Chp 25: Human
Geography of South
Asia
4 sub regions of South Asia
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India
Pakistan & Bangladesh
Nepal & Bhutan
Sri Lanka & the Maldives
Differences between the northern
and southern regions of Southeast
Asia
North
Development along the Ganges River
Rice cultivation
Surplus food
Increases in population
Civilization develops into kingdoms
Raja-head of state
part of the warrior class
Differences between the north and
south
South
Geography makes unification difficult
Also develop caste system (future
slides)
Spread to the coast
Develop sea ports and sea trading
networks
Indo-Aryans
Language—Sanskrit
Varnas—Class/caste system
Kshatriyas—warrior class
Brahmins—priest class
Vaisyas—merchants,
Sudras—artisans, farmers
Non-Indo-Aryans
Untouchables
Created by the Purusha (universal spirit)
Take Five…

Name the 3 major religions that
emerged from Southeast Asia.
Hinduism
Brahma-the creator
Vishnu-the preserver
Siva-the destroyer
Essential beliefs of
Hinduism
Reincarnation
dharma (moral duty)
Karma (good or bad)
Hinduism
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Vedas
• Rig-veda
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Preservation of all life
Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama
“Buddha” or the “Enlightened One”
Essential beliefs
Four noble truths
1. all human life contains suffering
and sorrow
2. desire causes suffering
3. by rejecting desire, people can
attain nirvana, which frees the soul
from reincarnation
4. following the eightfold path leads to
the rejection of desire
Essential beliefs of Buddhism
Rejected the Vedas (ancient religious
texts)
Opposed the Brahmins
Rejected the Varna (caste) system
Theraveda “way of the elders”
Mahayana “greater vehicle”—total
peace to live a moral life and then be
rewarded
Buddhism (con’t)
The Eightfold Path
right faith
intentions
speech
action
living
effort
mindfulness
meditation
Wheel of Life
Jainism
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Founders: 24 Jinas (“those who have
overcome”)
Ahimsa-path of non-violence
Vegetarians
Based on 3 Ratnas (jewels): Right
faith; Right knowledge; Right action
Mahavira
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Prince Vardhaman
Rejected life as a
prince
Focused on meditation
and suffering for
Jainism
Became known as
Mahavira “Great Hero”
Achieves Nirvana and
Moksha with death at
72
Celebrated as Jainism
holiday
India
Early Indian civilization=
Indus Valley 2500 BC
 Aryans crossed the
mountains of Hindu Kush
and took control
of the region pushing the native
peoples to the South
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Unification by the Mauryan Empire
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Asoka the Great 321 BC
Unifies India and Spreads Buddhism
Mauryan Empire
Gupta Empire Takes Over
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Chandragupta I comes
to power in
approximately 330 BC
and unites northern
India
Chandragupta I is
followed by sons and
grandsons who expand
more of northern and
eastern India
Ruled until
approximately 500 BC
Hindu culture in the Gupta Age
“classical age”
Advances in art and literature
Advances in mathematics & science
numerals and decimal system
est. (pi) & that the earth is
spherical and rotates on an axis
Advances in medicine
Gupta Society
Expansion of the jati (caste system)
system
The 4 stages of life
Moksha=liberation from
reincarnation—the cycle of death and
rebirth
Women in Guptan society
Suttee—the practice of committing
suicide in the event husband dies
(usually only the upper classes)
A Widow’s Self Sacrifice
Other Invaders
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Central Asian Peoples
Muslims
• Establishment of the
Mughal Empire from the
1500’s to the 1700’s
European Imperialism
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French, Dutch, Portuguese, and
British make trade relationships with
Indian chiefs
Great Britain ultimately successful
• Est. British East India Co.
• Controlled trade by 1757
• Controlled India by 1857 called the raj
• Controlled for 90 years despite
rebellions
Non-violent Protest
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Mohandas Gandhi
Great Britain grants independence
(8-14-1947)
Division of India
• Pakistan and Bangladesh separate
• Division leads to conflict
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Hindus vs Muslims
World’s Largest Democracy
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Effects of British imperialism
Federation of states (like US)
Prime minister (like G.B.)
Parliamentary democracy (like G.B.)
Representation from all groups:
Hindu, Muslim, Sikhs & Tamils
• Assassination of Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi (1984) by a Sikh extremist
Take Five…
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Complete the skillbuilder on pg. 569
Economy of India
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One of world’s largest, but slowest
economies
½ of India’s population are impoverished
2/3’s are farmers
5% of the population own 25% of the land
(1990’s)
Land reform—redistribution of land
(unsuccessful)
Green Revolution more successful—new
farming techniques and increased crop
yields
Economy of India
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Cotton textiles
Iron, steel, chemical, machinery etc
• Major industrial cities
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Calcutta
Bombay * most industrialized city
Ahmadabad
Madras
Bangalore * center for technology
Tradition vs Modern Ideology
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Arranged marriages
Extended family groups
Vegetarians (religion)
Soccer, field hockey etc
Bollywood (Hollywood Indian style) *
Bombay
Indian Culture…
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Education—growing literacy rates
Many languages—mostly Sanskrit
• Southern India—4 main languages
Chp 25 Section 2: Pakistan and
Bangladesh
Take Five…
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Why did Pakistan and Bangladesh
break away from India after the
British occupation?
Early civilization…
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Today Pakistan = Indus River Valley
civilization 2500 BC
Sophisticated for its time period with
major cities and irrigation systems
Fell to Aryans around 1500 BC and
then suffered from other invasions
Partition
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Division of India
• India (Hindu) & Muslim Pakistan (East &
West)
• Conflict and violence (approx. 1 million
deaths)
• Movement of people across borders
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Additional conflict and civil war between E &
W Pakistan
1971 East Pakistan won its independence
and became Bangladesh
Wally Points…
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If E and W Pakistan are both Muslim
countries, then why did they fight a
civil war?
Politics in Pakistan and
Bangladesh
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Attempted democracies=failed
Military rule dominates
Political corruption
1990’s both countries had female
prime ministers (a step in the right
direction???)
Conflict, war and violence
• Ex: Kashmir—fighting over territory
between India and Pakistan
Economics
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Large populations
Primarily agricultural based
economies
• Subsistence farming
• Hindered by seasonal monsoons,
drought, cyclones and low yields
• Most productive in Pakistan through
irrigation from the Indus River
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Rice, cotton and freshwater fish are main
industries for export
Poverty (Bangladesh one of the
Economics (con’t)
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Small industry
• Lack capital, resources, educated
workforce and markets
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Textile industries primarily
• Cotton, wool and leather goods
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Microcredit=Began in Bangladesh
and offered to small business owners
(some women). Small business
owners join together and apply for a
joint loan—must repay the loan
together.
Take Five…
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Complete the skill builder questions
on pg. 575.
Wally Points…
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What do you see as potential
problems with microcredit?
Religion
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Both Pakistan and Bangladesh were
part of the Mughal empire and
therefore Muslim
Only about 10% of the population
are Hindu
Practice the Muslim faith
• Ramadan and Mosques
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Pakistan is stricter
• Ex: Purdah=seclusion of women
(wearing veils)
Ethnic diversity
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Pakistan has 5 main ethnic groups
• Each has own language and culture
• Each has own regional territory with
Pakistan
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Urdu is the official language of Pakistan
Bangladesh primarily one ethnic
group: Bengalis
• Primary language is Sanskrit
Culture
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Arranged marriages common
Families live together in extended family units
Most people are rural and live simply
Large cities are overcrowded—traffic is a problem
Enjoy sports: soccer and cricket and Bollywood!!
Attend mushairas (large gatherings for poetry readings)
• Rabindranath Tagore=Nobel Prize for Literature in
1913=“My Golden Bengal”
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Folk dances are popular
• Ex: Qawwali—religious devotional singing
Chp 25: Section 3: Nepal and
Bhutan
Geography of Nepal and Bhutan
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Isolated by Himalayas
• Steep mountain passes and year round
ice fields
• Landlocked countries—no access to the
sea
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Plus side…made it hard to conquer
and settle colonies here
Generally remained independent
throughout the period of European
imperialism
Politics
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Historically split into small religious
kingdoms
Hindu kings (Nepal) & Buddhist
priests (Bhutan)
Today=both are constitutional
monarchies
• Bhutan has a king as a supreme ruler
(hereditary)
• Nepal has a king with shared power by
an elected parliament
Economics
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Poor countries primarily based upon agriculture
• Poor soil, erosion and unfertile land for agriculture
however
• Created terrace farming to try to help their situation
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Products: rice, cotton, potatoes and wheat
Livestock: cattle, sheep, yaks
Timber also an industry in both countries
• Deforestation (70% of Bhutan still retains forest lands)
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Manufacturing is beginning –wool and food
processing production
Primary trading partner =India
Yak….
Tourism
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Fascination with the Himalayas and
Mt. Everest
Hotels, restaurants, guided tours
(Sherpa) etc…
Rise in economy, but also increase in
pollution and destruction of wildlife
Sherpa Guide
Culture of Nepal and Bhutan
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Nepal=several different ethnic
groups
• Ex: Indo-Nepalese Hindus, Tibetans &
Sherpa's
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Bhutan=main ethnic group=Bhote
(also originally from Tibet)
Religion
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Hindu and Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama born on border
of Nepal and India
Mandalas=geometric designs related
to Buddhist religion (symbolism of
universe and order)
Monasteries –ex of Buddhist
architecture
Mandalas
Taktshang Monastery
Drametse Lakhang
Culture
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Folk art and festivals
Archery competitions
Chp 25 Section 4: Sri Lanka & the
Maldives
History of Sri Lanka
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The Sinhalese—migrants from the
northern plains of India crossing a strait to
the Islands of Sri Lanka around 500 BC
Early civilization adopted Buddhism and
developed irrigation systems
The Tamils—migrated to Sri Lanka around
300 BC and were Hindu
Sri Lanka was subjected to European
imperialism
Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Under British
Rule
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G. Britain controlled Sri Lanka from
the 1700’s to 1948
Sri Lanka gained its independence in
1972 and became a republic
Wally Points…
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Which groups do you think would
have conflict with each other in Sri
Lanka and why?
Civil War Breaks Out on Sri Lanka
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The Tamils (minority) felt discriminated
against
Tamil Tigers (rebel group) called for an
independent state Tamil Eelam (Precious
Land of the Tamils)
Civil War in 1980s—LTTE =a terrorist
organization (invented the suicide belt
according to FBI sources
May 2009 Sri Lanka declares the 26 year
conflict over when LTTE leader was killed
LTTE often used women as fighters
The History of the Maldives
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Settled by Buddhists and Hindus from Sri
Lanka around 500 BC
Arab traders discover islands by 1100 AD
Arab sultans govern the Maldives and
spread Islam
The Maldives becomes a republic in 1968
One of the world’s smallest independent
countries—only 300,000 people and 115
square miles
Life in Sri Lanka
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Most people live simply
Small villages and family groups
Colombo (Capital city) is busy and urban
Multi-ethnic: Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims,
Christians
Buddhist and Hindu temples, Muslim mosques
and Christian churches mark the landscape
Art and literature and festivals influenced by
religion
• Kandyan dancing
• Annual Perahera festival
Life in the Maldives
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Small villages and family groups
Multi-ethnic: Buddhists, Hindus,
Muslims, Christians
Official language: Divehi
Muslim influence is strong—no other
religions allowed
Bodu Beru (big drum music)—has
strong African influences
Take Five…
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Look at the chart on pg 586…who are
the top three producers of the
world’s tea?
Economies of Sri Lanka and the
Maldives
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Small resources—yet, strong
economies
Agriculturally based: rice
production, tea, rubber etc
Timber (deforestation), and fishing
are also part of their economies
Gem mining is an industry in Sri
Lanka as well
Tourism
Problems …
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Civil War
Disruption to infrastructure
Melting of ice caps causes a rise in
sea levels…could completely
disappear (the Maldives)
Chp 26 Section 1: Population
Explosion
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Population of India over 1 billion
Lack of basis resources: food,
shelter, water, clothing…
Land mass 1/3 of the US…with
massive population
South Asia as a whole is 22% of the
world’s population living on 3% of
the world’s land area
Take Five…
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Complete the skillbuilder questions
on pg 594
Results of Population
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Poverty
Poor education
Poor sanitation
Poor health education (The Ganges
River…)
Not enough $$$$$$$
Take Five…
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Read pg 594…what will the gov’t in
India have to do to keep up?
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To keep up the gov’t in India will
have to provide the following each
year: build 127,000 new village
schools, hire 400,000 teachers,
construct 2.5 mill. New homes,
create 4 million new jobs, produce
an additional 6 million tons of food
Managing Population Growth
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Education to break the cycle of
poverty
Encouraging later marriage (not 15)
and smaller family sizes
Infant mortality rate high = 75
deaths per 1,000
Chp 26 Section 2: Living with
Extreme Weather
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Monsoons
Summer monsoons= June through
Sept. vast rains and produce flooding
Winter monsoons=Little moisture
produce drought
Take Five…
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Complete the skillbuilder questions
on pg 597
Cyclones
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Cyclones come with monsoon winds
creating more destruction
1970 cyclones killed 300,000 people
Economic impact—already not
enough food and this devastation
creates more poverty
International aid creates
overwhelming debt
Create a mental map…
Place in your portfolio…
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Chp 25: Human Geography of South Asia