Success in Literacy for Students with Hearing Loss. (A1) + (F1 x F2 x F3) + (A2) = Getting Organized • Birthdates • Distance traveled • Years teaching • Experience with literacy The Plan • Tuesday: – Overview – Fluency – Concept Recognition & Retention • Wednesday: – Assessment – Fluency – Grammatical Principles What is Literacy? • • • • • • Learning to communicate Learning information Thinking Sharing thoughts and ideas Reading &… Writing • • • • • • • Why is Literacy Important? Day-to-day communication Growth of knowledge School Entertainment Religion/Spiritual growth Social lives Everything….. Reading Excellence Act => No Child Left Behind • Comprehension • Vocabulary • Phonemic Awareness • Phonics • Fluency • Motivation • Family Involvement Concepts of Print • • • • • • • A book has a front and back cover We read words in the book, not the pictures. Print goes from left to right and top to bottom. Language is made out of words. Words are made out of sounds. Sounds can be matched with letters. Print has meaning and consists of spoken language in written form. What is the Best Methodology for Promoting Literacy With Students Who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing • Oral? • Auditory? • Sign? • All of the Above? Now… How about that formula?? • (A1) + (F1 x F2 x F3) + (A2) = • • • • • A1 = Pre Assessment F1 = Frequency F2 = Fluency F3 = Fellowship A2 = Post Assessment Assessment • Language • Literacy Frequency – A major theme noted by Temple and Gillet in their book, Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction (2000), is that “not reading causes reading failure, which leads to failure in all subject areas… Reading is one of those things that you must do a lot of to get very good at it.” What Can We Do To Provide Frequent Exposure to Literacy? • Share picture books: – – – – – – – – In the classroom In home library Go to the library On the go With different people At various times Favorite authors Favorite themes • Follow the child’s lead • Make it fun!!! Literacy is Also About – Recipes – – – – • Kinder-Krunchies by Karen S. Jenkins (Discovery Toys) • Create your own books of favorites with photo albums Fast Food Signs Shopping Lists Food Labels Children’s Magazines • • • • Highlights for Children Sesame Street Your Big Back Yard/Ranger Rick’s Nature Magazine National Geographic Kid – Songs • Wee Sing Series by Pamela Conn Beall & Susan Hagen Nipp (Available in most larger bookstores) • Music With Mar by Mar. Harman (Musicwithmar.com or 727/781/4MAR – Poems • • • • And….. Kids Pick the Funniest Poems edited by Bruce Lansky A Bad Case of the Giggles edited by Bruce Lansky Falling Up by Shel Silverstein Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein – Rhymes and Chants – – – – • Nursery rhymes • Jump rope chants Computer Programs Crayons, Pens, Pencils, and Markers Wordless Picture Books Games • Board Games • Games for Reading by Peggy Kaye And….. – Captioned Movies and TV • Quality Literature Based Movies – Signed/Voiced Videos • Read With Me Series – signed and voiced videos created by Brenda Schick, Ph.D & Mary Pat Moeller, M.S. (available through Harris Communications) • Sundance/Newbridge Guided Readers – signed & voiced DVDs created by the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf, Georgia State University, & the Georgia Department of Education (Sundance 800-343-8204 & Newbridge 800-867-0307) • Once Upon a Time Series signed & voiced fairy tales on videotape with companion books retold by Ben Bahan and Nathie Marbury (available through Harris Communications) • Kansas School for the Deaf Visual Story Reading Program (913-791-0577) signed videos of popular children’s literature. Fluency • The National Reading Panel (2000) defines fluency as the ability to “read text with speed, accuracy, and proper expression”. • Schirmer, and Williams (in press) apply this concept to deaf/hard of hearing readers by describing it as “reading aloud in sign, with expression”. • Research has documented that when a child reads in a word by word fashion he/she is unable to make sense of the text due to the overtaxing of his/her short-term memory (LaBerge and Samuels, 1974). What Can We Do To Provide Fluent Exposure to Literacy? • Read with normal pronunciation, speed, and expression • Read “aloud” in sign • Read it Again and Again • Provide Verbal/Auditory/Visual Models – Music on tape/videos – Signed/Voiced Books on Video/Audiotapes Fellowship • Comprehension Strategies – Before Reading – While Reading – After Reading What Can We Do to Provide Fellowship With Literacy? • Don’t Just Read Them - Talk about texts – That McDonald’s Sign – “Wow! You recognized that bright yellow arch! You’re right. Those letters say McDonald’s!” • Connect Print to Life – “…You remember that other McDonald’s where we ate on vacation??” • Connect Print to Other Print – “You’re so smart. How did you know that was McDonald’s and not Arby’s???” Back to Fluency • Concept recognition and retentionVOCABULARY – Fingerspelling – 2 sides to a coin • Revolution story • Strike story • Spit story – Bridging How Does This Translate for Students Who Use Sign as Their Primary Mode of Communication??? • • • • • • • • • Bridging Language to Language Tu dira bien des choses chez toi. You say good some things home your. Or Give my regards to you family. Bien provecho. Good nourishment. Or Enjoy you meal. Don’t Be Afraid to Fingerspell! • Phonetic processing • Vocabulary development • Resources for learning – – – – I Can Sign My ABC’s (Univ. of Chicago Press) My First Sign Book (Univ. of Chicago Press) ABC Sign With Me (T.J. Publishers) Handtalk An ABC of Fingerspelling and Sign Language – – – – Handtalk Birthday (Macmillan Publishing Co.) Handtalk Zoo (Macmillan Publishing Co.) The Handmade Alphabet (Scholastic, Inc.) Sesame Street Sign Language ABC (NAD Bookstore) • (Macmillan Publishing Co.) » Some of these and many more are available through Harris Communications (www.harriscomm.com or 1-800-825-6758) Fingerspelling Tips • Place palm-out hand at about the chin level just to the side of your. • Keep a slow and steady pace while learning. Intelligibility not speed is the object. • Keep hand relaxed but steady while spelling words, not bouncy or jerky. • Mouth the whole word, not individual letters while spelling. • When “reading” fingerspelling, look at the face and neck area of the fingerspeller. Fingerspelling Practice • • • • • • • • Man Dan Fan Ran Can Pan Ban Nan • • • • • • • • Mat Cat Fat Hat Pat Vat Tat Sat Vocabulary Retention Visualization Structure Words • • • • • • What Size Color Number Shape Where • • • • • • Movement Mood Background Perspective When Sound Revolution • • • • • • What Size Color Number Shape Where • • • • • • Movement Mood Background Perspective When Sound Conceptual Accuracy • Fairview Learning Corporation – Adapted Dolch Words • Pre-primer through 3rd grade The Problem With “When” • At what time – When will you leave? • At or during the time that – Stand up when your name is called. • At any time that – He is impatient when he is kept waiting. • At which time – We were just leaving, when it began to snow. • Although – We have only 3 books, when we need five. great • The forest was ruined by a great fire. • A great crowd attended the basketball game. • Admiral Byrd was a great explorer. • After careful thought, he made a great decision. • This is great danger in getting to close to the fire. hard • • • • • • • Is the ice hard enough for skating? It was a hard problem to figure out. He studied hard for the test. It is hard for him to breathe. He gave the boy a hard punch. We received a hard rain last night. Do you have hard water? have • • • • They have a new car. They have finished their work. I won’t have bad manners at my table. I have been thinking about that problem all night. help • Can I help you carry something? • He couldn’t help dropping the glass. • Father pays the help each week. Bridging Concepts • Fairview Learning Corporation – Bridging • Pre-primer through 3rd Grade • Cut out Idioms – I want the arguing cut out. • Cut short – The fire alarm cut short the meeting. • Cut up – The children would cut up when the teacher was out of the room. • Dead ahead – There was the gas station, dead ahead! • Deep trouble – Pete’s cheating got him in deep trouble. • Do with – I could do with a cold drink right now. Putting it all together… • Look for the fingerspelled terms • Look for English concepts that may be easily confused with other English concepts because of similar/same signs. (revolution, revolt, strike, rebel) • Look for English words with multiple sign concepts (run, strike) • Look for bridging concepts. (wake up, get up, sit down…) Little Women Three years went by. The March girls had become women. Father was home from the Army. He went back to his old job. Beth had not been well for a long time. The Marches felt Beth could not live too many more years. They watched over her with lots of love. Black Beauty The more I lived on Squire Gordon’s farm, the more I liked it. Ther were no finer people anywhere than Master and Mrs. Gordon. If I were not a horse, I would write a book about all the good they did for animals and people in this land. One day my master had a long buying trip to take. I would putt the dogcart. It was raining very hard. We were just about to reach the bridge, when a man came running. He threw up his hands to stop us. He said the water under the bridge was very high. It would be a very bad night. Treasure Island After breakfast, the doctor gave me a letter. I was to take the letter to Long John Silver. It was exciting to see all the ships as I walked past the Spy Glass Inn. I can still remember Silver standing near the door. He had one leg missing. He used a crutch to help himself walk around. Robin Hood The Sheriff o Nottingham was angry. He wanted 200 dollars put on Robin Hood’s head. He wanted the money for himself. He would send someone to hunt for Robin. He would hand Robin a warrant for his arrest. The sheriff found a tinker. He asked him to find Robin hood and give him the warrant. The sheriff in turn would get the money. The Invisible Man The next morning, Kemp woke up early and went downstairs. The invisible man was up. He had put on Kemp’s housecoat again. “I’m feeling good this morning, Kemp.” the invisible man said. “much better. And I’ve been thinking. You would make a good helper.” “Helper?” Dr. Kemp asked. “What do you mean?” “I’m going to tell you the story of howI became invisible,” said the invisible man. “ Then I’ll tell you how you are going to help me.” Robinson Crusoe My bread from the ship was gone. But I did have about ¼ of a bushel of seed corn. If I could work out the ways and means, I might one day be able to bake bread. But I must not lose my seed! The Man in the Iron Mask The day after his strange dinner at the Bastille, D’Artagnan visited the home of a man who used to be a musketeer with him. He stood by the door and saw his dear friend Porthos sitting on a chair in the center of the room. There was clothing everywhere. Porthos had his head down. He looked sad. Dartagnan spoke up, “What’s wrong my friend?” Porthos looked up. He seemed to heer up. “I’m so happy to see you,” said Porthos. “You didn’t look very happy when I walked into the room,” replied D’Artagnan. Kidnapped There is a boat that goes back and forth from Torosay on Mull to the mainland of Morven. I made myself cozy on the ride over. The captain of the boat was Neil Macrob. He was one of alan Breck Stewart’s clan. When we got to the mainland, I talked to Neil Macrob about Alan. Then I showed him my silver button. “Ah,” said Mr. Macrob, “you are the lad with the silver button. I have been told to keep you safe.” The Red Badge of Courage Henry fell back in the line until the battered man was out of sight. The young man marched among the wounded. He wished that he, too, could be a hero. The fighting had cost many lives. But Henry was fine. He wished that he had a wound. A battle wound would be a red badge of courage. Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver was brought to perform for the queen. But he had no chance to speak to her alone, for the farmer stayed near, listening to everything that was said. She spoke with him of his travels. Finally, she asked if he would like to come and live with her. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde I walked out into the lamplit streets for the last time as Edward Hyde. I happily thought of the killing I had just done. I even thought of killing again. Finally, as Hyde, and with a song upon my lips, I drank the mixture. A few minutes later, I was Henry Jekyll with tears streaming down my face. I fell upon my knees and begged God to forgive me. A Journey to the Center of the Earth Once again we began to hike our way downward, this time in the western tunnel. My uncle was certain we had chosen the correct shaft. Soon, the walls of the tunnel were streaked with threads of copper, gold and other precious minerals. I felt a little sad. Not many would ever see or use these riches buried deep in the earth. Our lights made the minerals twinkle. It was like walking through a hollow diamond. After a while, the dazzle began to fade and once again we were walking past dark rocks. Principles for Reading to Deaf Children • Deaf readers translate stories using American Sign Language. (Fluency) • Deaf readers keep both languages (ASL and English) visible. (Fluency) • Deaf readers elaborate on the text. (Fellowship) • Deaf readers re-read stories on a “storytelling” to “story reading” continuum. (Fluency & Fellowship) • Deaf readers follow the child’s lead. (Frequency) • Deaf readers make what is implied explicit. (Fellowship) • Deaf readers adjust sign placement to fit the story. (Fluency) • Deaf readers adjust signing style to fit the character. (Fluency) • Deaf readers use attention maintenance strategies. (Frequency) • Deaf readers connect concepts in the story to the real world. (Fellowship) • Deaf readers use eye gaze to elicit participation. (Frequency) • Deaf readers engage in role play to extend concepts. (Fellowship) • Deaf readers use ASL variations to sign repetitive English phrases. (Fluency) • Deaf readers provide a positive and reinforcing environment. (Frequency) • Deaf readers expect the child to become literate. (Acceptance and Motivation) » David R. Schleper, 1997 References Bowen, S. (2004). Moving towards school, children’s literature. SKI-HI Curriculum, Utah: Hope, Inc. Dowling, K. (2004). Creative ways to read to your child. Volta Voices, 11(2), 34. Geisel, T. S. (1961). The Sneetches and Other Stories. New York: Random House. Gillet, J.W. & Temple, C. (2000). Understanding reading problems: Assessment and instruction. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S.J. (1974). Toward a theory of auotmatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323. National Reading Panel (2000). http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/finging s.htm Schimmel, E., Edwards, S., Prickett, H. (1999). Reading? Pah! (I got it!): Innovative reading techniques for successful deaf readers. American Annals of the Deaf; 144 (4), 298-308. Schirmer, B.R. & Williams, C. (2003). Approaches to teaching reading. In M. Marschark & P.E. Spencer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education. New York: Oxford University Press. Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Watkins, S. (2004). The basics and essentials; Booksharing; Literacy every day. SKI-HI Curriculum, Utah: Hope, Inc.