the ways of thinking, the ways of
acting, and the material objects that
together form a people’s way of life
Only humans rely on
culture rather than
instinct to ensure
survival.
What is Culture?
Nonmaterial culture
– ideas created by
members of a
society.
Material culture –
tangible things
created by
members of a
society.
What is Culture?
Society refers to people
who interact in a
defined territory and
share culture.
Culture shock refers to
personal disorientation
when experiencing an
unfamiliar way of life.
How Many Cultures?
•
•
•
•
One indication of culture is language
Global estimates document 7,000 languages
In the USA, there are about 200 languages
Upcoming decades will show the
disappearance of hundreds of languages
The Elements of Culture
Although cultures vary, they all have five common
components:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Symbols
Language
Values and Beliefs
Norms
Ideal and Real
Culture
Elements of Culture
Symbols
 Symbols – anything that carries a
particular meaning recognized by
people who share culture.
Elements of Culture
Symbols
 Symbols – collective creations
General Marketing
• Aimed at a total
population
Segmented (section)
Marketing
• Aimed at a
specific
population
Elements of Culture
Language
Language – a system of symbols that
allows people to communicate with one
another.
Language allows for the continuity of
culture.
BBC
Elements of Culture
Language
 Cultural
transmission
(Oral traditions)
– the process by
which one
generation passes
culture to the next.
 Every society
transmits culture
through speech.
The Sapir-Whorf Thesis
Languages are not just
different sets of labels for
the same reality.
All languages fuse symbols
with distinctive emotions.
The Sapir-Whorf Thesis –
people perceive the world
through the cultural lens of
language.
Don’t write
For example, Margaret Mead pointed out that
some of the South Pacific people whom she
studied did not have a word for "war" in their
vocabularies. Interestingly, these people did not
participate in war. So, the hypothesis is that we
must be able to think of some phenomenon
before we can name it or experience it.
Elements of Culture
Values and Beliefs
Values – culturally defined standards by which
people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty
and that serve as broad guidelines for social
living.
Values are abstract standards of goodness.
Don’t write
If someone values hard work, that someone will
go out of their way to shower a hard worker with
praise, bonuses and other benefits. If someone
values honesty, they avoid lying and reward
honesty from those in their lives.
Elements of Culture
Values and Beliefs
Beliefs – specific
statements that
people hold to be
true.
Beliefs are
particular
matters that
individuals
consider true or
false.
Elements of Culture
Societies show significant cultural
variations in their favorite sports.
Canada: Ice Hockey
Jamaica: Cricket
Thailand: Kite flying
China: tai chi chuan
Key Values of United States Culture
Robin M. Williams, Jr.
 Equal Opportunity
 Achievement and
Success
 Material Comfort
 Activity and Work
 Practicality and
Efficiency
Key Values of United States Culture
Robin M. Williams, Jr.
 Progress
 Science
 Democracy and
Free Enterprise
 Freedom
 Racism and Group
Superiority
Elements of Culture
Norms
o Norms – rules and
expectations by which a
society guides the
behavior of its members.
o Most important norms in
a culture apply
everywhere and at all
times.
Elements of Culture
Norms
Mores – norms that are widely
observed and have great moral
significance. (Ex. Rape)
Folkways –
norms for
routine, casual
interaction.
(Eating Big
Macs, using
Deodorant)
Elements of Culture
Norms
Mores
Societal taboos such as:



(Right vs. wrong)
Murder
Treason
Child sexual abuse
Inspire intense
reactions
Punishment
inevitably follows
Elements of Culture
Norms
Folkways (polite vs. rude) –
 People chew quietly with mouths closed
 Accepting one’s place in line
 People avoid facing each other in elevators
No written rules
No one physically
harmed
Technology & Culture
Material culture also reflects a society’s
technology – knowledge that people use
to make a way of life in their surroundings.
Sociocultural
evolution
Technology and Culture





hunting and gathering
societies
horticultural & pastoralism
agriculture
industry
postindustrial information
technology
Cultural Diversity
Cultural diversity can
involve social class.
Many cultural
patterns are readily
accessible to only
some members of a
society.
Cultural Diversity
High culture – cultural
patterns that distinguish
a society’s elite
Popular culture –
cultural patterns
that are
widespread among
a population.
Subcultures
Subculture – cultural patterns that set apart
some segment of society’s population. (Ex:
Amish and Mormons)
Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism – an educational
program recognizing the cultural
diversity of the United States and
promoting the equality of all cultural
traditions.
Multiculturalism
Afrocentrism – the
dominance of
African cultural
patterns.
Eurocentrism – the
dominance of
European cultural
patterns.
Counterculture
Counterculture
– cultural
patterns that
rejects and
opposes those
widely accepted
within a society.
Examples:
• Hippies of the
60’s
• Street Gangs
• Hare Krishna
• Extreme rightwing religious
groups
Cultural Change
• Cultural integration
– the close
relationships among
various elements of a
cultural system.
• Some elements of
culture change
faster than others –
cultural lag.
Cultural Change
Cultural integration
• Examples:
Women in the workforce
• Later first marriages
• Change in family patterns
• Increased use of day care
Cultural Change
Cultural lag
• Examples:
Contraception
• Increased availability
• Use by adolescents
Medical Advances
• Little or no ability to provide higher
quality of life
Cultural Change
Cultural changes
• New cultural elements
– Cell phones
– Blackberry
– iPhones
• Diffusion
– Spread of objects from
one society to another
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
Ethnocentrism – the
practice of judging
another culture by
the standards of
one’s own culture.
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
Cultural Relativism
– the practice of
evaluating a
culture by that
culture’s own
standards.
Cultural Universals
A Global Culture
Global economy: the flow of goods
Global communication: the flow of
information
Global migration: the flow of people
Theoretical Analysis of Culture
The structural–functional paradigm
depicts culture as a complex strategy
for meeting human needs.
The social–conflict paradigm
suggests that many cultural traits
function to the advantage of some and
the disadvantage of others.
Sociobiology explores ways in which
human biology affects how we create
culture.
Descargar

Chapter Two Culture