The Culture of Xia DaZhi senior high school Wu Tai Fu Chang Che Yao Chen Ying Chun Lin Jiun Ying Kuo Sung Hua Teacher：Momoko Tu Film The Chinese word “俠” The Chinese word “俠”, which is pronounced as “Xia”, stands for an abstract concept – from ancient China, when this concept first came into being, to nowadays, the meaning of Xia has changed continuously. We’ll introduce it to you more clearly in the following pages. The Motive of the Study • In 2000, when the Oscar-winning movie “Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon” was played in the western countries and ended up successfully, this movie really motivates people’s interest of what “Xia” is. The movie features flying swordsmen move lightly across the bamboo treetops through the forest without leaving their footprints, brandishing their sword nimbly. These make westerners curious as well as doubtful about Xia. • The gist of our study is to explicate Xia, compare some similar concept with Xia in order to discuss the differences in the multicultural society, and try to make people understand the process and meaning of the culture of Xia. The Range of the Study • Most western people associate the Xia with chivalry. However, we think that the word, Hero, also has some similar meaning with Xia. Therefore, this study will first discuss Chivalry and the culture of Hero so that western people can grasp the concept of Xia more quickly. • After introducing the concept of Xia, we will further present from the well-known Jinyung’s novel to the process of Taiwan’s martial art novels. Furthermore, we will introduce the origin and process of Xia in brief. Lastly, we will talk about what notion that the concept of Xia has brought into movies. Introduction • We roughly classify the introduction as Western and Eastern. We use a time table which is based on the era. In the Eastern aspect, we introduce China and Taiwan’s process of Xia, Japanese Bushido as well. In the Western aspect, we summarize the Chivalry and the culture of Hero in the 20th century. In the end, we will make an integrated comparison. Introduction • The ancient concept of “Xia” is similar to Robin Hood. And the modern concept is similar to chivalry. That is, the development of “Xia” is from offending the Law by armed force to being loyal to king and country. • We adopt the way in which we introduce every part by stages. You can choose the part you are interested in and click the picture to enter the detailed description. Eastern (summary) Western (summary) .the Warring States (403-221 B.C.).The Mohist group. the West Han dynasty (202 B.C. – 8 A.D.). Records of the Grand Historian ( Shih Chi) Middle Ages(10 A.D.nowadays).Chivalry the Tang Dynasty(618875 A.D.). novels Eastern Japanese shogunate(710 A.D.- nowadays). Bushido Western The later period of Europe(12 century to present). Translative literature The Yuan and Ming dynasty(1279-1644 A.D.).Transformation of Xia and Water Margin (Water Margin) .the Ching Dynasty(16451911 A.D.). The process of martial art literature America(20 century to present). The culture of Hero Western End~ Taiwan Eastern literature (after 1911) China Republic of China (20 century to nowadays).The process of Taiwan’s martial art literature The 50th year of the “Republic Era”.(1960s to nowadays). Yeng Zho Scholary Swordsman (Palm drama) Republic of China (20 century to nowadays).The process of martial art movies Jinyung(in the middle of 20 century).The peak of martial art novels Eastern End~ Definition Of “Xia” •“Xia” is not only a concept but a pronoun. That is, its meaning is abstract, complicated and abundant. The behavior of people with “Xia” is to put this concept into practice by performing “Xia”. Therefore, we call someone who performs “Xia” with Chinese martial arts as “Wusia”. But it is not essential to combine the principles of “Xia” with martial arts. Instead, for instance, some “Xia” heal people or steal money from the rich to fulfill the concept of Xia. • In other words, comparing with the Western, Chinese ”Xia” put much more emphasis on personality and spirit. Thought of “Xia” • Now, we usually say “Xia” with “Yi”, which means social justice or righteousness, because both words have similar meaning. As far as the report above is concerned, however, we can discover the concept that “Xia” is equal to “Yi” is not completely true and need to revise. • What we have to realize is that the concept of “Xia” has evolved inch by inch with time. And the meaning of ”Xia” has changed from contravening the law by armed force to being engaged in social peace and country justice in 2000 years. Thought of “Xia” • To sum up, known by the public, the “Xia” needs to be dedicated to social justice and help people. However, as far as the cultural aspect of “Xia” is concerned, we should regard “Xia” as a generalized concept which means not only to fight against injustice. • The comparison below bases on the standard of modern “Xia”. Comparison (chivalry and “Xia”) 1.The contents of ancient martial art novels usually talk about assisting clean-handed officials, opposing to bad officials and being loyal to the king. We can find similar concept of being loyal to the king in the literature of Chivalry. But the Chivalry places much importance on personal honor. 2.The second difference between “Xia” and chivalry is the attitude toward love. In Chinese novels, “Xia” keeps away from women and they must feel shameful at chivalry because of their attitude to women. Comparison (Hero and “Xia”) 1.The will of God and theory of doom China－God gives disasters to people while heroes save the people - follow the god. West－destiny go against the hero, and hero always resist till the last minute - not yield to the doom. 2.Soul and belongings China－follow moral standard that is severer than other people. They must be in a certain group (attending or establishing). West－individualism Total comparison • The concept of Xia is too abstract for the Western because it is not just to help or save people, like spider-man. Xia needs more connotation relatively. Scholarly Xia, for instance, has not only to simply follow thoughts of Confucianism in moral standard but high class of literature. • Therefore, the reason that we just say someone has behavior of “Xia” not someone is “Xia” is a person who has high moral standard, class of humanism and characteristic of “Xia” only appears in the novels. What “Xia” really is? • The modern “Xia” which created by people nowadays is grand. However, we can find another “Xia” group – gang, which is defined according to the primary standard of “Xia” - contravening the law by armed force and doing things by their sense of justice. Moreover, the thoughts of gang and “Xia” now are diametrically different. And if there were “Xia”, they should eliminate gang. What “Xia” really is? • That is, everyone can be “Xia”. It just depends on which era do you live in. If you think that dumping the garbage is justice and you really do it, you will be a “Xia” who contravene the law because of justice in your mind. But, you won’t be regarded as a “Xia” by modern people because your behavior is not equal to the aspect and standard of “Xia” in this society. The summary of Eastern • China：There are two aspect of the definition of Xia. One is the historic Xia which first means a person fights against the unfair law and bad government. Another is the literary Xia which is more idealistic and closer to the thought of Xia in this society nowadays – it means a perfect person who will help others when they face injustice and do everything for the country and masses. • Japan: The spirit of Bushido processed similarly as Xia. Maybe it was much closer to Confucianism. We’ll compare and introduce these in brief. The Mohist Group • In the Warring States, the mohist group supported the process of Mohism. They made the idea of Mohism widely known, helping weak countries keep their homeland. the mohist group members wanted to reach self-sufficiency and invented some military weapons. The Connection between the Mohist Group and Xia • Now many people treat the mohist group as the group of “Xia.” It is because the mohist group promoted the thought – you have to do thoroughly what you said, which fits in with the contemporary explanation of Xia. Another reason is that members of it behaved like Xia. They gathered together and formed as a new power in the society, so it is called the group of ”Xia.” • However, what you have to know is that the debut thought of calling it as Xia springs up recently. So it doesn’t fit in with the ancient standard of Xia. The Definition of Xia in Records of the Grand Historian • The deeds that Xia promoted might not always be just, but they must keep their words, do things firmly, sacrifice themselves to help others’ in difficulty, and not boast of their behavior even when facing death. People far and wide admired their deeds. They would do anything for justice. The Detailed Explanation of Records of the Grand Historian • There are a few examples in Records of the Grand Historian, which show some following traits：Xia won’t be partial to himself or his relatives but acts on justice, won’t be angry because of others’ disdain, and is a person that won’t strive for fame and wealth. • From the aspect of official, acting like Xia is to exert power, which is different from the thought of Xia himself. In a word, the deeds that Xia did are praised by everyone. The Thought of Xia from Chin to Hang Dynasty • Han Feizi：”The Confucianists destroyed the Law by words while Xia offended the Law by armed force.” The basic definition of Xia in this period was a person fights against the unfair law and bad government, which was the base of Records of the Grand Historian. It used the thought and interpreted it in the bright side. However, the view of the same period wasn’t positive at all. • Shuowen Jiezi：A person who shares benefit with each other, makes friends privately, and stands in this society by his armed force is the so-called Xia. They trust each other and have the same values. Besides, they may be the people who have authority in an area and fight against the noble, or live in this society on their own. The Thought of Xia from Chin to Hang Dynasty • In this epoch, there was no class difference of Xia. In other word, no matter who could be Xia. • They were wanted by the government because most of their deeds were against the Law. However, the King and the noble might be Xia anonymously. • In brief, Xia from Chin to Hang Dynasty was people who didn’t care about their life and death but were in pursuit of justice. Xia from Wei to Tang Dynasty • By Wei dynasty, the concept of Xia had been divided into two aspect by degree. One continued the previous concept and called the historic Xia while another was transformed into the literary Xia which developed to the contemporary concept in the Chinese society at present. The Historic Xia from Wei to Tang Dynasty • It could roughly be classified as two categories. One was local bullies and ruffians. Another was rich young men. Basically, the two categories acted similarly as Xia in Hang Dynasty – robbery and killing. The literary Xia from Wei to Tang Dynasty • The literature of martial art started from Southern and Northern Dynasties and was complete in Tang Dynasty. A new interpretation of Xia different from Hang’s negative comment was defined as a noble personality that could do everything for the society and maintain the social justice. The Summary of Xia in The Yuan and Ming Dynasty • In this period, almost the whole concept of Xia in literature is different from historic interpretation. Therefore, we will introduce the change and focus on the Xia in literature. • The representative work is Water Margin, which means demarcation of Xia in literature. The works before this book and the works after are different in feature and style. In the next page, we will first introduce Water Margin, and then analyze Xia in literature. The approximate story of "Water Margin“ (part 1) • The first 70 chapters of the story is led by Song-Jiang and Chao-Gai . They gathered heroes coming from everywhere on the Mount Liangshang. Some of the heroes were forced to go up the Mount Liangshang by corrupt officials while some of them were go up because of heart affecting. • Whatever, the aim they got together at Mount Liangshang is right wrongs in accordance with heaven's decree and oppose to the corrupt government. Not until 108 heroes got together did they rank the ranking of brothers. They were very herotic and killed many venal officials, which make the great satisfaction of the people. These behaviors also let people abreact their discontent with the government. The analysis of "Water Margin“ (part 1) • The advanced part of paragraphs describe two kinds of heroes. One is herotic and another is generous who always give financial assistance to the former. By the way, describes about the generous heores mention a new sight of shia. • In this part, the describe of shia is more close to the pragmatic one(such as using martial art against the law or to fullfill “self-justice”). It has some disagreement with the Dynasty from Wei to Tang. However, all the spirit of shia are same： they all address themselves to strive for justice and dreams of the society. The approximate story of "Water Margin“ (part 2) • Later 50 chapters of the story describe heroes on the Mount Liangshang enlisted in the government for the defense of their country. All leaders were safe and well, also erected awesome. However, in the war with a country in the southern of China, most of the heroes were defeated. And those who survived not only didn’t gain the well-earned recompenses but also be ensnared by cunning courtiers. Most of these heroes didn’t have a good end in this story. The analysis of "Water Margin“ (part 2) • The image of these heroes on the after part of the story has a great different from the former one. From the accomplishment of “self-justice” to adhered to the government, in order to assert the safety of the country. The development • In this novel, these heroes’ behavior gradually changed from malcontent to loyal to the government. “Water Margin” stands at a literature borderline from generation to generation. The former part succeed to the characteristic of shia from the Yuan dynasty, which shows individual personality, while the latter reveal a new kinds of shia who are loyal to the government. the meaning of "Water Margin“ • The shia in this novel have begin to associate with the government instead of seeking self-justice.and this kind of novel had become the main novel style in the Qing dynasty. The literary of Xia in Qing Dynasty • The concept of Xia in this epoch expended from the “Water Margin” had associated with the government, or we can even say Xia had been held a lane by the government. • The basic configure of literature in this epoch was that one Xia who had associated with the government bumping into another who hadn’t. Then they would conflict, but the one who hadn’t associate with the government must assimilate to the one who had in the end. Martial Arts Novels of the Qing Dynasty- “San Xia Wu Yi” • “San Xia Wu Yi” tells a story in the Sung Dynasty about a judge called Pao Ching Tien how to judge cases. In this book, three Xia (southern Xia-Chan Chao, northern Xia Ou-yang Chun, double Ting Xias) and five man who had sense of honor (Drilling sky mouse- Lu Fang, Digging into land mouse- Han Chang, Crossing mountain mouse- Hsu Ching, Turning over river mouse- Chiang ping, Glorious hair mouse- Pai Yu Tang) helped Pao Ching Tien judge cases. Characteristics of Xia in “San Xia Wu Yi” 1.Do something others daren’t do 2.Rescue people before fighting with bad men 3.Regard maintaining social-justice as himself’ s duty 4.Have good skill in martial arts but not being rascals 5.Admire each other who is Xia 6.Think for officers in the place rather than show himself act against the law 7.Bad people admire Xia 8.The noblest Xia is smart, calm, and changeful.But all of his deeds are in the range of the concept of Xia. The Concept of Xia in “San Xia Wu Yi” • Most of Xias in “San Xia Wu Yi” associated with the government and didn’t act against the law. The emperor in this period were different from the emperor in former dynasties either. Xias in this period still behaved with the justice which in their minds. But they would keep as silent as they could because they didn’t want to make officers in the place embarrassed. The culture of “Wu Lin” • After the year of the “Republic Era“, the literature of xia has combined with martial arts. It became a brand new kind of xia literature. We call this kind of xia society in novels as “Wu Lin.” in these societies, friendship is the most important thing of all. In order to protect their friends’ security, xia will use martial arts to cope with all the troubles. Introduce of Jin Yong • Jin's real name is Cha Liangyong. Born in 1924, he is from Haining County, Zhejiang Province. He studied in the College of Foreign Languages of Chunking Central University then the College of Law of Soochou University. • His first novel, Shujian Enchou Lu, published in Sin Wan Bao in 1955, was a big hit. Since then, he started his writing professionally for more than 30 years, and his status as the Master of the wusia novelist has become unshakable. When his last series, Luding Ji, was finished in the Ming Bao daily in September in 1972, he retired from writing wusia novels. Jin Yong’s novel 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Book and the Sword Sword Stained with Royal Blood The Legend of the Condor Heroes The Return of the Condor Heroes Flying Fox of Snowy Mountain Other Tales of the Flying Fox 7. Heaven Sword and Dragon Sabre 8. A Deadly Secret 9. Demi-Gods and SemiDevils --10. Ode to Gallantry 11. The Smiling, Proud Wanderer 12. The Deer and the Cauldron “Xia” of Sword Stained with Royal Blood • People will go against government in troubled time because of poverty. And if there is a person maintains justice, he will be defined as the image of “Xia.” • It is a troubled time that the era of this book is. Yuan Chengjhih is destined to do many just things because of his identity. • Yuan Chengjhih gains many sympathy because of his poor background. On the other hand, he show more justice and heroic when he put his personal feud away be engaged in society and country. “Xia” of Sword Stained with Royal Blood • Main characters usually learn martial art when they were young and become very good after several years. Furthermore, kindness is always the key of being a “Xia”, and we can find the same personality in Western novels. Character of The Deer and the Cauldron • Because Wei Xiaobao was born in brothel, which is defined as a obscene place, he formulate a personality of neglecting tradition as well as etiquette and is socialized more fast. “Xia” of The Deer and the Cauldron • Jin Yong say that The Deer and the Cauldron is more similar to history novel, not “Wu Xia” novel. Though it is not correct that we defined Wei Xiaobao as a “Xia”, but, in some aspects, we still can say Wei Xiaobao has some personalities of “Xia”, like valuing friendship. “Xia” of The Deer and the Cauldron • Being a group of “Xia”, Tien Ti Hui emphasize not their goal, against government, but their process, a spirit of “Xia”. For instance, when they know they are wrong, they will apologize to people who involved in. Characters in Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils • The research of Duan Yu (combination of “Xia”, Confucianism and literati)： Duan Yu is a man of letters and he hate to use force and martial art, having similarity to Chinese literati. The behavior and spirit he perform in the book is derived from deeply thoughts of “Xia”. These behaviors, settling quarrels and doing things by his own justice, are similar to the expectation that “Xia” need to do. • Thoughts：First, the recognition of “Xia” in the East may combine with many thoughts of Confucianism. Second, there is not direct connection between being “Xia” and having good martial art. What is more important is the real meaning of doing things about “Xia”. Characters in Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils • The research of Syu Jhu (combination of “Xia” and Buddhism)： Buddhism accent that we should safe everyone by love, quit killing other people, and help people. And these concepts are very similar to modern concept of “Xia”. • People nowadays think “Xia” should help people and be devoted to society. Another important personality of “Xia” is that possess a quality of justice. As far as Buddhism, they emphasize that possess a heart of mercy, which meaning is to love every human beings around the world without distinguisher. • However, we can take the behavior of Syu Jhu, which follows principles of Buddhism, such as helping people by justice, as generalized “Xia”. Characters in Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils • The research of Xiao Fong (one of the best “Xia” of Jin Yong – comparison between Xiao Fong and Guo Jing) Characters in Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils Name Guo Jing Xiao Fong identity A Chinese born in A foreigner who born in Mongolia know his China don’t know his identity identity Chinese Martial art Xianglong Shiba Zhang (18 DragonSubduing Palms) Characters in Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils Name Guo Jing experience Describe him when In the beginning, he is he was young and known as the leader portray the of Gaibang and “Xia”. difficulties he When he find he is faced. He is foreigner, he is still regarded as a “Xia” engaged in solving in the end of the conflicts between story and be the two countries. best “Xia” in the sequal. Xiao Fong Characters in Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils Name consequence personality The same Guo Jing Xiao Fong Protect a town Strike apeace many years and between two get a honor of countries and “North Xia”. suicidehimself. He is stupid but He is smart and possesses a values friendship. quality of justice. Be engaged in country and society in his eternal countries. Characters in Jin’s novels character personality Guo Jing Honest Rebel Sincere against Not frivolous etiquette Trustworthiness romance Yang Guo Just love a woman Jhang Wuji Irresolute Hesitant Kindhearted Easily be cheated Change Just love a women from woman time to time Characters in Jin’s novels ＊Traits： • Guo Jing ：He is a “Xia” combined with Confucianism. He protect a city of China to attack Mongolia. His behavior show us what the best “Xia” is and the spirit of being engaged in society and country. • Yang Guo：He is a “Xia” combined with Taoism. He don’t want be tied up by etiquette. • Jhang Wuji：He is a “Xia” combined with Buddhism. He is very merciful and doctor many people. “Xia”of Jin Yong • • “Xia” in Jin Yong’s novel is fantastic in ancient time, defined by modern concept of “Xia” ,that is, the definition is not similar to primary concept of “Xia”. Moreover, Jin Yong created some “Xia” of his own, and some of these “Xia” really affect modern people’s thoughts of “Xia” with the trend of Jin Yong ‘s novel. “Xia”s in Jin Yong’s novels are different from appearance to individual personalities. In his last novel, The Deer and the Cauldron, there even has a person, named Wei Xiaobao, who has a part of personalities about “Xia” but is not “Xia”. We can take each “Xia” in different books as a new explanation of “Xia”. Influence of Jin Yong • No matter Taiwan or China, all of Jin Yong’s novels have been adapted to soap opera again and again and some of them even have been made as movies. Computer games about Jin Yong’s novel also appeared with the improvement of Internet. Affecting people from young to old, Jin Yong’s novels really influence people’s thought of how to regard “Xia” and what “Xia”’s definition is. Influence of Jin Yong to nowadays • Jin Yong ‘s novels influence not only demotic culture but also literature. Because his high class of literature and characters in his novels are special, the study of Jin Yong’s novels, which called “study of Jin”, appeared. Many scholars have researched the personalities, traits of characters in novels and attitude, approach to events that they undergo, and they even want to find the historic background of novels. Taiwan Martial Art Novels • The development of Taiwan martial art novels can be divided into four stages— The Beginning Period, The Prosperous Period, The Recessional Period, and The Deceased Period. The followings are some introductions about the development and traits of these four stages. • The most famous author of Taiwan martial art novels is Gu Long. He is also a author in The Prosperous Period. We’ll introduce him to you later! The Beginning Period • time：1951-1960 • background：In 1949, The Communist Party of China (CPC) ruled all of the mainland China, established a “ new China”. Consequently, the martial art novels having published in China since Minguo were all called “ old group”. Before long, all of these “old group” martial art novels were forbidden to publish and sell. Until about 1950, parts of the “ old group” martial art novels were transported to Taiwan by sea , sold and rend in the rental library in every street and alley in Taiwan. The Beginning Period • • Afterwards, the relationship between Taiwan and China was separated. The military position at strategic border point even became narrow. In addition, the government of Kuomintang wanted to prevent national secret revealed, so they executed the law which controlled publications in the martial period in 1951.This action made the “ old group” martial art novels fewer to disappear. traits：Drawing materials from the “old group” novels or inspecting and learning from the works of “old group”; imitating the story, even copy the big part of the works. The Prosperous Period • time：1961-1970 • background： 1.The economy of Taiwan in 1960 2.The need of cultural entertainment 3.Authors of martial art novels made books just for money. The Prosperous Period ＊four department Clique super skilled • traits • • Symbolic authors Putting emphasis on highly skilled, marvelous martial art. Describing some story of hero. The main trend in 1960 Wolong Sheng, Sima Ling, etc. Fantastic Containing fantastic martial art Hai Shang Chi Chu Sheng, Tung Fang Yu, etc. modern Phantomic Using new technique of writing All of the book titles and contents are about ghost and phantom. Gu Long, Lu yu, Shang Kuan Ting, etc. Chen Ching Yun, Tien Ko, Chiang Nan Liu, etc. About Gu Long • Xiong Yaohua (1937 – September 21, 1985), who wrote under the penname Gu Long grew up in a broken family. He left home and lived on writing martial art novels. • Stages of his creation： 1 . the foundation of the department of modern martial art novels：Lone Star Chronicles, Lover's Arrow, The Legend of the Hero's Banner, Sword Bathed in Flowers/Spirit of the Sword, etc. 2 . the flourishing period of the department of modern martial art novels ：Wulin's Side Story, The Legendary Twins, Sentimental Swordsman, Ruthless Sword 3 . the turning point of the department of modern martial art novels ：The Eleventh Son, The Happy Hero, Meteor. Butterfly. Sword, Midnight, Bright Moon, Saber, The White Jade Tiger About Gu Long • traits－modern（literary）WuXia 1.Use modern literary writing technique. 2.Go deep into the leading role’s heart and make books full of philosophy of life. 3.Put friendship, love, relationship of family, even the description of resisting against the fate in books. 4.Mix eastern and western literature with traditional literature. 5.Take youth to be the leading role instead of the old, and no mention about the process of practicing martial arts. The Outline of Sentimental Swordsman, Ruthless Sword • The first part of Sentimental Swordsman, Ruthless Sword focuses on Lin Xian'er and her efforts to cause unrest in the martial arts circle with the name of a retired but infamous thief, the Plum Flower Bandit. The second part of the novel looks at the schemes of Shangguan Jinhong in gaining dominance in the martial arts circle. Within these settings are characters that seem to be created just to counter each other, such as Li Xunhuan against Shangguan Jinhong, Jing Wuming against A-Fei and Lin Shiyin against Lin Xian'er. Role-discussing of “Sentimental Swordsman, Ruthless Sword” • Li Hsun Huan：In the whole series of “Hsiao Li Fei Tao” fetures on Li Hsun Huan. In the later half of the story, the author discusses what martial arts really is. Through this, the author shows Li Hsun Huan comprehending every thing and aggressive his martial arts. What’s more, the author shows his humanized personality by love. Role-discussing of “Sentimental Swordsman, Ruthless Sword” • A Fei：Through him, we can see that he defined Xia as “ If you grant mercy on me, then I will requite you; but if you bully me, I will kill you.” in the beginning. However, after he went through many things, he fell into the pain of antinomy and blindness instead of well experienced. Xia in Sentimental Swordsman, Ruthless Sword • Compared Jin Yong’s novels with Gu Long’ s, the former features on national duty and rescuing people while the later puts more emphasis on the relationship between Xia and human nature. • For example, Gu Long considered close friends can be enemies in one time. In addition, Xia often confuses between love and friendship. The Recessional Period • time：1971-1980 • The reasons that made Taiwan martial art novels recessional： 1. Ten Major Construction Projects made Taiwan’s economy prosperous → the popular media became universal→TV martial arts plays started, martial arts movies became thriving, radio and comic books got a great response 2.The internal dilemma of martial arts creation a. Too commercial b. Corruptive creating- plagiarize, copy, assume name. c. The creativity dried up The Deceased Period • Time：1981-2000 • The reason of deceasing：No one to carry on • Worried：porning works inundates. Introduction of Yeng Zho Scholary Swordsman • Made in 1958, Yeng Zho Scholary Swordsman is the first Glove puppetry soap opera and is very popular then. Shih Yen Wen, the main character in the series even become a racial hero to students that time. The show was made again in 2000, revised in some details, but didn’t change its outline and spirit of Shih Yen Wen. Outline • The series describe that Shih Yen Wen and “Xia” in the society of “Xia”s attack betrayer and the group of bad men, protect the king, people, and other “Xia”. The combination of “Xia” and Confucianism • Being pure loyal, obedient, love, “Yi” man, Shih Yen Wen is portrayed by most people in the series by using this sentence. • In the beginning, Shih Yen Wen attack unfair fighting competition with anger and this is “Xia”. Then, Shih Yen Wen work hard for people and other “Xia” without caring danger to his life that he faces. We take this behavior as the best model of “Xia”. The combination of “Xia” and Confucianism • “Xia” do everything by his own justice and we can find Shih Yen Wen do everything by loyalty and “Yi”, which is one of the main thought of Chinese Confucianism. Therefore, we say Shih Yen Wen is a “Xia” who follows the thoughts of Confucianism. • On the other hand, “Ju” is also representative of a man of letter. Shih Yen Wen has high class of literature, like writing poems and articles, and do antithetical couplet. Having high class of literature and martial art is the necessary qualities of “Ju Xia”. “Xia” of Shih Yen Wen • The “Xia” of Shih Yen Wen, which is based on modern concept of “Xia” has two traits. First, help people by “Yi” when he saw unfair; second, be “Xia”’s leader. That is, Shih Yen Wen is the best “Xia” of all, taking social justice and peace as the most important things he should do, and recognizing that group is major to self. • The influence to Taiwan of Shih Yen Wen’s “Xia” is not simply that he is “Xia”, but also that make a new model and standard of “Xia” to modern society by his behavior. The meaning of Yeng Zho Scholary Swordsman • Owing to the trend of Yeng Zho Scholary Swordsman in Taiwan, when we talk about “Xia” now, most people think of Shih Yen Wen naturally. So, we can say that Shih Yen Wen represent the best “Xia” in Taiwan and even is a standard that people assume who is “Xia”. • Shih Yen Wen is a person who puts Confucianism into practice, being a model of combining the “Xia” and Confucianism. Movie of “Wu Xia” • In 1960s, movie industry pop on the East. Movie of “Wu Xia” begins from Bruce Lee to Jet Li, Once Upon A Time In China, in 1990s. And ,in 2000, Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon shot by Li Ann even brings this kind of movie into Western culture. For instance • 1979 . The Deadly Breaking Sword • 1992 . Once Upon A Time In China I • 2000 . Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon Film Comparison • Martial art in The Deadly Breaking Sword is fitful because the technique to shoot movies is not good then. However, it also can explain the meaning of “Xia” in a new way, not similar to literature. • Of course, martial art in Once Upon A Time In China is better than before. And Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon even explains not only martial art but also the connotation of “Xia.” The origin of Japanese Bushido • In the generation of “Nara” (A.D.710~784), the manorial system became more and more popular. After conscription was downfallen, in order to protect himself, the owners of baronies started to organized the farmers in his barony and taught them martial arts. Therefore, these farmers gradually became a group of people who especially to be assigned to protect the barony and fight with invaders. The classical Japanese Bushido • The classical Japanese Bushido also called “hagakure.” In Japanse, “hagakure” means the shadow of trees. It symbolizes a person who can be loyal to his duke even pay his live. What’s more, this kind of person will protect his duke clandestinely. The spirit of “hagakure” thought that only sacrifice can show one’s loyalty. The spirit of Japanese Bushido • 1. Do not afraid of death • 2. To comply with crowned head absolutely • 3. Put emphasize on convenances • 4. Look up on the responsibility seriously • 5. Pay attention to shame and glory The meaning of Japanese Bushido • In Japan, Bushido spirit was promoted fierily in the Middle Ages. It was accepted by all the people from different society classes. This spirit even become a mores and deeply affect Japanese people. In short, Japanese Bushido symbolizes a spirit of Japan. The summary of Western • Chivalry and the culture of Hero：Most of the translators translate the spirit of Xia into these two words; however, there are some difference between Xia and these two. Because of this, we picked these and introduce these to let you know the Western culture and then lead further to the spirit aspect of Eastern culture. • The European：The books such as Robin Hood and Peter Pan can be translated into Xia. Therefore, we suspect that these must have something in common. Chivalry • Chivalry is polite, kind, and unselfish behavior, especially by men towards women. • In the Middle Age, chivalry was the set of the rules and way of behaving which knights were expected to follow. The Process of Chivalry 1.The origin meaning is horsemanship. 2. After the Crusades, the fame and position of chivalry class rose. After contacting with eastern culture, the spirit of Chivalry is formed gradually into some creeds – loyalty,護教、尚武– , worshiping rich women, and taking adventure as the supreme glory. 3.In the 12 century, the meaning of Chivalry was transformed into the life norm： * To protect the old and weak, women, and children. * To fight against unfairness and evil because of justice. * To love homeland. * To do everything to protect the Church. 4.In the Middle Age, the King established the chivalry organization and made knights important in the country. They promised to be loyal to the King and do their best to win the war. The conditions to become a knight in the Middle Age 1.Be well-born. 2.He had to be trained when youth, be a server and learn polite letters and martial arts in suzerain, and learn manner from mistress. Afterwards, he could be awarded the name of Knight at 21. 3.The young Knight often showed that they had a clear conscience by competition in martial arts on horses. Knight and Ranger • Knight was a kind of cavalry trained formally in the Middle Age in Europe. Then, it became a kind of name of honor. In the literature of Chivalry, knights are symbolized to be brave, loyal, and incarnation of hero. • Rangers themselves could be part of knights or noblemen but give up their identity or their land was swallowed up by other noblemen. So, they left their land and roam around to find another master. The Degeneracy of Chivalry • By 1500, the knights, who were soldiers of battles, had been replaced by soldiers who had firearms. From then on, the chivalry degenerated. However, the spirit and system of Chivalry didn’t disappear at all. Instead, it is the notion of Chivalry – polite and well-behavior that is regarded as an important thought in western world. The literature of Chivalry • It is divided into lyric poetry and narrative poetry, which show the spirit that knights fight for love, honor, and achievements. In the history of European literature, the literature of Chivalry represents for the literature of feudalism. Lyric Poetry of Chivalry • The center of lyric poetry is Provence, southern France. It was written by troubadours. In the northern place trouvères used some nearby and historic materials to create “Romance History” The Legend of Chivalry • It is divided into three systems – Ancient, Britannia, and Byzantium. The best work are Britannia fictional stories of King Arthur. Don Quixote • Don Quixote is published in 1605 and 1615 by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. The background was a era without knights. The main character, Don Quixote, dreamed that he had been a knight, so he did lots of unthinkable deeds and finally woke from his dream. The Meaning of Don Quixote • Don Quixote stands for knight in feudal society. He indulged in the literature of Chivalry and dreamed to be a knight, trying to revive the spirit of Chivalry. With his passion and inflexibility, he didn’t care what other people thought of him. He regarded keeping justice as his sacred mission. However, we could still find his kind motive and intact purity in humanity through his absurd deeds. Although the spirit of Chivalry existed in 13 century, there are still some culture which succeeded to it in European society at present. European Translative Literature about Xia • In this part, we’ll introduce some literature works that were translated into Chinese and named Xia. Therefore, books of this part might have some similar concept that fit in with Xia. We try to give you a easier way to know what eastern people think Xia to be by introducing these books. Besides, we compare these with the contemporary concept of Xia so as to look upon Xia much widely. Books ＊You can click the following books or movies to get more details. • Peter Pan • Zorro • Scarlet Pimpernel • Robin Hood The Meaning and Influence of Translative Literature • The characters in the books are called Xia, which is defined by contemporary Eastern literature always exerted themselves to keep justice. • Because the translative literature was widely read, it truly influenced the concept of Xia to young people. However, the western interpretation is still different from the concept of Xia. The Content of Peter Pan • In stifling Edwardian London, Wendy Darling mesmerizes her brothers every night with bedtime tales of swordplay, swashbuckling and the fearsome Captain Hook. But the children become the heroes of an even greater story, when Peter Pan flies into their nursery one night and leads them over moonlit rooftops through a galaxy of stars and to the lush jungles of Neverland. Wendy and her brothers join Peter and the Lost Boys in an exhilarating life--free of grown-up rules--while also facing the inevitable showdown with Hook and his bloodthirsty pirates. Peter Pan and Xia • Peter Pan isn’t referred to as Xia because it doesn’t fit in with the Chinese concept of Xia. Although he truly have some traits – courage and sense of justice, he fighted against Captain Hook for personal feeling of resentment instead of fair standpoint. • Therefore, Peter Pan isn’t regarded as Xia. As for why he is translated into Xia in Chinese, we will explain it in the next page. Peter Pan and Xia • It is because that Peter Pan this book is a fairytale. For children, Peter Pan can do things that they can’t do. Therefore, this cool name Xia is to attract children to admire. But the actual Xia should possess more noble morals. The Content of Zorro • Zorro (Spanish for Fox, and a by-word for cunning or devious) is the superhero secret identity of Don Diego de la Vega (originally Don Diego Vega), a fictional nobleman and master swordsman living in Spanish and Mexican-era California. He defends the people of the land against tyrannical governors and other villains; not only is he much too cunning and foxlike for the bumbling authorities to catch, but he delights in publicly humiliating those same foes while riding on his horse Tornado. Zorro and Xia • In the beginning, Zorro wasn’t qualified as Xia. We just viewed him as a person who was good at martial art and wanted to revenge his dead brother. However, after given a lesson and told that Zorro does everything for the masses by Diego, he started to care about the masses, even giving up his family. This kind of characteristic fit in with Xia. Zorro and Xia • Everything that Zorro had done made him a great person. He fought against evil and protect the people. His personal characteristic revealed that he lived for the people! The Content of Scarlet Pimpernel • The Scarlet Pimpernel is one of the great world's great literary characters which is set in the 18th century against the backdrop of the French Revolution. • The book was written by a real baroness - a young woman forced to flee her native Hungary because of fear of a peasant revolt against the ruling class. Her fictitious character, Sir Percy Blakeney, is the leader of a secret society of English aristocrats called the League of the Scarlet Pimpernel. • As the Pimpernel, he rescues French aristocrats who have been condemned to death by the blade of the guillotine. The Scarlet Pimpernel takes his nickname from the small red flower with which he signs his messages. • No one except his small group of followers, and possibly the Prince of Wales, knows his true identity. Scarlet Pimpernel and Xia • Some characteristics of Scarlet Pimpernel are close to the ones of Xia：To rebel against the selfish behavior of ruling person; to hide one’s true identity and do just things behind the scene. Robin Hood • 1194 – After an epic journey from England, Robin of Locksley and his man Much, are camped outside Acre, the ancient port on the coast of the Mediterranean, now held by Salah al-Din and his vast Muslim army. Robin and Much are part of King Richard Coeur de Lion's bodyguard. …….more Robin Hood and Xia • Robin Hood relatively tallies with Xia because he is wise, good at martial art, against vicious power. This folk legend shows the image of Hero for the people. Especially in the turbulent times, Robin Hood is actually the Savior of the people. Therefore, we refer to him as a man who did “Xia” by stealing fortunes of the rich. The Origin of the Culture of American Heroes • It first started in 1929 when the Great Recession occurred, people often placed hope on comics. • 1938~1955, the culture of American Heroes developed to the prime time. Superman is the masterpiece of this period. The Origin of the Culture of American Hero • In the World War Two, the patriotism sprang up, making the culture of American Hero more active. • By 1960, many heroes who were born with special power appeared in various features after the movie industry sprang up. The Traits of the Culture of American Hero • Basic elements： The topic that justice always wins Powerful enemy but eventually fail High-spirited and winding circumstance • The heroic characteristic Super energy, individualism, aggressive, absolute confidence • In brief, contemporary worship of Hero reveals people’s values of capability, courage, wise, virtue, and achievement. American Heroic Movies • Superman, Spiderman, Batman, XMan, The Flash, Daredevil, The Hulk, Hellboy, Ironman, Ghost Rider, Fantastic Four, Spawn, Catwoman, Blade, Robocop, Vendetta, Elektra, Wonder Woman The Content of Spiderman • In 2002, one of the world's most popular comic book heroes made his leap to the big screen. Released in conjunction with the 40th anniversary of the web-slinger's first appearance in a comic book, Spider-Man centers on an ordinary student named Peter Parker who, after being bitten by a genetically-altered spider, gains superhuman strength and the spider-like ability to cling to any surface. He vows to use his abilities to fight crime. • Orphaned at an early age, Peter Parker lives in Queens, New York with his beloved Aunt May and Uncle Ben. Peter leads the life of a normal student, working as a photographer at the school paper, pining after his beautiful next-door neighbor Mary Jane Watson and hanging out with his buddy Harry Osborn. • On a school field trip where Peter and his classmates are given a science demonstration on arachnids, Peter is bitten by a geneticallyaltered spider. Soon after, he discovers that he has gained unusual powers - the strength and agility of a spider along with a keen, ESP-like "spider sense". • At first, Peter decides to use these powers to make money to impress Mary Jane. He appears in a wrestling match and, armed with his new spider strength, wins the match in record time. But the crooked wrestling match promoter refuses to award Peter the prize money. Moments later, the promoter is robbed and Peter has the opportunity to catch the burglar fleeing from the promoter's office, but because he wants revenge Peter refuses to stop him. Tragically, the burglar kills Peter's Uncle Ben during a carjacking as he flees the scene of the crime. • As Spider-Man, Peter apprehends the burglar but is plagued with guilt for not being a hero sooner. During his time of turmoil, Peter remembers something Uncle Ben once told him: "With great power, comes great responsibility." Peter takes this to heart and decides to use his extraordinary powers to fight crime and protect the city as Spider-Man. • Meanwhile, megalomaniacal businessman Norman Osborn, Harry's father, is undergoing some changes of his own. An experimental formula has gone awry, increasing his intelligence and strength but also driving him insane. He is now the Green Goblin, Spider-Man's arch-enemy, who will put young Peter Parker's vow to fight crime and help innocent people to the ultimate test. The Thought and Meaning of Spiderman • Spiderman is the most popular American heroic movie, whose thoughts influence people a lot. • The main gist of Spiderman is ” With great power, comes great responsibility.” This sentence appeared in the movie repeatedly. This is also the latest talks of uncle Ben. It shows that how much responsibility Heroes take again and again. The Traits of American Heroic Movies • In the various American Heroic movies, every main character has its own special power, use it to hit guilty, help handle public security, and be the helper of the police as well as the idol of the people. They may face the problem that they are different from the general public and then can’t continue to live as usual. Finally, each of them has their own result – living in privacy, death, or so. The Influence of the Culture of American Hero • Just like other American culture, it has spread all over the world. And it also influences many other culture. There is still lots of space to improve and change. It might be complete because of the development of the movie industry.