NATIONAL RECONCILIATION
&
TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AUDIT
BRIEF 11 of 18: KASESE
DISTRICT
BEYOND JUBA PROJECT
www.beyondjubaproject.org
2011 -2012
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Main objectives of the
NR&TJ Audit
To document community perspectives on
post-independence armed conflicts across
Uganda
To
identify and assess the outstanding
reconciliation and transitional justice needs
related to each of these conflicts

BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Methodology
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Three field teams comprising four researchers and one videographer
visit eighteen selected districts equally distributed over the Northern,
Southern, Eastern and Central regions in Uganda.
In each district, concerned Civil Society Organisations are contacted.
The teams conduct Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with four different
groups namely adult women, adult men, youth and representatives of
civil society and local government.
There are fifteen participants in each FGD and the discussions take the
whole day. FGDs are split into two parts, and follow a simple structure:
The morning is spent ‘Looking Back’, at conflicts, their causes, their
impacts, and the stakeholders involved, while the afternoon is for
“Looking Forward” at the possible justice mechanisms that could be used
to address the legacies of conflicts identified – as well as sending
messages to key persons and institutions.
In the course of each FGD, key informants are identified for further
consultation. Findings are recorded on flip charts, through near-verbatim
note taking, and on audio- and video recorders.
Preliminary Findings are presented initially in these Briefs. The final
output will be a Compendium of Conflicts in Uganda, supported by video
documentation.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Focus Group Discussion Guide
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
PART 1: LOOKING BACK
Conflict Timeline
(national/regional/district/village)
A. Is there peace in Uganda?
B. What were the
Causes behind the
conflicts you have
identified?
C. What were the
D. Who were the
Impacts?
Stakeholders?
Victims
- Perpetrators
- Beneficiaries
- Bystanders
- Spoilers
- Peacebuilders
-
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Focus Group Discussion Guide
PART 2: LOOKING FORWARD
WELCOME BACK
- Reminder of purpose of
A. How does it feel to be talking about the history of
this country?
second half: from looking back
to looking forward
RECONCILIATION
B. 1. What does JUSTICE
mean to you?
2. Has JUSTICE been done
to the stakeholders? How
do you think justice can be
done? What would you like
to see in the following
processes?
TRUTH-TELLING
PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT
REPARATIONS
TRADITIONAL JUSTICE
AMNESTY
PROSECUTIONS
MEMORIALIZATION
CHANGES IN LAW / INSTITUTIONS
C. What messages do you have
for key persons and/or
institutions?
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
DISTRICT INFORMATION
Kasese District derives its name from
“kasesa”, a legendary name for a resting
place of birds and mountain climbers. It
was created in 1974 by decree of
President Idi Amin Dada under the name
Ruwenzori District. In 1980 it was
renamed Kasese District by the district
administration. The district was formerly
part of the Tooro Kingdom and
comprises of the counties of Bukonzo
and Busongora. Kasese is bordered by
the following districts: Bundibugyo and
Kabarole to the north, Kamwenge to the
east, Rubirizi to the south, and
Democratic Republic Congo (DRC) to the
west. According to the Uganda Bureau of
Statistics, the District’s area is 3,390 sq
km with savannah vegetation and
swamps. The population of the district is
approximately 721,400. The main ethnic
groups are the Bakonzo followed by the
Batooro. The main economic activity is
crop farming, with an adult literacy level
of 63.4 percent and life expectancy of
49.44 years
Accessed at
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_bsw9fKc0A6w/TNwg89BAzSI/AAAAA
AAAAFI/1z4b-pgdYF4/s1600/map.JPG
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Introduction
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
This Field Brief is based on the preliminary findings of research
conducted between 6th and 11th November 2011, in Kasese
District, in Mpondwe Township (near the border of DRC) and
Kasese Town.
The preliminary findings below reflect opinions expressed in all
the FGDs and key informant interviews. The field brief reflects
conflict perceptions and opinions as narrated by the FGD
participants which are not necessarily those of the Refugee Law
Project (RLP) or its funders.
This Field Brief was written by Lyandro Komakech with valuable
input from Annelieke van de Wiel and Kari Griffiths, all of the RLP.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
LOOKING BACK
Past
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Is there peace in Uganda?
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
When participants were asked whether there is peace in Uganda, the
following responses were given:
(CLICK once!)
There is no peace because the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)
have committed many atrocities. There are rumours from reliable
sources that the ADF have regrouped with a force of over 3000
people spread over forty training camps in the Democratic Republic
Congo (DRC).
Multi-party politics has polarised the community. Most of the
community’s activities are aligned in support of either President
Yoweri Kaguta Museveni or Kizza Besigye (of the opposition).
The police have been accused of widespread human rights abuses
whilst handling the demonstrators in the ‘Walk to Work’ protests
The current economic climate, food insecurity and the diminishing
capacity of the Rwenzori people to produce cash crops like cotton
and coffee is a threat to peace
Corruption in the Rwenzori region and in the country as a whole is
considered a security threat as powerful individuals have
undermined institutions and made them weak
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Conflicts Timeline: National Level
1920
1979
2011
2012
Religious conflicts (1920s – to date):
The
introduction
western religious
beliefs overthrow
interfered with
theAmin
indigenous
Uganda
NationalofLiberation
Front (UNLF)
of Idi
(1979):African beliefs,
promoted
traditionalists
(Bafuruki).
thewas
introduction
of western
religions,
The UNLF by
wasthe
a unity
government
formed inBefore
exile and
an amalgamation
of all
the
there
was
peace
and
harmony
in
the
community.
When
the
western
beliefs
arrived,
groups who were fighting against Idi Amin Dada’s Government. They overthrew Idi Aminthe
in
community
became
divided
into
those
who
believed
in
the
traditional
religion
(Kamfiri)
and
1979.
those who followed the western religions. Some churches, such as the Pentecostal
churches, continue to divide the community by preaching that salvation can only be
achieved by being “born again”.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Conflicts Timeline: Regional Level
1919
1921
1940
1969
1980
1987
1996
2007
2012
Ethnic conflicts over the Rwenzururu monarchy (Time immemorial –to date):
The
conflict
involves
the Baamba
andthe
Bakonzo
tribes
onBaamba
one side(1919-21):
and the Banyabwindi, Batoro and
British
and Tooro
Kingdom
against
Bakonzo
and
Basongora
on the
other
Even
initially
the
of the
Banyabwindi,
This conflicttribes
surfaced
during
aside.
boycott
the Tooro
Parliament
three Bakonzo
representatives
Rwenzururu
Movement
struggle
forofthough
independence
ofethnic
thebycommunities
Bakonzo,
Baamba
and other
Batuku
and
Basongora
were
in
favour
of
a
Kingdom
for
the
Rwenzururu
Mountain
people,
they
have
(Tibamwenda,
Nyamutswa
and
Kapoe).
They
stated
that
the
Tooro
Kingdom
subjugated
the
Bakonzo
communities from Tooro Kingdom (pre-Independence -2007):
recently
comeThese
to Movement
object
to recognise
the later
“Obusinga
Wa
Rwenzururu”,
sayingBatwa,
it British
belongs
to and
the
and
Baamba.
representatives
were
buried in
one
grave Basongora,
at Kagando
by
soldiers,
The
Rwenzururu
was and
comprised
of Bakonzo,
Baamba,
Batuku
Sleeping
sickness
(embongera)
other
sicknesses
(1940-1969):
Bakonzo-Baamba
alone.
under
the directive
of
thesupported
Tooro
to deter
others
from
challenging
the authority
of the
British
other
communities
who
self-autonomy
of
theofRwenzururu
Kingdom,
ormeasles
the Obusinga
wa
An outbreak
of embongera
wasKingdom,
followed
by
outbreaks
dysentery
(akasinine),
(obuseru)
or
the
Tooro
Kingdom.
The
way
the
representatives
were
killed
raised
public
outcry
in
the
entire
The
National
Army
for
the
Liberation
of
Uganda
(NALU)
insurgency
(1980-87):
Rwenzururu.
All these
different
ethnic
communities
had the common
aspiration
to be
mergedwere
into
and chicken pox
(ebitole)
in the
1940-60’s.
The participants
insisted
that all not
these
diseases
Rwenzori
area.
The
Bakonzo
community
at
that
time
referred
to
the
incident
as
“the
greatest
injustice
NALU
emerged
out
of
the
Rwenzururu
Movement
that
had
been
advocating
for
the
restoration
of
the
the
Tooro
Kingdom.
Tooro
Kingdom
treated
second class
citizens.
in
caused
byinsurgency
the Tooro
Kingdom
since
theythem
wereasinterested
in wiping
outThe
theMovement
Bakonzo engaged
population.
The
ADF
(1996
to
date):
of
their
time”
and
vowed
to
fight
the
British
and
their
Tooro
collaborators
until
they
were
free.
Rwenzururu
Kingdom.
This
Kingdom
is
primarily
for
the
Bakonzo
and
Baamba
tribes
and
was
not
civic
disobedience,
including
not marrying
and pulling
out oftothe
Tooro
around
According
to them,active
this explains
why
thethe
Kingdom
never
intervened
prevent
the
spread
of the
The
ADF
became
in Kasese
District
in Batooro
1996. They
were
unhappy
with
the Parliament
peaceful
methods
recognised
or
accepted
by
either
the
Tooro
Kingdom
or
the
British
Colonial
Government.
The
1920.
Though
initially
a
peaceful
movement,
the
Movement
became
more
militant
in
the
1960s
until
diseases.
the
Bakonzo and Baamba had used in their demands
for the restoration of the Obusinga. The ADF
th
Kingdom
dates of
back
the second
half
of the
19 century.
From (NALU)
the 1900s
onwards,
struggle for
the
emergence
theto
National
for the
Liberation
of to
Uganda
the the
ADF.
high-jacked
the agenda
of theArmy
Bakonzo
and
Baamba
pretend
they and
had later
a cause
to fight, even
its recognition heightened in Rwenzori (covering Kasese, Bundibugyo and Ntoroko Districts). The
though the ADF leadership is not exclusively from the Rwenzori region. They mobilized around the
struggle for the Kingdom was mainly fought by the Bakonzo and Baamba ethnic groups. NALU,
frustrations of the community in the region they started operating from. They want to overthrow the
composed mainly of Bakonzo and Baamba, fought for the restoration of the Obusinga in the eighties.
Government of Uganda by force. The Rwenzori region was a fertile recruitment ground as there were
The Bakonzo, Baamba and other ethnic communities were deliberately denied an identity of their
unresolved issues between the Bakonzo versus the Batooro and the Government of Uganda, causing
own, until the 1995 Constitution that recognized them as different ethnic groups. It was not until 2007
unrest in the area. The conflict involving the ADF remains unresolved as there have never been
that the Obusinga wa Rwenzururu king was crowned and recognized by Government of Uganda.
peace talks. Participants warned that the ADF is currently intensely mobilizing. In key informant
interviews, locals and officials at the border post in Mpondwe stated that ADF cells were active in
DRC where at present they have a force of between three to five thousand who are undergoing
training with the intention of attacking Uganda.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Conflicts Timeline: District & Village Level
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
1980’s
2012
Land conflicts (1980s - to date):
Land
conflicts
particularly
prevalent
in Ibuga,date):
Nyakatonzi, Kiburara, Kihasa and
Gender
Based are
Violence
and Sex
Work (1980s-to
Rwahingo
asas
well
as Bigando
TownInCouncil
and
in the
of Mt from
Rwenzori
Issues such
defilement
areinonHima
the rise.
addition,
men
arecorridors
chased away
their
and
Queen
Elizabeth
Park. The
participants
also stated
they face
with
marital
homes
as theyNational
can no longer
provide
for the economic
wellbeing
of problems
their families,
foreigners
grabbing
their land.
Other
raised by
eviction
as they were
traditionally
required
to issues
do. Polygamy
is participants
also on the included
rise. Onethe
participant
of
the Bakiga/Bafumbira
from
the Mpocha
and
its effects
on ethnic
lamented,
“A young boytribes
below
eighteen
who Game
ownedReserve
only one
chicken
married
four
relationships
in
the
region.
There
have
also
been
conflicts
between
the
Uganda
Wildlife
girls!”. Prostitution in Kasese is becoming more prevalent and it has been directly linked
Authority
(UWA)
and communities
bordering
the national
park. Finally
there
conflict
to the spread
of HIV/AIDS
in the region.
Concerned
participants
also said
thatisold
men
between
the
Basongora
people
from
DRC
who
are
cattle
keepers
and
the
landowners
were being disowned and ejected from their families. They resort to seeking shelter of
in
the
Rwenzori
region.
This
conflict
was
never
violent
and
is
of
low
intensity.
towns and have been using sex workers as a coping mechanism. A female participant
further commented that “Kasese, in terms of prostitution, stands to be the highest as
compared to other areas due to the conflict from various parts of the country, and the
region receives a hundred groups of sex workers. Many families have separated
because young men are now going for girls of 15 years”.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Causes & Impacts
The rise of domestic and genderbased violence
Religion
Election malpractice and
pressure by opposition groups
Suppression of the
Bakonzo/Baamba by the
Batooro
The massacres of
innocent students of
Kichwamba
Resource based
conflicts
The geography of the
Mt. Rwenzori Ranges
Displacement of the
population
Property and lives were
lost
Ethnic segregation
Various employment
opportunities
Children were
abducted
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Causes of conflicts
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NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Suppression of the Bakonzo/Baamba by the Batooro. Prior to the formal recognition of the Bakonzo
and Baamba by the 1995 Constitution as one of Uganda’s official indigenous communities, the Batooro
used to call them derogatory names such as Ebibandu (monkeys). Prior to the promulgation of the 1995
Constitution, the Bakonzo and Baamba used to be considered part of the Tooro Kingdom. One participant
commented that “whenever other people would come, the Batooro would say those Bakonzo from the
Mountains are the Baboons”. This created a lot of tension as they felt marginalised and undermined in
their own community.
The rise of domestic and gender-based violence can be attributed to the high rates of adultery,
prostitution and alcoholism in the communities of the Rwenzori region
The absence of effective and formal employment for vulnerable youth in the region has contributed
to insecurity. The redundant youth are recruited by insurgent groups in the Rwenzori region. This
continues to date.
Favouritism with regards to the Batooro by the British colonial authorities and the subsequent
marginalization of the Bakonzo and Baamba. During the colonial times, the British favoured the
Batooro over the Bakonzo and Baamba. Later, during Independence, the Bakonzo and Baamba continued
to be undermined and were underrepresented in Parliament. From 1980 to 1985, the region was
represented by only one man, Hon. Cryspus Kiyonga. The Government of Uganda later created a
Commission of Inquiry which subsequently became known as the Kajura Commission. The Commission
was created in response to petitions by the Bakonzo and Baamba for legal recognition of their own
Kingdom. The Commission investigated the origin of these demands, whether they came from majority or
minority views, and how people would want the Kingdom to operate. The Kajura Commission
recommended the restoration and recognition of the Rwenzururu Kingdom under the leadership of Charles
Mumbere Irema-Ngoma as King.
The failure to effectively implement the Moshi Accord of 1979. Shortly after the UNLF had come to
power in 1979, its Government collapsed in 1980 due to internal mistrust. It was later replaced by a
Military Commission that never organised a free and fair election, as was stipulated in the Moshi Accord.
This created more grounds for conflict in the country.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
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Causes of conflicts (cont.)
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Ethnic segregation: Participants noted that the National Resistance Movement (NRM)
Government practices segregation along ethnic lines. Formal recruitment frameworks for
government positions are being bypassed in favour of irregular appointments.
Systemic failure by current and previous governments in managing conflicts. For
example, President Museveni and Tito Okello failed to implement the Nairobi Peace Talks of
1985, and the Juba Peace Talks between the LRA and the Government of Uganda stalled in
2008.
Religion has been at the centre of conflict in the region. There is a tension between those
who believe in traditional religion and those who believe in western religions.
Election malpractice and pressure by opposition groups. Election malpractice inspires
politically motivated conflict. In addition, people are being pressured by opposition groups to
join demonstrations, protesting the recent increase in the price of commodities. These
conflicts affect most communities with conflicts being present between the Uganda Police,
Forum for Democratic Change, Uganda People’s Congress and the Democratic Party across
the country. The brutal methods the police use in quashing demonstrations have deepened
the instability in the country.
Resource based conflicts. Examples of resource based conflicts include the conflict
between the UWA and families bordering the National Park, the eviction of over 600 people
by the Civil Aviation Authority in Kasese to widen the airstrip, as well as the eviction of the
Bakiga/Bafumbira from Mpocha Game Reserve. The communities affected were not
compensated, causing conflicts in the region.
The geography of the Mt. Rwenzori Ranges provides good training grounds and hiding
places for insurgents in the region, such as those belonging to the NALU and ADF
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Impacts of conflicts
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
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The Rwenzururu struggle for its cause resulted in the creation of Kasese District by
Idi Amin in 1974 and the subsequent recognition of the Baamba, Bakonzo and Basongora in
the 1995 Constitution. Later, the Obusinga was also recognised and restored in 2007 by the
Government of Uganda. Even though it is mainly the Bakonzo and Baamba who pay strong
allegiance to the Obusinga, other minorities also have solidarity with the Kingdom, as they
self-identify as “people of Rwenzori Mountain Ranges”, just like the Bakonzo and Baamba.
Various employment opportunities arose when Kasese and later Bundibugyo were
registered as districts and the Kingdom of Rwenzururu was restored. These acts gave the
community access to various district jobs. This was especially the case for the Bakonzo. It
helped to improve their standard of living as well as rectifying the regional imbalance in
western Uganda.
Property and lives were lost in these conflicts as a result of raids by the ADF and NALU
rebels when they encountered Government soldiers. The Basongora (cattle keepers) also lost
grazing land as land became battle grounds.
Children were abducted. Many children were abducted and became victims of the various
wars in the Rwenzori region. One member in the female FGD commented, “….during Obote II
people suffered in the hands of armed men through rape, burning houses, stealing of
properties, girls abducted and others died there and those who failed to come back home
became thieves and again started terrorising the local communities.”
Increased level of poverty due to high rates of unemployment especially amongst the
youth
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Impacts of conflicts
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
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Orphans have been left behind as a result of the ADF and NALU
insurgencies in the region. The height of this problem was in 1986 and 1997.
The massacres of innocent students of Kichwamba and St Johns Minor
Seminary. This was one of the greatest atrocities committed in the region by
the ADF. Its effects are still being felt.
Many women who were formerly abducted by the insurgents ended up
being divorced by their husbands after the war. Many of the men complained
that a great number of the previously married women ended up having unsafe
sex while in the bush. This has led to cultural degeneration amongst the
Bakonzo/Baamba as well as to high rates of single parents, widows, widowers
and HIV/AIDS.
Displacement of the population. People had to leave their homes as a result
of conflicts in the region, in particular that of the ADF. People were also
displaced by the Government policy of gazetting areas as national parks and
moving people to improve the airstrip.
Bad relationships between the Batooro and Bakonzo. This long standing
conflict has also affected marriage relationships since the Bakonzo are viewed
as ‘baboons’ or ‘monkeys’ by the Batooro who regard themselves as a superior
ethnic community.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
STAKEHOLDERS
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Spoilers
Peace Builders
Conflicts
Beneficiaries
By-standers
Victims
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Victims
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
The following were some of the victims mentioned:
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Farmers who could not cultivate and produce for the market.
Women who were abducted and suffered gender based violence
Non-Bakonzo and Baamba who were targets of revenge killings by
the local community, for example the then Principal of the Mubuku
Institute
Children who were abducted by insurgents
Kicwamba and St John’s students who were massacred by the
ADF rebels
Medical personnel who were targeted for medical supplies by rebels
Men who lost their lives on either side of the conflict while fighting, as
well as those who were expelled from their marital homes by their
wives
Local communities that lost social amenities and infrastructures
The elderly who had no family support
Students who lost time at school and dropped out
Prisons as most prisoners were freed by insurgents
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Perpetrators
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
The following were some of the perpetrators mentioned:
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Colonel Kyakabale of the UPDF was a hardline
commander during the first phase of the ADF insurgency
in the second half of the nineties and the first years of the
21st century
Politicians and their supporters who continued to fuel
conflicts
ADF and NALU insurgents as agents of conflict
The Batooro and Bakonzo communities fought each
other in the conflict
Muwongo (now a Captain in the UPDF) who committed
atrocities on unarmed civilians during the first phase of the
ADF insurgency
Professor Rugumayo during the Rwenzururu
Movement struggle, who advocated for a military
approach as opposed to civil disobedience
Men and women who were agents of conflicts at the
family level in regards to domestic violence
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Beneficiaries
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
The following were some of the beneficiaries mentioned:
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Soldiers benefited through skills and experiences,
promotions and war
Prostitutes seizing the moment to make money during
insurgency
The Bakonzo and Baamba as a community acquired
the new district of Kasese and more representation in the
Parliament of Uganda. They also benefited from the
revival of the Rwenzururu Kingdom.
Businessmen who continued to supply commodities at
exorbitant prices
Women who learnt business skills
The community finally benefited from more schools,
especially secondary schools in the Rwenzori area, after
decades of continued pressure through civic
disobedience and eventually armed struggle
International arms dealers that seized opportunities to
sell their arms to both insurgents and the Government
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Bystanders
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
The following were some of the bystanders mentioned:
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The Congolese Government which never
took initiatives to help stop the root causes of
the conflicts, instead allowing rebels to roam,
train and mobilize freely in their territory
Politicians who never responded in a timely
fashion when they were needed
Civil leaders who never wanted to show any
partisan side throughout the conflicts
Civilians who failed to report rebel activities
The international community which failed
to resolve the conflict and did not provide a
comprehensive coordinated approach to the
humanitarian situation
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Spoilers
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
The following were some of the spoilers mentioned:
(CLICK once!)
Courts of law which only provide justice for the rich
because of corruption
ADF rebels and their collaborators who continued to
engage in military activities
Politicians who never coordinated joint efforts to bring
peace to the region
Some Muslims leaders who supported the insurgents
indirectly
Government officials who are corrupt and divert
resources meant to fight the insurgency
The Rukurato (Tooro Parliament) that neglected and
marginalised the Bakonzo and Baamba
Traffic police officers who are corrupt and continue to
rip off road users
The Batooro elite which created divisions between
the Batooro poluation and the Bakonzo, Baamba and
other minority ethnic communities by subjugating them in
the name of Batooro superiority
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Peace Builders
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
The following were some of the peace builders mentioned:
(CLICK once!)
Hospitals were centres for medical support and care
during and after the insurgencies
The Government of Uganda ensured that
insurgencies were defeated and the population
protected
Civil Society Organisations helped provide
humanitarian support and contributed to the postconflict recovery process
Churches helped to resolve conflicts through
peaceful approaches
The community was determined to resolve conflicts
peacefully
The International and Local Red Cross provided
medical care to civilian casualties, the army, as well as
the rebels
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
LOOKING FORWARD
Future
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
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TALKING ABOUT THE HISTORY OF
CONFLICT IN UGANDA
When asked how participants felt talking about the different
conflicts and their legacies, the majority said it was important to
talk. The following are highlights of what different participants said
they felt:
The majority of the participants felt good talking about the
history of Uganda because it helped them to compare the past and
the future, discover the history of their country and create
solutions to avoid conflicts reoccurring.
However, some participants felt that talking about the history of
Uganda led to irritation and insecurity because they feared they
would be followed up by Government agents the next day.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Transitional Justice
Mechanisms
Truth-telling
Prosecution
Regional frameworks should be put in
place and a national truth-telling body
should be established through an Act of
Parliament as this would help to ensure
witness protection
Research should continue to be done
through Universities and Civil Society
Organisations to further document the
basic truths that people want to emerge
from the truth telling sessions. This will
help to prevent lying during truth telling
sessions.
Create advocacy groups to popularise
truth telling processes. They should use
platforms such as radio talk shows.
Participants emphasised that special
higher courts should handle war crimes
suspects and lower courts should deal
with lower level suspects, such as
thieves
For corruption cases, those convicted
should be made to refund the money
they stole, their property should be
auctioned, they should be jailed if
proven guilty and they should be
banned for life from public office.
Laws in relation to domestic violence,
defilement and land management
should be reviewed.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
There needs to be a
national
reconciliation
process established by law.
Horizontal reconciliation
led by traditional Kings is
essential in dealing with the
Batooro,
Baamba,
and
Basongora at a community
level.
Cross-cultural marriages
should also be encouraged
amongst the various ethnic
communities.
Amnesty
Reconciliation
Transitional Justice Mechanisms
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Participants noted that
total
forgiveness
of
perpetrators is necessary,
except for perpetrators of
crimes against humanity and
war crimes
Amnesty
should
be
implemented at the sub
county level and should
consider both victims and
perpetrators of the conflict.
Participants
further
emphasised that amnesty
should be victim centered
and conditional on an
acknowledgment of guilt.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Transitional Justice Mechanisms
There is need to build
community centers at
regional level for healing
purposes
Hospitals and health
centres
should
be
equipped with trained
specialists
who
can
provide
psychosocial
support.
Psychosocial
Support
Reparations
Participants noted that
victims who were displaced
during conflict should be
resettled
and
the
Government should design
a
framework
for
compensating all victims of
conflicts
Laws and policies on
reparations
should
be
effectively established to
facilitate the management
of post conflict recovery.
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Transitional Justice Mechanisms
Participants emphasised that the
Government should establish memorial
days for those who died in different
conflicts in Uganda, for example those
who died in Kicwamba Technical and
St Johns Minor Seminary massacres,
Luwero Triangle, and massacres in
northern Uganda
Memorial social services like schools
and hospitals should be established
Participants
also
noted
that
Government should take the lead in
the creation of museums in the various
regions of Uganda in order to preserve
and document the history of conflicts
for future reference
Emphasis was also put on the need
to establish national monuments for
the commemoration of victims.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
Memorialization
Traditional
Justice
Participants noted that Traditional
courts, or “ekyaghanda”, exist but
they
have
no
formal
legal
recognition
Traditionally,
the
“Mukulu
Wabulhambu” (Chairman of the
Elders Council) was the oldest
member of the village and the elders
and village members acted as
councilors
The Government should endeavor
to acknowledge traditional justice
because it informs the values
behind the justice system in Uganda
and it could complement the formal
justice system currently in place
Children should be taught these
traditional values up until the end of
primary school.
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Transitional Justice Mechanisms
Institutional Reforms
(CLICK once!)
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Judiciary
Corruption in the office of the State Attorney should be examined because corruption
means that only the rich can access justice
Magistrate Courts should be established at sub-county level with the full-time
deployment of magistrates and their judicial officers
Participants demanded that a resident judge be posted to Kasese as a matter of
priority
Prisons
Participants advised that feeding, shelter, and medical services should be improved
in all prison facilities in Kasese and the country at large
Emphasis was also made on the recruitment of prison officers, which should reflect a
regional balance
Skill development and correction of the offenders should be at the core of the prison
service
Police
Participants noted that the recruitment policy of the Uganda Police force needs
urgent review. Attention needs to be paid to applicants’ profiles with regard to ethics,
academic standards and regional balance.
The police require a new strategy in fighting corruption. Any police officer investigated
and found to be corrupt must be dismissed. They should also be better remunerated.
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Messages to Leaders/Institutions
To President Museveni:
Please help compensate victims of war
Help us out of corruption. Kasese’s
corruption is too high, especially in the police
President Museveni and Parliament must
reinstate term limits
President Museveni and Parliament must
streamline wage policies in Uganda
There should be free education for the
victims who were affected by the Uganda
conflicts
Government must review the current
economic policy with regards to fuel and
commodity prices
Kasese should be given a special ministry as
a post-conflict area. We only have one
minister, Hon. Crispus Kiyonga, as opposed to
other regions that have more.
Kasese airfield must be upgraded to a full
airport to boost tourism
President Museveni, leave power for the rest.
You are not the only person to handle Uganda.
All armed conflicts are centered on you.
Please rest. We do not want to be like
Gadhafi’s Libya.
There should be balanced appointments to
the public service. It should not be based on
regions.
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
To Allied Democratic Forces(ADF) Leaders
Come out of the bush, forgive and reconcile
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
(CLICK once!).
Recommendations
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
FIDA [Uganda Association of Female Lawyers] should be
established in Kasese to address issues of domestic violence
A land tribunal should be instituted and when addressing land
disputes, the LC I Courts should work together with traditional
leaders
Kasese District needs a sub-regional office for the Inspectorate
of Government (IGG) as a matter of urgency
Criminalise the use of derogatory language that undermines the
dignity of various ethnic groups in Uganda e.g. ‘we shall not wait
for Karamoja to develop’, ‘anyanya’ (wild animals), ‘bakoko’
(insects).
The Children’s Act should be reviewed so that parents and
guardians have more responsibility for a child’s development
Affirmative action should be a deliberate post-conflict
reconstruction strategy in the Rwenzori region
Please remember that this brief reflects community perspectives on national issues.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Acknowledgements
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
RLP is very grateful for the contributions made by different individuals
and organisations towards the success of National Reconciliation and
Transitional Justice Audit Research in Kasese District. Refugee Law
Project is indebted for the support offered by various civil society
organisations and the representation of the Department of Immigration at
Mpondwe border post. Exceptional thanks are extended to Office of the
LC V and III Chairpersons for the wise guidance and impartiality exhibited
while mobilising the participants of the various categories.
Thanks also goes to the Coordinator of Kasese Victims Association for
her help in coordinating and mobilising all the FGD participants in the
study.
Finally, our greatest appreciation goes to all our FGD participants and
interviewees for sparing a whole day to actively participate in the
discussions and to the Swedish International Development Agency and
the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs for providing financial support
for this research.
Presentation prepared by Opiny Shaffic, with inputs and edits from Dr.
Chris Dolan, Annelieke van de Wiel and Moses Alfred Nsubuga.
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
Acknowledgements for pictures &
maps
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Websites
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_bsw9fKc0A6w/TNwg89BAzSI/AAAAAAAAAFI/1z4bpgdYF4/s1600/map.JPG
http://echwaluphotography.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/noo-11.jpg
http://redpepper.co.ug/welcome/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Exiled-Col.-EDSONMUZOORA-has-been-killed-and-his-body-dumped-at-his-home-in-Bushenyi-byunknown-people.The-last-time-Edson-Muzoora-was-heard-of-was-when-heappeared-in-South-Africa1.jpg
http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/47199000/jpg/_47199890_uganda_ceremony_
afp.jpg
http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/content2/2011/12
21-congo-election-kabila-sworn-in/11286714-1-eng-US/1221-Congo-Election-Kabilasworn-in_full_600.jpg
http://www.janbanning.com/wp-content/uploads/Kampala-High-Court05_75x103cmPRINT-1024x749.jpg
http://www.waha-international.org/files/1c8a-smallpicuganda.jpg
http://www.enteruganda.com/brochures/images/command01.jpg
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
BRIEF 11 of 18: Kasese District
NR&TJ
Audit
2011 -2012
Watch this space for Brief 12: Bundibugyo District
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