CHAPTER 4
SOCIETY
People
who interact in a defined
territory
 And share a culture
Society & Culture-> Interdependent
Society
What is Culture?
Ways
of thinking and
acting
Material
That
objects
form a way of life
Culture
Culture: Two Categories
1. Material Culture
Physical things created by
members of society
2. Non-Material (Symbolic)Culture
Ideas
created by members of
society
Material Culture
Physical objects people create and
give meaning
 Examples:
 Homes
 School
buildings
 Churches, synagogues, temples, mosques
 Cell phones
 Clothes
 Cars
 Computers
 Books
Material Culture:
Material Culture
Non-Material Culture
Common
elements:
Symbols
Language
Values
Norms
Non-material Culture
Rules of Etiquette for Eating: Japan
Non-material Culture
Rules of etiquette for eating U.S.
Non-material Culture: Music
http://www.youtube.com/user/beyonce
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tJYN-eG1zk
Symbols
Meaning
recognized by
people who share a culture
Humans
create meaning
Symbols
Non-material / Symbolic Culture
We communicate through:
 Signs
 Gestures
 Language
Signs
Gestures
Language
System
of symbols:
People
communicate
Language:
 Key
to accumulating knowledge
Cultural
Passing
next
Transmission
culture one generation to the
Human Languages: A Variety of Symbols
Here the single English word “Read” is written in twelve of the hundreds of
languages.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
The
way people think is strongly
affected by their native languages.
Controversial
theory by linguist
Edward Sapir and his student
Benjamin Whorf
Does language shape reality?
See
and understand world
through language
Cannot
think without language
Language
connects symbols
with emotions
Does language determine thought?
Chinese, only a single term luotuo( 骆驼)
 In English the word is camel.
 In Arabic, there are more than 400 words for
the animal.
 In
 Eskimo
language has many words involving
snow. For example:
 apun=
“snow on the ground”,
 qanikca= “hard snow on the ground”,
 utak= “block of snow”
Language & Reality
In
English, time & objects counted &
talked about in same way
Time is objectified
In
Hopi, concept of time as
“becoming later”,
Not a physical quantity that you can
“have”
Language and Reality
Language & Reality
English—a
world of things
Time as commodity
Hopi—a
world of events
Language & Reality
 http://vimeo.com/42744105
 ***

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lS1Dno_d2yA
How Many Cultures?
One

indication is language
7,000 languages
Words Past and Present
40s Slang
 Take a powder
 Fuddy-duddy
 Gobbledygook
 Eager beaver
 Flip your wig
 Lettuce
 Pass the buck
60s & 70s Slang
 Skinny
 Can you dig it?
 Spaz
 Far out
 Chill
 Bread
 A gas
 Bug out
Language and Emotions
Language
influences human
emotional experiences
Words
such as anger or sadness
Cultural
artifacts of English
language
Connecting symbols with
Emotions
Values and Beliefs
Values
Culturally
defined standards
What is desirable, good, and
beautiful
Broad guidelines for social living
Beliefs
Statements
accepted as true
American Values
Key Values of U.S. Culture
Robin
Williams Jr. (1970)
Ten values central to our way of life
1.Equal Opportunity
Not equality of condition but equality
of opportunity
2.Individual Achievement & Personal
Success
3.Material Comfort
4. Activity and Work
Our heroes are “doers”
5. Practicality and Efficiency
 Practical over the theoretical
6. Progress
7. Science
Expect scientists to solve problems
and improve our lives
8. Democracy and Free Enterprise
Individual rights
9. Freedom
Individual initiative over collective
conformity
10. Racism and Group Superiority
Some people in the U.S. still judge
others according to gender, race,
ethnicity, and social class
Emerging Values
Values change over time:
 Material comfort
 Personal growth
 U.S. always valued hard work
 Recently, increasing importance of
leisure
 Time off from work for:

Travel
 Family
 Community service

Norms
Rules
that guide behavior
People respond with Sanctions:
Rewards
Punishments
Encourages
conformity to cultural
norms……Norbert Elias
Laws
Norms established by an “authority”
Examples:
Speed
limits
Income Tax
Crime
Mores (“more rays”) or Taboos
Norms
widely observed
Great moral significance
Religious dietary restrictions
Polygamy
Pedophilia
Incest
Cannibalism
Folkways
Norms
for routine or casual
interaction
Correct
manners
Appropriate dress
Proper eating behavior
Sanctions
Shame
Painful
sense that others disapprove
Guilt
Negative
ourselves
judgment we make about
Ethnocentrism
People use their culture as standard
to evaluate another group or
individual
Viewing other cultures as abnormal
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-QJ7ZrL9Y4g
Cultural Relativism
Understanding other cultures
on their terms

Researchers: Use cultural
relativism
Objectivity

High Culture & Popular Culture
High
Culture
Cultural patterns of society’s elite
Popular
Cultural
Culture
patterns widespread among
a society’s population
High Culture
Popular Culture
Applying Theory: Culture
Society: The Basics, 9th Edition by John Macionis
Copyright © 2007 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
Descargar

Document