Success in Literacy for
Students with Hearing
(A1) + (F1 x F2 x F3) + (A2) =
Getting Organized
• Birthdates
• Distance traveled
• Years teaching
• Experience with literacy
The Plan
• Tuesday:
– Overview
– Fluency – Concept Recognition &
• Wednesday:
– Assessment
– Fluency – Grammatical Principles
What is Literacy?
Learning to communicate
Learning information
Sharing thoughts and ideas
Reading &…
Why is Literacy
Day-to-day communication
Growth of knowledge
Religion/Spiritual growth
Social lives
Reading Excellence Act => No Child Left
• Comprehension
• Vocabulary
• Phonemic Awareness
• Phonics
• Fluency
• Motivation
• Family Involvement
Concepts of Print
A book has a front and back cover
We read words in the book, not the
Print goes from left to right and top to
Language is made out of words.
Words are made out of sounds.
Sounds can be matched with letters.
Print has meaning and consists of spoken
language in written form.
What is the Best Methodology for
Promoting Literacy With Students
Who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing
• Oral?
• Auditory?
• Sign?
• All of the Above?
Now… How about that
(A1) + (F1 x F2 x F3) + (A2) =
A1 = Pre Assessment
F1 = Frequency
F2 = Fluency
F3 = Fellowship
A2 = Post Assessment
• Language
• Literacy
– A major theme noted by Temple and
Gillet in their book, Understanding
Reading Problems: Assessment and
Instruction (2000), is that “not reading
causes reading failure, which leads to
failure in all subject areas… Reading is
one of those things that you must do a
lot of to get very good at it.”
What Can We Do To Provide
Frequent Exposure to Literacy?
• Share picture books:
In the classroom
In home library
Go to the library
On the go
With different people
At various times
Favorite authors
Favorite themes
• Follow the child’s lead
• Make it fun!!!
Literacy is Also About
– Recipes
• Kinder-Krunchies by Karen S. Jenkins (Discovery
• Create your own books of favorites with photo
Fast Food Signs
Shopping Lists
Food Labels
Children’s Magazines
Highlights for Children
Sesame Street
Your Big Back Yard/Ranger Rick’s Nature Magazine
National Geographic Kid
– Songs
• Wee Sing Series by Pamela Conn Beall & Susan
Hagen Nipp (Available in most larger bookstores)
• Music With Mar by Mar. Harman
( or 727/781/4MAR
– Poems
Kids Pick the Funniest Poems edited by Bruce Lansky
A Bad Case of the Giggles edited by Bruce Lansky
Falling Up by Shel Silverstein
Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein
– Rhymes and Chants
• Nursery rhymes
• Jump rope chants
Computer Programs
Crayons, Pens, Pencils, and Markers
Wordless Picture Books
• Board Games
• Games for Reading by Peggy Kaye
– Captioned Movies and TV
• Quality Literature Based Movies
– Signed/Voiced Videos
• Read With Me Series – signed and voiced videos created by
Brenda Schick, Ph.D & Mary Pat Moeller, M.S. (available
through Harris Communications)
• Sundance/Newbridge Guided Readers – signed & voiced
DVDs created by the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf,
Georgia State University, & the Georgia Department of
(Sundance 800-343-8204 & Newbridge 800-867-0307)
• Once Upon a Time Series signed & voiced fairy tales on
videotape with companion books retold by Ben Bahan and
Nathie Marbury (available through Harris Communications)
• Kansas School for the Deaf Visual Story Reading Program
(913-791-0577) signed videos of popular children’s
• The National Reading Panel (2000)
defines fluency as the ability to “read
text with speed, accuracy, and proper
• Schirmer, and Williams (in press) apply
this concept to deaf/hard of hearing
readers by describing it as “reading
aloud in sign, with expression”.
• Research has documented that when a
child reads in a word by word fashion
he/she is unable to make sense of the
text due to the overtaxing of his/her
short-term memory (LaBerge and
Samuels, 1974).
What Can We Do To Provide
Fluent Exposure to Literacy?
• Read with normal pronunciation, speed, and
• Read “aloud” in sign
• Read it Again and Again
• Provide Verbal/Auditory/Visual Models
– Music on tape/videos
– Signed/Voiced Books on Video/Audiotapes
• Comprehension Strategies
– Before Reading
– While Reading
– After Reading
What Can We Do to Provide
Fellowship With Literacy?
• Don’t Just Read Them - Talk about
– That McDonald’s Sign – “Wow! You
recognized that bright yellow arch!
You’re right. Those letters say
• Connect Print to Life
– “…You remember that other
McDonald’s where we ate on
• Connect Print to Other Print
– “You’re so smart. How did you know
that was McDonald’s and not
Back to Fluency
• Concept recognition and retentionVOCABULARY
– Fingerspelling
– 2 sides to a coin
• Revolution story
• Strike story
• Spit story
– Bridging
How Does This Translate for Students
Who Use Sign as Their Primary Mode of
Bridging Language to Language
Tu dira bien des choses chez toi.
You say good some things home your.
Give my regards to you family.
Bien provecho.
Good nourishment.
Enjoy you meal.
Don’t Be Afraid to Fingerspell!
• Phonetic processing
• Vocabulary development
• Resources for learning
I Can Sign My ABC’s (Univ. of Chicago Press)
My First Sign Book (Univ. of Chicago Press)
ABC Sign With Me (T.J. Publishers)
Handtalk An ABC of Fingerspelling and Sign Language
Handtalk Birthday (Macmillan Publishing Co.)
Handtalk Zoo (Macmillan Publishing Co.)
The Handmade Alphabet (Scholastic, Inc.)
Sesame Street Sign Language ABC (NAD Bookstore)
• (Macmillan Publishing Co.)
» Some of these and many more are available through Harris
Communications ( or 1-800-825-6758)
Fingerspelling Tips
• Place palm-out hand at about the chin level
just to the side of your.
• Keep a slow and steady pace while learning.
Intelligibility not speed is the object.
• Keep hand relaxed but steady while
spelling words, not bouncy or jerky.
• Mouth the whole word, not individual
letters while spelling.
• When “reading” fingerspelling, look at the
face and neck area of the fingerspeller.
Fingerspelling Practice
Vocabulary Retention
Visualization Structure Words
Conceptual Accuracy
• Fairview Learning Corporation
– Adapted Dolch Words
• Pre-primer through 3rd grade
The Problem With
• At what time
– When will you leave?
• At or during the time that
– Stand up when your name is called.
• At any time that
– He is impatient when he is kept waiting.
• At which time
– We were just leaving, when it began to
• Although
– We have only 3 books, when we need five.
• The forest was ruined by a great fire.
• A great crowd attended the basketball
• Admiral Byrd was a great explorer.
• After careful thought, he made a great
• This is great danger in getting to close to
the fire.
Is the ice hard enough for skating?
It was a hard problem to figure out.
He studied hard for the test.
It is hard for him to breathe.
He gave the boy a hard punch.
We received a hard rain last night.
Do you have hard water?
They have a new car.
They have finished their work.
I won’t have bad manners at my table.
I have been thinking about that
problem all night.
• Can I help you carry something?
• He couldn’t help dropping the glass.
• Father pays the help each week.
Bridging Concepts
• Fairview Learning Corporation
– Bridging
• Pre-primer through 3rd Grade
• Cut out
– I want the arguing cut out.
• Cut short
– The fire alarm cut short the meeting.
• Cut up
– The children would cut up when the
teacher was out of the room.
• Dead ahead
– There was the gas station, dead ahead!
• Deep trouble
– Pete’s cheating got him in deep trouble.
• Do with
– I could do with a cold drink right now.
Putting it all together…
• Look for the fingerspelled terms
• Look for English concepts that may be
easily confused with other English
concepts because of similar/same signs.
(revolution, revolt, strike, rebel)
• Look for English words with multiple sign
concepts (run, strike)
• Look for bridging concepts. (wake up, get
up, sit down…)
Little Women
Three years went by. The March girls
had become women. Father was home from
the Army. He went back to his old job.
Beth had not been well for a long time.
The Marches felt Beth could not live too
many more years. They watched over her
with lots of love.
Black Beauty
The more I lived on Squire Gordon’s
farm, the more I liked it. Ther were
no finer people anywhere than Master
and Mrs. Gordon. If I were not a
horse, I would write a book about all
the good they did for animals and
people in this land.
One day my master had a long
buying trip to take. I would putt the
dogcart. It was raining very hard. We
were just about to reach the bridge,
when a man came running. He threw up
his hands to stop us. He said the
water under the bridge was very high.
It would be a very bad night.
Treasure Island
After breakfast, the doctor gave me
a letter. I was to take the letter to
Long John Silver. It was exciting to
see all the ships as I walked past the
Spy Glass Inn. I can still remember
Silver standing near the door. He
had one leg missing. He used a crutch
to help himself walk around.
Robin Hood
The Sheriff o Nottingham was angry.
He wanted 200 dollars put on Robin
Hood’s head. He wanted the money for
himself. He would send someone to hunt
for Robin. He would hand Robin a
warrant for his arrest.
The sheriff found a tinker. He asked
him to find Robin hood and give him the
warrant. The sheriff in turn would get
the money.
The Invisible Man
The next morning, Kemp woke up
early and went downstairs. The invisible
man was up. He had put on Kemp’s
housecoat again.
“I’m feeling good this morning,
Kemp.” the invisible man said. “much
better. And I’ve been thinking. You
would make a good helper.”
“Helper?” Dr. Kemp asked. “What do
you mean?”
“I’m going to tell you the story of
howI became invisible,” said the invisible
man. “ Then I’ll tell you how you are
going to help me.”
Robinson Crusoe
My bread from the ship was gone. But
I did have about ¼ of a bushel of seed
corn. If I could work out the ways and
means, I might one day be able to bake
bread. But I must not lose my seed!
The Man in the Iron Mask
The day after his strange dinner at the
Bastille, D’Artagnan visited the home of a
man who used to be a musketeer with him.
He stood by the door and saw his dear
friend Porthos sitting on a chair in the
center of the room. There was clothing
everywhere. Porthos had his head down.
He looked sad.
Dartagnan spoke up, “What’s wrong my
Porthos looked up. He seemed to heer
up. “I’m so happy to see you,” said Porthos.
“You didn’t look very happy when I
walked into the room,” replied D’Artagnan.
There is a boat that goes back and
forth from Torosay on Mull to the
mainland of Morven. I made myself cozy
on the ride over. The captain of the boat
was Neil Macrob. He was one of alan
Breck Stewart’s clan.
When we got to the mainland, I talked
to Neil Macrob about Alan. Then I showed
him my silver button.
“Ah,” said Mr. Macrob, “you are the lad
with the silver button. I have been told to
keep you safe.”
The Red Badge of Courage
Henry fell back in the line until
the battered man was out of sight.
The young man marched among the
wounded. He wished that he, too,
could be a hero. The fighting had
cost many lives. But Henry was fine.
He wished that he had a wound. A
battle wound would be a red badge of
Gulliver’s Travels
Gulliver was brought to perform for
the queen. But he had no chance to speak
to her alone, for the farmer stayed near,
listening to everything that was said.
She spoke with him of his travels.
Finally, she asked if he would like to come
and live with her.
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
I walked out into the lamplit streets
for the last time as Edward Hyde. I
happily thought of the killing I had just
done. I even thought of killing again.
Finally, as Hyde, and with a song upon my
lips, I drank the mixture. A few minutes
later, I was Henry Jekyll with tears
streaming down my face. I fell upon my
knees and begged God to forgive me.
A Journey to the Center
of the Earth
Once again we began to hike our way
downward, this time in the western tunnel.
My uncle was certain we had chosen the
correct shaft. Soon, the walls of the
tunnel were streaked with threads of
copper, gold and other precious minerals.
I felt a little sad. Not many would ever
see or use these riches buried deep in the
earth. Our lights made the minerals
twinkle. It was like walking through a
hollow diamond. After a while, the dazzle
began to fade and once again we were
walking past dark rocks.
Principles for Reading to Deaf Children
• Deaf readers translate stories using
American Sign Language. (Fluency)
• Deaf readers keep both languages
(ASL and English) visible. (Fluency)
• Deaf readers elaborate on the text.
• Deaf readers re-read stories on a
“storytelling” to “story reading”
continuum. (Fluency & Fellowship)
• Deaf readers follow the child’s lead.
• Deaf readers make what is implied
explicit. (Fellowship)
• Deaf readers adjust sign placement
to fit the story. (Fluency)
• Deaf readers adjust signing style to
fit the character. (Fluency)
• Deaf readers use attention
maintenance strategies. (Frequency)
• Deaf readers connect concepts in
the story to the real world. (Fellowship)
• Deaf readers use eye gaze to
elicit participation. (Frequency)
• Deaf readers engage in role play
to extend concepts. (Fellowship)
• Deaf readers use ASL variations
to sign repetitive English
phrases. (Fluency)
• Deaf readers provide a positive
and reinforcing environment.
• Deaf readers expect the child to
become literate. (Acceptance and
» David R. Schleper, 1997
 Bowen, S. (2004). Moving towards school, children’s
literature. SKI-HI Curriculum, Utah: Hope, Inc.
 Dowling, K. (2004). Creative ways to read to your child.
Volta Voices, 11(2), 34.
 Geisel, T. S. (1961). The Sneetches and Other Stories.
New York: Random House.
 Gillet, J.W. & Temple, C. (2000). Understanding reading
problems: Assessment and instruction. New York:
Addison Wesley Longman.
 LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S.J. (1974). Toward a
theory of auotmatic information processing in
reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.
 National Reading Panel (2000).
 Schimmel, E., Edwards, S., Prickett, H. (1999).
Reading? Pah! (I got it!): Innovative reading
techniques for successful deaf readers.
American Annals of the Deaf; 144 (4), 298-308.
 Schirmer, B.R. & Williams, C. (2003).
Approaches to teaching reading. In M.
Marschark & P.E. Spencer (Eds.), Oxford
handbook of deaf studies, language, and
education. New York: Oxford University Press.
 Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (1998).
Preventing reading difficulties in young children.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
 Watkins, S. (2004). The basics and essentials;
Booksharing; Literacy every day. SKI-HI
Curriculum, Utah: Hope, Inc.

Success in Literacy for Children with Hearing Loss!!!