LATIN PRONOUNS
THE BASICS
• Most pronouns can also be used as adjectives
• The endings are mostly those of 1st/2nd declension adjectives like
bonus, -a, -um, but some forms are irregular. In particular, the
genitive singular has the special ending –ius and the dative
singular borrows the –ī ending from the 3rd declension. These two
endings always remain the same for all three genders
• The i in the -ius ending forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel
in eius, huius and cuius, which are thus pronounced EIY-us, HUIYus and CUIY-us. In other pronouns the –i is long and takes the
stress –e.g. illīus, normally pronounced il-LI-us
• These special `pronominal’ endings for dative and genitive are also
used by nine adjectives that otherwise normally follow the regular –
us, -a, -um/ -er, -ra, -rum pattern: ūnus (one), nūllus (none), ūllus
(any), sōlus (alone), neuter (neither) alius (neut. nom, acc. sing.
aliud) (other), uter (which of two), tōtus (whole), alter (the other of
two)
is, ea, id (singular)
• Can be translated `this’ or `that’ but often
just the equivalent of `him’, `her’, `his’,
`them’ etc.
• The nominative does not need to be used
very often because the meaning `he’, `she’,
`they’ etc, is contained within an ordinary
verb. Compare:
– Canis eum spectat (The dog looks at him)
– Canem spectat (He looks at the dog)
is (singular)
Masc
Nominative is
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ea
id
is (singular)
Masc
Nominative is
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ea
id
eius
is (singular)
Masc
Nominative is
Fem
Neut
ea
id
Genitive
eius
Dative
eī
Accusative
Ablative
is (singular)
Masc
Nominative is
Fem
Neut
ea
id
Genitive
eius
Dative
eī
Accusative eum
Ablative
eam
id
is (singular)
Masc
Nominative is
Fem
Neut
ea
id
Genitive
eius
Dative
eī
Accusative eum
Ablative
eō
eam
id
eā
eō
is (plural)
Masc
Nominative eī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eae
ea
is (plural)
Masc
Nominative eī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
eōrum
Fem
Neut
eae
ea
eārum
eōrum
is (plural)
Masc
Nominative eī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
eōrum
Fem
Neut
eae
ea
eārum
eōrum
eīs
is (plural)
Masc
Nominative eī
Genitive
eōrum
Fem
Neut
eae
ea
eārum
eōrum
eīs
Dative
Accusative eōs
Ablative
eās
ea
is (plural)
Masc
Nominative eī
Genitive
eōrum
Fem
Neut
eae
ea
eārum
eōrum
eīs
Dative
Accusative eōs
Ablative
eās
ea
eīs
īdem, eadem, idem
• A compound of is/ea/id and the suffix `dem’
meaning `the same’.
• An `m’ before the suffix becomes `n’
– *eumdem > eundem
– *eōrumdem > eōrundem
• Notice the slightly irregular forms of
nominative singular masculine and neuter
– *isdem > īdem (long vowel)
– *iddem > idem (short vowel)
īdem (singular)
Masc
Nominative īdem
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eadem
idem
īdem (singular)
Masc
Nominative īdem
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eadem
idem
eiusdem
īdem (singular)
Masc
Nominative īdem
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eadem
idem
eiusdem
eīdem
īdem (singular)
Masc
Nominative īdem
Genitive
Dative
Accusative eundem
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eadem
idem
eiusdem
eīdem
eandem
idem
īdem (singular)
Masc
Nominative īdem
Genitive
Neut
eadem
idem
eiusdem
eīdem
Dative
Accusative eundem
Ablative
Fem
eōdem
eandem
idem
eādem
eōdem
īdem (plural)
Masc
Nominative eīdem
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eaedem
eadem
īdem (plural)
Masc
Nominative eīdem
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
eōrundem
Fem
Neut
eaedem
eadem
eārundem
eōrundem
īdem (plural)
Masc
Nominative eīdem
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
eōrundem
Fem
Neut
eaedem
eadem
eārundem
eōrundem
eīsdem
īdem (plural)
Masc
Nominative eīdem
Genitive
eōrundem
Dative
Accusative eōsdem
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eaedem
eadem
eārundem
eōrundem
eīsdem
eāsdem
eadem
īdem (plural)
Masc
Nominative eīdem
Genitive
eōrundem
Dative
Accusative eōsdem
Ablative
Fem
Neut
eaedem
eadem
eārundem
eōrundem
eīsdem
eāsdem
eīsdem
eadem
hic, haec, hoc
• The basic meaning is `this/these’ but it is also
used to mean `the latter’ (contrasting with ille for
`the former’)
• The word is less irregular than it looks as most
of the case forms (apart from the usual
pronominal dative singular –i and genitve
singular –ius) are the regular 1st/2nd declension
ones plus -c (the remains of what was originally
a separate word). An m turns into n before this:
– *hamc > hanc
• The feminine nominative singular and the neuter
nominative/accusative plural are identical - haec
hic (singular)
Masc
Nominative hic
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
haec
hoc
hic (singular)
Masc
Nominative hic
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
haec
hoc
huius
hic (singular)
Masc
Nominative hic
Fem
Neut
haec
hoc
Genitive
huius
Dative
huic
Accusative
Ablative
hic (singular)
Masc
Nominative hic
Fem
Neut
haec
hoc
Genitive
huius
Dative
huic
Accusative hunc
Ablative
hanc
hoc
hic (singular)
Masc
Nominative hic
Fem
Neut
haec
hoc
Genitive
huius
Dative
huic
Accusative hunc
Ablative
hōc
hanc
hoc
hāc
hōc
hic (plural)
Masc
Nominative hī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
hae
haec
hic (plural)
Masc
Nominative hī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
hōrum
Fem
Neut
hae
haec
hārum
hōrum
hic (plural)
Masc
Nominative hī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
hōrum
Fem
Neut
hae
haec
hārum
hōrum
hīs
hic (plural)
Masc
Nominative hī
Genitive
hōrum
Fem
Neut
hae
haec
hārum
hōrum
hīs
Dative
Accusative hōs
Ablative
hās
haec
hic (plural)
Masc
Nominative hī
Genitive
hōrum
Fem
Neut
hae
haec
hārum
hōrum
hīs
Dative
Accusative hōs
Ablative
hās
haec
hīs
ille, illa, illud (singular)
• Basic meaning is `that’, but also means `the
former’ (contrasting with hic for `the latter’)
• Endings are almost all regular, except for the
masculine and neuter singular nominative (ille,
illud) and the pronominal –īus and –ī for genitive
and dative singular
• This word is the origin for the definite article and
the words for he and she in most Romance
languages
ille (singular)
Masc
Nominative ille
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
illa
illud
ille (singular)
Masc
Nominative ille
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
illa
illud
illīus
ille (singular)
Masc
Nominative ille
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
illa
illud
illīus
illī
ille (singular)
Masc
Nominative ille
Genitive
Fem
Neut
illa
illud
illīus
illī
Dative
Accusative illum
Ablative
illam
illud
ille (singular)
Masc
Nominative ille
Fem
Neut
illa
illud
illīus
Genitive
illī
Dative
Accusative illum
Ablative
illō
illam
illud
illā
illō
ille (plural)
Masc
Nominative illī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
illae
illa
ille (plural)
Masc
Nominative illī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
illōrum
Fem
Neut
illae
illa
illārum
illōrum
ille (plural)
Masc
Nominative illī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
illōrum
Fem
Neut
illae
illa
illārum
illōrum
illīs
ille (plural)
Masc
Nominative illī
Genitive
illōrum
Fem
Neut
illae
illa
illārum
illōrum
illīs
Dative
Accusative illōs
Ablative
illās
illa
ille (plural)
Masc
Nominative illī
Genitive
illōrum
Fem
Neut
illae
illa
illārum
illōrum
illīs
Dative
Accusative illōs
Ablative
illās
illa
illīs
iste, ista, istud
• The basic meaning is `that’, in the sense of
distant from the speaker but probably near the
person being spoken to.
• It can often be translated as `that…of yours’,
with the implication that the object or person
described is worthless.
– Iste amīcus mē minimē dēlectat. (I don’t at all like that
friend of yours)
• The endings are exactly the same as those of
ille
iste (singular)
Masc
Nominative iste
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ista
istud
iste (singular)
Masc
Nominative iste
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ista
istud
istīus
iste (singular)
Masc
Nominative iste
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ista
istud
istīus
istī
iste (singular)
Masc
Nominative iste
Genitive
Dative
Accusative istum
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ista
istud
istīus
istī
istam
istud
iste (singular)
Masc
Nominative iste
Fem
Neut
ista
istud
istīus
Genitive
istī
Dative
Accusative istum
Ablative
istō
istam
istud
istā
istō
iste (plural)
Masc
Nominative istī
Genitive
istōrum
Dative
Accusative istōs
Ablative
Fem
Neut
istae
ista
istārum
istōrum
istīs
istās
istīs
ista
THE EMPHATIC PRONOUN (ipse, ipsa, ipsum)
• This pronoun (translatable as himself, herself, itself, themselves etc.)
must be carefully distinguished from the reflexive pronoun (sē, sibi
etc.) which is translated into English in exactly the same way. The
emphatic pronoun is used simply in order to emphasise another
word, NOT to show that the action done by the subject `bends back’
(the meaning of `reflexive’) to affect that subject.
– Caesar ipse Cicerōnem laudat (The action done by Caesar affects
Cicero, not Caesar)
• Caesar himself praises Cicero
– Caesar sē laudat (Caesar’s action affects Caesar, not someone else)
• Caesar praises himself
• The endings are the same as those of ille or iste, except for the
masculine nominative singular (ipse) neuter nominative and
accusative singular (ipsum) and thus identical with the regular
endings of an –us, -a, -um adjective except for the typical
pronominal endings –ius and –ī in the genitive and dative singular
respectively
ipse (singular)
Masc
Nominative ipse
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ipsa
ipsum
ipse (singular)
Masc
Nominative ipse
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ipsa
ipsum
ipsīus
ipse (singular)
Masc
Nominative ipse
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ipsa
ipsum
ipsīus
ipsī
ipse (singular)
Masc
Nominative ipse
Genitive
Dative
Accusative ipsum
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ipsa
ipsum
ipsīus
ipsī
ipsam
ipsum
ipse (singular)
Masc
Nominative ipse
Fem
Neut
ipsa
ipsum
ipsīus
Genitive
ipsī
Dative
Accusative ipsum
Ablative
ipsō
ipsam
ipsum
ipsā
ipsō
ipse (plural)
Masc
Nominative ipsī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ipsae
ipsa
ipse (plural)
Masc
Nominative ipsī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
ipsōrum
Fem
Neut
ipsae
ipsa
ipsārum
ipsōrum
ipse (plural)
Masc
Nominative ipsī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
ipsōrum
Fem
Neut
ipsae
ipsa
ipsārum
ipsōrum
ipsīs
ipse (plural)
Masc
Nominative ipsī
Genitive
ipsōrum
Dative
Accusative ipsōs
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ipsae
ipsa
ipsārum
ipsōrum
ipsīs
ipsās
ipsa
ipse (plural)
Masc
Nominative ipsī
Genitive
ipsōrum
Dative
Accusative ipsōs
Ablative
Fem
Neut
ipsae
ipsa
ipsārum
ipsōrum
ipsīs
ipsās
ipsīs
ipsa
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN (quī, quae, quod)
•
This pronoun (translatable as who, which, whose, that etc.) is used in order
to add to a sentence an additional statement about a noun. The pronoun’s
case depends on its function within its own clause, and its number and
gender upon the noun it refers to.
– Rēgīna, quae heri advēnit, nihil dīxit
– Rēgīna, quam heri vīdimus, nihil dīxit
– Rēgīnae, quibus dōna dedimus, nihil dīxērunt
•
•
The endings are virtually the same as those of hic with the c left off, except
for the neuter nominative and accusative singular (quod), the masculine
singular accusative (quem) and the alternative dative and ablative plural
(quibus). Another peculiarity is the spelling with initial c rather than q in the
genitive and dative singular (cuius, cui)
The interrogative pronoun, used in asking questions, is identical to the
relative pronoun except for the masculine and feminine nominative singular
(quis) and the neuter nominative and accusative singular (quid). The
masculine accusative singular quem is also normally used for the feminine
also. This pronoun can also be used with the meaning `anyone’ or `anything’
after sī, nisi, num and nē
– Quis pecūniam cēpit? Quid dīxistī?
– Sī quis silvam intrābit, interficiētur
•
Cuius liber est in mēnsā?
Timeō nē quis dē integritāte meā dubitet
The interrogative adjective, which has to be used in a phrase with a noun,
has exactly the same forms as the relative pronoun.
– Quī discipulus fenestram frēgit?
Quōs librōs lēgistī?
OTHER Qu- PRONOUNS
•
quīdam/quaedam/quoddam (a certain….) is used adjectivally like a stronger form of
the indefinite article (a, an) to introduce a person or thing not mentioned before. It is
formed by adding the suffix –dam to the relative pronoun and, as with
īdem/eadem/idem, a final m becomes n in front of d (e.g. *quōrumdam > quōrundam).
If used as a pronoun, the neuter nom./acc. becomes quiddam (= a certain thing)
–
–
–
•
The pronoun aliquis/aliqua/aliquid (someone, something) follows the pattern of the
interrogative pronoun except that –a (i.e. the regular ending in –us, -am –um
adjectives like bonus) is used in the feminine nominative singular and the neuter
nominative an accusative plural.
–
–
•
Aliquid bibere vīs? Do you want to drink something?
Servī aliqua ā vīllā portābant. The slaves were fetching some things from the villa.
Quisquam/quisquam/quicquam (anyone, anything), which is used in negative
sentences, is formed by adding the suffix –quam to the interrogative pronoun. The
final d in the neuter nominative/accusative singular changes to c.
–
•
Homō quīdam dēscendēbat Hierosolymā in Iericho.
Ad urbem quandam pervēnērunt.
Caesar mihi quiddam dedit.
Quemquam nōn vīdī.
I didn’t see anybody.
The indefinite pronoun quisque/quaeque/quidque (quīque/quaeque/ quodque as an
adjective), meaning each one, also follows the same pattern but has a separate form
in –ae for the nominative singular feminine. Note that the ablative singular masculine/
neuter (quōque) is distinguished by the long ō from quoque (also).
–
–
Quōque diē Saturnī convenīmus. We meet every Saturday.
Cuīque dōnum dedit.
He gave a present to each one.
OTHER Qu- PRONOUNS (concluded)
• Finally, the pronoun
quīcumque/quaecumque/quodcumque (whoever,
whatever etc.) follows the pattern of the relative
pronoun quī/quae/quod
– In quamcumque domum intraveritis, primum
dicite: Pax huic domui
In whatever house you have entered, first say `Peace
to this house!’
– Quīcumque hunc ānulum diabolicum adeptus erit,
magnam clādem patiētur. Whoever has gained
possession of this devilish ring will suffer a great
disaster.
quī (singular)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
quae
quod
quī (singular)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
quae
quod
cuius
quī (singular)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
quae
quod
cuius
cui
quī (singular)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative quem
Ablative
Fem
Neut
quae
quod
cuius
cui
quam
quod
quī (singular)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Fem
Neut
quae
quod
cuius
cui
Dative
Accusative quem
Ablative
quō
quam
quod
quā
quō
quī (plural)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Fem
Neut
quae
quae
quī (plural)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
quōrum
Fem
Neut
quae
quae
quārum
quōrum
quī (plural)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
quōrum
Fem
Neut
quae
quae
quārum
quōrum
quīs/quibus
quī (plural)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
quōrum
Fem
Neut
quae
quae
quārum
quōrum
Dative
quīs/quibus
Accusative quōs
quās
Ablative
quae
quī (plural)
Masc
Nominative quī
Genitive
quōrum
Fem
Neut
quae
quae
quārum
quōrum
Dative
quīs/quibus
Accusative quōs
quās
Ablative
quīs/quibus
quae
EGO, TŪ and SĒ
•
Whilst the English pronouns I and you are often the subject of sentences, ego and tū
are not, because their meaning is contained already in the verb endings. The Latin
pronouns are therefore generally only used in the nominative when special emphasis
is required: .
–
–
–
–
Caesarem in templō saepe videō.
Ego Caesarem in templō saepe videō
Computātrum frēgistī
Tū computātrum frēgistī
I often see Caesar in the temple
I often see Caesar in the temple
You broke the computer.
You broke the computer
•
The retroflex pronoun sē is used for referring back to the subject when the same
person or thing is both performing an action and affected by it. It has to be translated
himself, herself, itself or themselves, according to context, and must be distinguished
from ipse, which is translated in the same way but used only to emphasise another
word.
•
The genitive of these words is not used for simple possession, which is insteasd
expressed by the adjectives meus, tuus and suus
–
–
–
Quis librum meum abstulit?
Petrus servōs me emere volēbat
Maria amīcās suās invitāvit
Who took my book away?
Peter wanted to buy my slaves
Mary invited her own friends
•
All these pronouns have the ablative singular and accusative singular ending in -e,
whilst tū and sē are similar to each other throughout the singular
•
Latin has no special words for myself, yourself etc. and simply uses mē, tē etc.
–
Tē pulsāvī
I hit you
- Mē pulsāvī I hit myself
SINGULAR (I, you,
himself/herself/itself)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
I
you
himself etc.
ego
tū
-
SINGULAR (I, you,
himself/herself/itself)
I
you
himself etc.
Nominative
ego
tū
-
Genitive
meī
tuī
suī
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
SINGULAR (I, you,
himself/herself/itself)
I
you
himself etc.
Nominative
ego
tū
-
Genitive
meī
tuī
suī
Dative
mihi
tibi
sibi
Accusative
Ablative
SINGULAR (I, you,
himself/herself/itself)
I
you
himself etc.
Nominative
ego
tū
-
Genitive
meī
tuī
suī
Dative
mihi
tibi
sibi
Accusative
mē
tē
sē
Ablative
SINGULAR (I, you,
himself/herself/itself)
I
you
himself etc.
Nominative
ego
tū
-
Genitive
meī
tuī
suī
Dative
mihi
tibi
sibi
Accusative
mē
tē
sē
Ablative
mē
tē
sē
PLURAL (we, you, themselves)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
I
you
himself etc.
nōs
vōs
-
PLURAL (we, you, themselves)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
I
you
himself etc.
nōs
nostrī or
nostrum
vōs
vestrī or
vestrum
suī
PLURAL (we, you, themselves)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
I
you
himself etc.
nōs
nostrī or
nostrum
nōbīs
vōs
vestrī or
vestrum
vōbīs
suī
sibi
PLURAL (we, you, themselves)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
I
you
himself etc.
nōs
nostrī or
nostrum
nōbīs
vōs
vestrī or
vestrum
vōbīs
-
sibi
nōs
vōs
sē
suī
PLURAL (we, you, themselves)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
I
you
himself etc.
nōs
nostrī or
nostrum
nōbīs
vōs
vestrī or
vestrum
vōbīs
-
nōs
nōbīs
vōs
vōbīs
suī
sibi
sē
sē
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LATIN PRONOUNS